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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gnome-config.xml,v 1.39 2013/07/27 21:06:37 swift Exp $ -->
4
5 <guide disclaimer="obsolete" redirect="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/GNOME/Configuration">
6 <title>The GNOME Configuration HOWTO</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Editor">
12 <mail link="lars@strojny.net">Lars Strojny</mail>
13 </author>
14 <author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
16 </author>
17
18 <abstract>
19 A frequently used environment is GNOME. This HOWTO tries to describe
20 all aspects of GNOME, including installation, configuration, usage, ...
21 </abstract>
22
23 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
24 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
25 <license/>
26
27 <version>8</version>
28 <!-- 2012-12-09 -->
29 <date>2013-07-27</date>
30
31 <chapter>
32 <title>What is GNOME?</title>
33 <section>
34 <title>The Project</title>
35 <body>
36
37 <p>
38 The <uri link="http://www.gnome.org">GNOME</uri> project is a free software
39 project dedicated to the development of GNOME, a Unix/Linux desktop suite and
40 development platform. The <uri link="http://foundation.gnome.org">GNOME
41 Foundation</uri> coordinates the development and other aspects of the GNOME
42 Project.
43 </p>
44
45 </body>
46 </section>
47 <section>
48 <title>The Software</title>
49 <body>
50
51 <p>
52 GNOME is a desktop environment and a development platform. This piece of free
53 software is the desktop of choice for several industry leaders. It is
54 interesting both for business users, home users as well as developers.
55 </p>
56
57 </body>
58 </section>
59 <section>
60 <title>The Community</title>
61 <body>
62
63 <p>
64 Like with any big free software project, GNOME has an extensive user- and
65 development base. <uri link="http://planet.gnome.org">GnomePlanet</uri> is
66 a popular blog aggregator for GNOME hackers and contributors whereas <uri
67 link="http://developer.gnome.org">Developer.Gnome.Org</uri> is for the GNOME
68 developers. <uri link="http://library.gnome.org/users/">GNOME Library</uri>
69 contains a huge list of GNOME resources for end users. The <uri
70 link="http://worldofgnome.org/">World of GNOME</uri> is also a popular
71 aggregator for GNOME-related news.
72 </p>
73
74 </body>
75 </section>
76 </chapter>
77 <chapter>
78 <title>Installing GNOME</title>
79 <section>
80 <title>What do you need?</title>
81 <body>
82
83 <impo>
84 First read and follow the instructions in the <uri
85 link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Xorg/Configuration">X Server Configuration Howto</uri> to setup your
86 X environment.
87 </impo>
88
89 <p>
90 Before you start installing GNOME, you might want to edit your USE variables.
91 Make sure that <c>X</c>, <c>gtk</c>, and <c>gnome</c> are in your USE variable
92 listed in <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path>. If you want support for <c>dbus</c>, a
93 system message bus Gnome uses extensively, add it to your USE flags. If you
94 don't want KDE support (the other big desktop environment), remove <c>qt4</c>
95 and <c>kde</c>.
96 </p>
97
98 <pre caption="Example USE in /etc/portage/make.conf">
99 USE="-qt4 -kde X dbus gtk gnome"
100 </pre>
101
102 <p>
103 You can add the <c>branding</c> USE flag to get a lovely Gentoo-branded
104 splashscreen instead of the default Gnome splashscreen:
105 </p>
106
107 <pre caption="Enabling Gentoo branding">
108 # <i>echo "gnome-base/gnome-session branding" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.use</i>
109 </pre>
110
111 <note>
112 If you use the <c>desktop</c> profile, these USE flags will be set for you. You
113 can check your profile by running <c>eselect profile list</c> and <c>eselect
114 profile set &lt;profile-name&gt;</c> as root.
115 </note>
116
117 <p>
118 Once done, start installing GNOME by emerging <c>gnome</c>:
119 </p>
120
121 <pre caption="Installing GNOME">
122 # <i>emerge gnome</i>
123 </pre>
124
125 <p>
126 You can also opt for a minimal Gnome installation using <c>gnome-light</c>.
127 If you do so, you will have a lightweight Gnome installation without
128 the additional tools that a full Gnome installation provides so you might need
129 to install additional packages afterwards.
130 </p>
131
132 <pre caption="Installing a minimal GNOME environment">
133 # <i>emerge gnome-light</i>
134 </pre>
135
136 <p>
137 This will take a while, so you might want to start reading all those books your
138 mother bought you but you never opened. Done? Great, now update your
139 environment variables:
140 </p>
141
142 <pre caption="Updating environment variables">
143 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
144 </pre>
145
146 <p>
147 Next we'll clean up the remaining services and user groups.
148 </p>
149
150 <pre caption="Setting up the DBUS service">
151 # <i>/etc/init.d/dbus start</i>
152 # <i>rc-update add dbus default</i>
153 </pre>
154
155 <p>
156 Check if the <e>plugdev</e> group exists. If it does, it is adviseable to make
157 yourself member of that group, but this is optional (the group is not that
158 common anymore).
159 </p>
160
161 <pre caption="Checking and adding users to plugdev">
162 ~# <i>getent group plugdev</i>
163 plugdev:x:104:
164
165 <comment># Substitute yourUserName with your user name ;-)</comment>
166 ~# <i>gpasswd -a yourUserName plugdev</i>
167 </pre>
168
169 </body>
170 </section>
171 <section>
172 <title>First Impressions</title>
173 <body>
174
175 <p>
176 Let us first take a look at what we just built. Exit your root shell and log on
177 as a regular user. We will configure our session to run GNOME when we issue the
178 <c>startx</c> command (see also
179 <uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Xorg/Configuration#Using_startx">Using startx</uri> in the
180 <uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Xorg/Configuration">X Server Configuration Howto</uri>):
181 </p>
182
183 <pre caption="Setting GNOME as the default desktop environment">
184 $ <i>echo "exec gnome-session" &gt; ~/.xinitrc</i>
185 </pre>
186
187 <p>
188 Starting with <c>gnome-base/gnome-session-2.26.2</c>, you will need to prepend
189 the XDG_MENU_PREFIX variable to get the Gnome menus if you're using the
190 <path>~/.xinitrc</path> method to start your desktop. (If you're not using
191 <path>~/.xinitrc</path>, it will be handled automatically for you; no additional
192 configuration is needed.)
193 </p>
194
195 <pre caption="Prepending XDG_MENU_PREFIX to ~/.xinitrc">
196 $ <i>sed -i '1i\export XDG_MENU_PREFIX=gnome-' ~/.xinitrc</i>
197 </pre>
198
199 <p>
200 Now start your graphical environment by running <c>startx</c>:
201 </p>
202
203 <pre caption="Starting GNOME">
204 $ <i>startx</i>
205 </pre>
206
207 <p>
208 If all goes well, you should be greeted by GNOME. Congratulations. Now let us
209 take a look at how you can configure GNOME to suit your needs.
210 </p>
211
212 </body>
213 </section>
214 </chapter>
215 <chapter>
216 <title>Configuring GNOME</title>
217 <section>
218 <title>GNOME's Graphical Login Manager</title>
219 <body>
220
221 <p>
222 If you want the GNOME Display Manager (GDM) to run automatically when you boot
223 (so you can log on graphically), you must add the <c>xdm</c> init script to the
224 default runlevel:
225 </p>
226
227 <pre caption="Adding xdm to the default runlevel">
228 # <i>rc-update add xdm default</i>
229 </pre>
230
231 <p>
232 Now edit <path>/etc/conf.d/xdm</path> and alter the DISPLAYMANAGER variable.
233 </p>
234
235 <pre caption="Editing /etc/conf.d/xdm">
236 DISPLAYMANAGER="gdm"
237 </pre>
238
239 <p>
240 If you installed Gnome using the <c>gnome-light</c> package, you will need to
241 install <c>gdm</c> too (as it is not defined as part of the <c>gnome-light</c>
242 package).
243 </p>
244
245 <pre caption="Installing the gdm application">
246 # <i>emerge gdm</i>
247 </pre>
248
249 <p>
250 If you reboot now, the GNOME Display Manager will prompt you for your username
251 and password and will default to using GNOME as Desktop Environment (even though
252 you will have the option of selecting a different one of course, choosing from
253 those available in <path>/usr/share/xsessions/</path>). Thus, if you use GDM,
254 you don't need to edit <path>~/.xinitrc</path>.
255 </p>
256
257 </body>
258 </section>
259 </chapter>
260 </guide>

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