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Add information about the 'userlocales' USE flag

1 swift 1.6 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 dertobi123 1.15 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.14 2004/04/11 13:50:26 swift Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.6 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5     <guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
6 antifa 1.4 <title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
7 dertobi123 1.12 <author title="Author">
8     <mail link="holler@gentoo.de">Alexander Holler</mail>
9 drobbins 1.1 </author>
10 dertobi123 1.12 <author title="Translator/Editor">
11     <mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">Steven Lucy</mail>
12 antifa 1.4 </author>
13 bennyc 1.8 <author title="Editor">
14     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
15     </author>
16 dertobi123 1.11 <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail>
18     </author>
19 dertobi123 1.15 <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail>
21     </author>
22 dertobi123 1.12
23 antifa 1.4 <abstract>
24     This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
25 dertobi123 1.12 European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
26     the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the Euro currency symbol.
27 antifa 1.4 </abstract>
28 drobbins 1.1
29 dertobi123 1.15 <version>1.11</version>
30     <date>November 1, 2004</date>
31 dertobi123 1.12
32 drobbins 1.1 <chapter>
33     <title>Timezone</title>
34     <section>
35 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
36    
37     <p>
38     In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to
39     the correct time zone data file. Look around in
40     <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path> and pick your timezone or a near-by big city.
41     </p>
42    
43 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the timezone">
44 drobbins 1.1 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i>
45 antifa 1.4 # <i>date</i>
46     Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003
47 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
48 dertobi123 1.12
49     <note>
50     Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET")
51     is correct for your area.
52     </note>
53    
54     <note>
55 cam 1.13 You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the
56 aaby 1.10 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path> in your shell rc file
57 antifa 1.4 (<path>.bash_profile</path> for bash) for a user-level setting. In this case
58 cam 1.13 <c>TZ="Europe/Berlin"</c>.
59 dertobi123 1.12 </note>
60    
61     </body>
62 drobbins 1.1 </section>
63     </chapter>
64    
65     <chapter>
66 antifa 1.4 <title>System Clock</title>
67 drobbins 1.1 <section>
68 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
69    
70     <p>
71     In most Gentoo Linux installations, your system clock is set to
72     UTC (or GMT, Greenwhich Mean Time) and then your timezone is
73     taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If,
74     for some reason, you need your system clock not to be in UTC,
75     you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the
76 cam 1.13 value of <c>CLOCK</c>.
77 dertobi123 1.12 </p>
78 antifa 1.4
79     <pre caption="local vs. GMT clock">
80 dertobi123 1.12 <codenote>recommended:</codenote>
81     CLOCK="UTC"
82     <codenote>or:</codenote>
83     CLOCK="local"
84 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
85 dertobi123 1.12
86     </body>
87 drobbins 1.1 </section>
88     </chapter>
89    
90     <chapter>
91 antifa 1.4 <title>POSIX Locale</title>
92 drobbins 1.1 <section>
93 swift 1.14 <title>Using Existing Locales</title>
94 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
95    
96     <p>
97 cam 1.13 The next step is to set the <c>LANG</c> shell variable, which
98 dertobi123 1.12 is used by your shell and window manager (and some other
99     applications). Valid values can be found in
100     <path>/usr/share/locale</path> and generally take the form
101 cam 1.13 <c>ab_CD</c>, where <c>ab</c> is your two letter language code
102     and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country code. The <c>_CD</c>
103 dertobi123 1.12 is left off if your language is only (or primarily) spoken in
104 cam 1.13 one country. <c>LANG</c> can be set in
105 dertobi123 1.12 <path>/etc/profile</path> if you want it to take effect
106     system-wide, or in <path>~/.bashrc</path> as a user-specific
107     setting.
108     </p>
109    
110 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the POSIX locale">
111 dertobi123 1.12 export LANG="de_DE@euro"
112 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
113 dertobi123 1.12
114     <note>
115 cam 1.13 Appended <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the new Euro
116 dertobi123 1.12 currency symbol (&#8364;)
117     </note>
118    
119     </body>
120 drobbins 1.1 </section>
121 swift 1.14 <section>
122     <title>Generating Specific Locales</title>
123     <body>
124    
125     <p>
126     If you use a locale that isn't available by default, you should use
127     <c>localedef</c> to generate your locale. For instance:
128     </p>
129    
130     <pre caption="Generating a locale using localedef">
131     # <i>localedef -c -i en_US -f ISO-8859-15 en_US.ISO-8859-15</i>
132     </pre>
133    
134     <p>
135     After having generated the locale, you can export the LANG variable as you see
136     fit.
137     </p>
138    
139     <pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable">
140     # <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i>
141     </pre>
142    
143     </body>
144     </section>
145 dertobi123 1.15 <section>
146     <title>The userlocales USE flag</title>
147     <body>
148    
149     <p>
150     You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
151     after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales has been
152     created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag und specify
153     only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>.
154     </p>
155    
156     <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
157     echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use
158     </pre>
159    
160     <p>
161     Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
162     </p>
163    
164     <pre caption="nano -w /etc/locales.build">
165     en_US/ISO-8859-1
166     en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
167     de_DE/ISO-8859-1
168     de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
169     </pre>
170    
171     <p>
172     The next step is to re-compile <c>glibc</c>. Of course you can defer this until
173     the next <c>glibc</c> upgrade is available.
174     </p>
175    
176     </body>
177     </section>
178 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
179    
180     <chapter>
181 antifa 1.4 <title>Keyboard layout for the console</title>
182 drobbins 1.1 <section>
183 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
184    
185     <p>
186     The keyboard layout used by the console is set in
187 cam 1.13 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> by the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable.
188 dertobi123 1.12 Valid values can be found in
189 cam 1.13 <path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>.
190 dertobi123 1.12 <path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout
191     (<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
192     languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
193     to decide which one fits your needs best.
194     </p>
195    
196 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the console keymap">
197 dertobi123 1.12 KEYMAP="de"
198     KEYMAP="de-latin1"
199     KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys"
200 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
201 dertobi123 1.12
202     </body>
203 drobbins 1.1 </section>
204     </chapter>
205    
206     <chapter>
207 antifa 1.4 <title>Keyboard layout for the X server</title>
208 drobbins 1.1 <section>
209 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
210    
211     <p>
212     The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
213 cam 1.13 in <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c>
214 dertobi123 1.12 option.
215     </p>
216    
217 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the X keymap">
218 drobbins 1.1 Section "InputDevice"
219     Identifier "Keyboard1"
220     ...
221     Option "XkbLayout" "de"
222 aaby 1.10 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys"
223 drobbins 1.1 ...
224     </pre>
225 dertobi123 1.12
226     </body>
227 drobbins 1.1 </section>
228     </chapter>
229    
230     <chapter>
231 dertobi123 1.11 <title>KDE</title>
232     <section>
233     <body>
234    
235     <p>
236     For KDE you have to install the kde-i18n package with the appropriate
237     LINGUAS environment variable set:</p>
238    
239     <pre caption="Install localized KDE">
240     # <i>LINGUAS="de" emerge kde-i18n</i>
241     </pre>
242    
243     </body>
244     </section>
245     </chapter>
246    
247     <chapter>
248 antifa 1.4 <title>The Euro Symbol for the Console</title>
249 drobbins 1.1 <section>
250 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
251    
252     <p>
253     In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you
254 cam 1.13 will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in
255 dertobi123 1.12 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in
256     <path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the
257     <c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol.
258     </p>
259    
260 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the console font">
261 dertobi123 1.12 CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16"
262 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
263 dertobi123 1.12
264     </body>
265 drobbins 1.1 </section>
266     </chapter>
267    
268     <chapter>
269 dertobi123 1.12 <title>The Euro Symbol in X</title>
270 drobbins 1.1 <section>
271 dertobi123 1.12 <title>Most Applications</title>
272     <body>
273    
274     <p>
275     Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little
276 cam 1.13 bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <c>fixed</c>
277     and <c>variable</c> definitions in
278 dertobi123 1.12 <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end
279 cam 1.13 in <c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>.
280 dertobi123 1.12 </p>
281    
282 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting default X fonts">
283 dertobi123 1.12 fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15
284     variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
285 antifa 1.4 </pre>
286 dertobi123 1.12
287     <p>
288     Some applications use their own font, and you will have to
289     tell them separately to use a font with the Euro symbol. You
290     can do this at a user-specific level in
291     <path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to
292     <path>/etc/skel/</path> for use by new users), or at a global
293     level for any application with a resource file in
294     <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In
295     these files you generally have to change an existing line,
296     rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for
297     instance:
298     </p>
299    
300 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting fonts for xterm">
301 dertobi123 1.12 <codenote>(in your home directory)</codenote>
302     # <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
303     # <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
304 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
305 dertobi123 1.12
306     </body>
307 drobbins 1.1 </section>
308 dertobi123 1.12 <section>
309     <title>The Euro symbol in (X)Emacs</title>
310     <body>
311    
312     <p>
313     To use the Euro symbol in (X)Emacs, add the following to
314     <path>.Xdefaults</path>:
315     </p>
316 drobbins 1.1
317 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the font for emacs">
318 dertobi123 1.12 Emacs.default.attributeFont: -*-courier-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
319 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
320 dertobi123 1.12
321     <p>
322     For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little
323     more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add:
324     </p>
325    
326 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the font for xemacs">
327 dertobi123 1.12 (define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[&#8364;])
328 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
329 dertobi123 1.12
330     <note>
331     The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol.
332     </note>
333    
334     </body>
335     </section>
336     <section>
337     <title>Language for OpenOffice</title>
338     <body>
339    
340     <note>
341     Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The
342     default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS.
343     </note>
344    
345     <p>
346     The default language for OpenOffice is set as "ENUS"(01). If you wish to
347     change the default language for OpenOffice, check the ebuild for the
348     default language code.
349     </p>
350    
351 bennyc 1.8 <pre caption="emerge openoffice with desired default language">
352     # <i>LANGUAGE="01" emerge openoffice</i>
353     <comment>01 is the ENUS language code for openoffice</comment>
354     </pre>
355 dertobi123 1.12
356     </body>
357 bennyc 1.8 </section>
358 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
359    
360     </guide>

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