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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gnome-config.xml,v 1.31 2010/02/11 22:54:31 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4
5 <guide>
6 <title>The GNOME Configuration HOWTO</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Editor">
12 <mail link="lars@strojny.net">Lars Strojny</mail>
13 </author>
14 <author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
16 </author>
17
18 <abstract>
19 A frequently used environment is GNOME. This HOWTO tries to describe
20 all aspects of GNOME, including installation, configuration, usage, ...
21 </abstract>
22
23 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
24 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
25 <license/>
26
27 <version>1.24</version>
28 <date>2010-06-07</date>
29
30 <chapter>
31 <title>What is GNOME?</title>
32 <section>
33 <title>The Project</title>
34 <body>
35
36 <p>
37 The <uri link="http://www.gnome.org">GNOME</uri> project is a free software
38 project dedicated to the development of GNOME, a Unix/Linux desktop suite and
39 development platform. The <uri link="http://foundation.gnome.org">GNOME
40 Foundation</uri> coordinates the development and other aspects of the GNOME
41 Project.
42 </p>
43
44 </body>
45 </section>
46 <section>
47 <title>The Software</title>
48 <body>
49
50 <p>
51 GNOME is a desktop environment and a development platform. This piece of free
52 software is the desktop of choice for several industry leaders. It is
53 interesting both for business users, home users as well as developers.
54 </p>
55
56 </body>
57 </section>
58 <section>
59 <title>The Community</title>
60 <body>
61
62 <p>
63 Like with any big free software project, GNOME has an extensive user- and
64 development base. <uri link="http://www.gnomedesktop.org">Footnotes</uri>
65 contains GNOME Desktop news for users; <uri
66 link="http://planet.gnome.org">GnomePlanet</uri> is for hackers/contributors and
67 <uri link="http://developer.gnome.org">Developer.Gnome.Org</uri> is for the
68 GNOME developers.
69 </p>
70
71 </body>
72 </section>
73 </chapter>
74 <chapter>
75 <title>Installing GNOME</title>
76 <section>
77 <title>What do you need?</title>
78 <body>
79
80 <impo>
81 First read and follow the instructions in the <uri
82 link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml">X Server Configuration Howto</uri> to setup your
83 X environment.
84 </impo>
85
86 <p>
87 Before you start installing GNOME, you might want to edit your USE variables.
88 Make sure that <c>X</c>, <c>gtk</c>, and <c>gnome</c> are in your USE variable
89 listed in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If you want support for <c>hald</c>, the
90 hardware abstraction layer daemon add <c>hal</c> to your USE flags. The same
91 goes for <c>dbus</c>, a system message bus Gnome uses extensively. If you don't
92 want KDE support (the other big desktop environment), remove <c>qt4</c> and
93 <c>kde</c>.
94 </p>
95
96 <pre caption="Example USE in /etc/make.conf">
97 USE="-qt4 -kde X dbus gtk gnome hal"
98 </pre>
99
100 <p>
101 You can add the <c>branding</c> USE flag to get a lovely Gentoo-branded
102 splashscreen instead of the default Gnome splashscreen:
103 </p>
104
105 <pre caption="Enabling Gentoo branding">
106 # <i>echo "gnome-base/gnome-session branding" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.use</i>
107 </pre>
108
109 <p>
110 Once done, start installing GNOME by emerging <c>gnome</c>:
111 </p>
112
113 <pre caption="Installing GNOME">
114 # <i>emerge gnome</i>
115 </pre>
116
117 <p>
118 You can also opt for a minimal Gnome installation using <c>gnome-light</c>:
119 </p>
120
121 <pre caption="Installing a minimal GNOME environment">
122 # <i>emerge gnome-light</i>
123 </pre>
124
125 <p>
126 This will take a while, so you might want to start reading all those books your
127 mother bought you but you never opened. Done? Great, now update your
128 environment variables:
129 </p>
130
131 <pre caption="Updating environment variables">
132 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
133 </pre>
134
135 <p>
136 Next we'll clean up the remaining services.
137 </p>
138
139 <pre caption="Adding hald and dbus to the default runlevel">
140 # <i>/etc/init.d/hald start</i>
141 # <i>rc-update add hald default</i>
142
143 # <i>/etc/init.d/dbus start</i>
144 # <i>rc-update add dbus default</i>
145 </pre>
146
147 </body>
148 </section>
149 <section>
150 <title>First Impressions</title>
151 <body>
152
153 <p>
154 Let us first take a look at what we just built. Exit your root shell and log on
155 as a regular user. We will configure our session to run GNOME when we issue the
156 <c>startx</c> command (see also
157 <uri link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml#using_startx">Using startx</uri> in the
158 <uri link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml">X Server Configuration Howto</uri>):
159 </p>
160
161 <pre caption="Having GNOME as default desktop environment">
162 $ <i>echo "exec gnome-session" &gt; ~/.xinitrc</i>
163 </pre>
164
165 <p>
166 Starting with <c>gnome-base/gnome-session-2.26.2</c>, you will need to prepend
167 the XDG_MENU_PREFIX variable to get the Gnome menus if you're using the
168 <path>~/.xinitrc</path> method to start your desktop. (If you're not using
169 <path>~/.xinitrc</path>, it will be handled automatically for you; no additional
170 configuration is needed.)
171 </p>
172
173 <pre caption="Prepending XDG_MENU_PREFIX to ~/.xinitrc">
174 $ <i>sed -i '1i\export XDG_MENU_PREFIX=gnome-' ~/.xinitrc</i>
175 </pre>
176
177 <p>
178 Now start your graphical environment by running <c>startx</c>:
179 </p>
180
181 <pre caption="Starting GNOME">
182 $ <i>startx</i>
183 </pre>
184
185 <p>
186 If all goes well, you should be greeted by GNOME. Congratulations. Now let us
187 take a look at how you can configure GNOME to suit your needs.
188 </p>
189
190 </body>
191 </section>
192 </chapter>
193 <chapter>
194 <title>Configuring GNOME</title>
195 <section>
196 <title>GNOME's Graphical Login Manager</title>
197 <body>
198
199 <p>
200 If you want the GNOME Display Manager (GDM) to run automatically when you boot
201 (so you can log on graphically), you must add the <c>xdm</c> init script to the
202 default runlevel:
203 </p>
204
205 <pre caption="Adding xdm to the default runlevel">
206 # <i>rc-update add xdm default</i>
207 </pre>
208
209 <p>
210 Now edit <path>/etc/conf.d/xdm</path> and alter the DISPLAYMANAGER variable.
211 </p>
212
213 <pre caption="Editing /etc/conf.d/xdm">
214 DISPLAYMANAGER="gdm"
215 </pre>
216
217 <p>
218 If you reboot now, the GNOME Display Manager will prompt you for your username
219 and password and will default to using GNOME as Desktop Environment (even though
220 you will have the option of selecting a different one of course, choosing from
221 those available in <path>/usr/share/xsessions/</path>). Thus, if you use GDM,
222 you don't need to edit <path>~/.xinitrc</path>.
223 </p>
224
225 <p>
226 To use the functionality of <c>hald</c> you need to add your user to the
227 <c>plugdev</c> group. If you want support for devices not handled by the
228 <c>nautilus</c> file manager, or if you're not using <c>nautilus</c> at all, you
229 might want to make sure that <c>gnome-volume-manager</c> is built with the
230 <c>automount</c> USE flag, and that it's started every time you login.
231 </p>
232
233 </body>
234 </section>
235 </chapter>
236 </guide>

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