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1 swift 1.6 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 neysx 1.20 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.19 2005/02/12 23:57:07 dertobi123 Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.6 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5     <guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
6 antifa 1.4 <title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
7 dertobi123 1.12 <author title="Author">
8 pylon 1.16 Alexander Holler
9 drobbins 1.1 </author>
10 dertobi123 1.12 <author title="Translator/Editor">
11     <mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">Steven Lucy</mail>
12 antifa 1.4 </author>
13 bennyc 1.8 <author title="Editor">
14     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
15     </author>
16 dertobi123 1.11 <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail>
18     </author>
19 dertobi123 1.15 <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail>
21     </author>
22 swift 1.18 <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="flammie@gentoo.org">Flammie Pirinen</mail>
24     </author>
25 dertobi123 1.12
26 antifa 1.4 <abstract>
27     This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
28 dertobi123 1.12 European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
29     the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the Euro currency symbol.
30 antifa 1.4 </abstract>
31 drobbins 1.1
32 swift 1.18 <version>1.13</version>
33     <date>2005-02-05</date>
34 dertobi123 1.12
35 drobbins 1.1 <chapter>
36     <title>Timezone</title>
37     <section>
38 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
39    
40     <p>
41     In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to
42     the correct time zone data file. Look around in
43     <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path> and pick your timezone or a near-by big city.
44     </p>
45    
46 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the timezone">
47 drobbins 1.1 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i>
48 antifa 1.4 # <i>date</i>
49     Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003
50 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
51 dertobi123 1.12
52     <note>
53     Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET")
54     is correct for your area.
55     </note>
56    
57     <note>
58 cam 1.13 You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the
59 aaby 1.10 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path> in your shell rc file
60 antifa 1.4 (<path>.bash_profile</path> for bash) for a user-level setting. In this case
61 cam 1.13 <c>TZ="Europe/Berlin"</c>.
62 dertobi123 1.12 </note>
63    
64     </body>
65 drobbins 1.1 </section>
66     </chapter>
67    
68     <chapter>
69 antifa 1.4 <title>System Clock</title>
70 drobbins 1.1 <section>
71 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
72    
73     <p>
74     In most Gentoo Linux installations, your system clock is set to
75     UTC (or GMT, Greenwhich Mean Time) and then your timezone is
76     taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If,
77     for some reason, you need your system clock not to be in UTC,
78     you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the
79 cam 1.13 value of <c>CLOCK</c>.
80 dertobi123 1.12 </p>
81 antifa 1.4
82     <pre caption="local vs. GMT clock">
83 neysx 1.20 <comment>(recommended:)</comment>
84 dertobi123 1.12 CLOCK="UTC"
85 neysx 1.20 <comment>(or:)</comment>
86 dertobi123 1.12 CLOCK="local"
87 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
88 dertobi123 1.12
89     </body>
90 drobbins 1.1 </section>
91     </chapter>
92    
93     <chapter>
94 swift 1.18 <title>Locale system</title>
95 drobbins 1.1 <section>
96 swift 1.18 <title>What are locales?</title>
97 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
98    
99     <p>
100 swift 1.18 A Locale is a set of information that most programs use for determining
101     country and language specific settings. The locales and their data
102     are part of the system library and can be found
103     at <path>/usr/share/locale</path> on most systems. A locale name is generally
104     named <c>ab_CD</c >where <c>ab</c> is your two (or three) letter
105     language code (as specified in ISO-639) and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country
106     code (as specified in ISO-3199).
107     </p>
108    
109     </body>
110     </section>
111     <section>
112     <title>Environment variables for locales</title>
113     <body>
114    
115     <p>
116     Locale settings are stored in environment variables. These are typically
117     set in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> (for system-wide
118     settings) and <path>~/.bashrc</path> (for user-specific settings) file.
119     The variables controlling different aspects of locale settings
120     are given in the table below, those with highest precedence (ie. those
121     that override settings below them) are at the top of the table. All variables
122     take one name of a locale in <c>ab_CD</c> format given above.
123     </p>
124    
125     <table>
126     <tr>
127     <th>Variable name</th>
128     <th>Explanation</th>
129     </tr>
130     <tr>
131     <ti>LC_ALL</ti>
132     <ti>
133     Define all locale settings at once. This is the top level setting for
134     locales which will override any other setting.
135     </ti>
136     </tr>
137     <tr>
138     <ti>LC_COLLATE</ti>
139     <ti>
140     Define alphabetical ordering of strings. This affects eg. output of sorted
141     dir listing.
142     </ti>
143     </tr>
144     <tr>
145     <ti>LC_CTYPE</ti>
146     <ti>
147     Define the character handling properties for the system. This determines
148     which characters are seen as part of alphabet, numeric and so on. This also
149     determines the character set used, if applicable.
150     </ti>
151     </tr>
152     <tr>
153     <ti>LC_MESSAGES</ti>
154     <ti>
155     Programs' localizations for applications that use message based localization
156     scheme (majority of Gnu programs, see next chapters for closer information
157     which do, and how to get the programs, that don't, to work).
158     </ti>
159     </tr>
160     <tr>
161     <ti>LC_MONETARY</ti>
162     <ti>Defines currency units and formatting of currency type numeric values.</ti>
163     </tr>
164     <tr>
165     <ti>LC_NUMERIC</ti>
166     <ti>
167     Defines formatting of numeric values which aren't monetary. Affects things
168     such as thousand separator and decimal separator.
169     </ti>
170     </tr>
171     <tr>
172     <ti>LC_TIME</ti>
173     <ti>Defines formatting of dates and times.</ti>
174     </tr>
175     <tr>
176     <ti>LC_PAPER</ti>
177     <ti>Defines default paper size.</ti>
178     </tr>
179     <tr>
180     <ti>LANG</ti>
181     <ti>
182     Defines all locale settings at once. This setting can be overridden by
183     individual LC_* settings above or even by LC_ALL.
184     </ti>
185     </tr>
186     </table>
187    
188     <p>
189     Most typically users only set the LANG variable and perhaps LC_CTYPE variable
190     on user level by adding definitions to shells startup files defining
191     the environment variable manually from command line:
192 dertobi123 1.12 </p>
193    
194 swift 1.18 <pre caption="setting the German locale">
195 dertobi123 1.12 export LANG="de_DE@euro"
196 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
197 dertobi123 1.12
198     <note>
199 swift 1.18 Append <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the Euro
200 dertobi123 1.12 currency symbol (&#8364;)
201     </note>
202    
203 swift 1.18 <p>
204     For message based localization to work in programs that support it, you will
205     probably need to have programs compiled with the <c>nls</c> (Native language
206     support) USE flag set. Most of the programs using nls also need the gettext
207     library to extract and use localized messages. Of course, Gentoo's Portage will
208     automatically install it when needed.
209     </p>
210    
211 dertobi123 1.12 </body>
212 drobbins 1.1 </section>
213 swift 1.14 <section>
214     <title>Generating Specific Locales</title>
215     <body>
216    
217     <p>
218     If you use a locale that isn't available by default, you should use
219     <c>localedef</c> to generate your locale. For instance:
220     </p>
221    
222     <pre caption="Generating a locale using localedef">
223     # <i>localedef -c -i en_US -f ISO-8859-15 en_US.ISO-8859-15</i>
224     </pre>
225    
226     <p>
227     After having generated the locale, you can export the LANG variable as you see
228     fit.
229     </p>
230    
231     <pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable">
232     # <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i>
233     </pre>
234    
235     </body>
236     </section>
237 dertobi123 1.15 <section>
238     <title>The userlocales USE flag</title>
239     <body>
240    
241     <p>
242     You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
243     after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales has been
244     created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag und specify
245     only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>.
246     </p>
247    
248     <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
249     echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use
250     </pre>
251    
252     <p>
253     Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
254     </p>
255    
256 swift 1.18 <pre caption="Adding locales to /etc/locales.build">
257 dertobi123 1.15 en_US/ISO-8859-1
258     en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
259     de_DE/ISO-8859-1
260     de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
261     </pre>
262    
263     <p>
264     The next step is to re-compile <c>glibc</c>. Of course you can defer this until
265     the next <c>glibc</c> upgrade is available.
266     </p>
267    
268     </body>
269     </section>
270 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
271    
272     <chapter>
273 antifa 1.4 <title>Keyboard layout for the console</title>
274 drobbins 1.1 <section>
275 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
276    
277     <p>
278     The keyboard layout used by the console is set in
279 cam 1.13 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> by the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable.
280 dertobi123 1.12 Valid values can be found in
281 cam 1.13 <path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>.
282 dertobi123 1.12 <path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout
283     (<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
284     languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
285     to decide which one fits your needs best.
286     </p>
287    
288 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the console keymap">
289 dertobi123 1.12 KEYMAP="de"
290     KEYMAP="de-latin1"
291     KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys"
292 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
293 dertobi123 1.12
294     </body>
295 drobbins 1.1 </section>
296     </chapter>
297    
298     <chapter>
299 antifa 1.4 <title>Keyboard layout for the X server</title>
300 drobbins 1.1 <section>
301 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
302    
303     <p>
304     The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
305 cam 1.13 in <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c>
306 dertobi123 1.12 option.
307     </p>
308    
309 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the X keymap">
310 drobbins 1.1 Section "InputDevice"
311     Identifier "Keyboard1"
312     ...
313     Option "XkbLayout" "de"
314 aaby 1.10 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys"
315 drobbins 1.1 ...
316     </pre>
317 dertobi123 1.12
318     </body>
319 drobbins 1.1 </section>
320     </chapter>
321    
322     <chapter>
323 dertobi123 1.11 <title>KDE</title>
324     <section>
325     <body>
326    
327     <p>
328     For KDE you have to install the kde-i18n package with the appropriate
329     LINGUAS environment variable set:</p>
330    
331     <pre caption="Install localized KDE">
332     # <i>LINGUAS="de" emerge kde-i18n</i>
333     </pre>
334    
335     </body>
336     </section>
337     </chapter>
338    
339     <chapter>
340 antifa 1.4 <title>The Euro Symbol for the Console</title>
341 drobbins 1.1 <section>
342 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
343    
344     <p>
345     In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you
346 cam 1.13 will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in
347 dertobi123 1.12 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in
348     <path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the
349     <c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol.
350     </p>
351    
352 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the console font">
353 dertobi123 1.12 CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16"
354 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
355 dertobi123 1.12
356     </body>
357 drobbins 1.1 </section>
358     </chapter>
359    
360     <chapter>
361 dertobi123 1.12 <title>The Euro Symbol in X</title>
362 drobbins 1.1 <section>
363 dertobi123 1.12 <title>Most Applications</title>
364     <body>
365    
366     <p>
367     Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little
368 cam 1.13 bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <c>fixed</c>
369     and <c>variable</c> definitions in
370 dertobi123 1.12 <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end
371 cam 1.13 in <c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>.
372 dertobi123 1.12 </p>
373    
374 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting default X fonts">
375 dertobi123 1.12 fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15
376     variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
377 antifa 1.4 </pre>
378 dertobi123 1.12
379     <p>
380     Some applications use their own font, and you will have to
381     tell them separately to use a font with the Euro symbol. You
382     can do this at a user-specific level in
383     <path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to
384     <path>/etc/skel/</path> for use by new users), or at a global
385     level for any application with a resource file in
386     <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In
387     these files you generally have to change an existing line,
388     rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for
389     instance:
390     </p>
391    
392 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting fonts for xterm">
393 neysx 1.20 <comment>(in your home directory)</comment>
394 dertobi123 1.12 # <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
395     # <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
396 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
397 dertobi123 1.12
398     </body>
399 drobbins 1.1 </section>
400 dertobi123 1.12 <section>
401     <title>The Euro symbol in (X)Emacs</title>
402     <body>
403    
404     <p>
405     To use the Euro symbol in (X)Emacs, add the following to
406     <path>.Xdefaults</path>:
407     </p>
408 drobbins 1.1
409 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the font for emacs">
410 dertobi123 1.12 Emacs.default.attributeFont: -*-courier-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
411 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
412 dertobi123 1.12
413     <p>
414     For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little
415     more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add:
416     </p>
417    
418 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the font for xemacs">
419 dertobi123 1.12 (define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[&#8364;])
420 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
421 dertobi123 1.12
422     <note>
423     The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol.
424     </note>
425    
426     </body>
427     </section>
428     <section>
429     <title>Language for OpenOffice</title>
430     <body>
431    
432     <note>
433     Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The
434     default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS.
435     </note>
436    
437     <p>
438 dertobi123 1.19 Please note that this package now uses the LINGUAS environment variable to
439     provide localization. The old LANGUAGE=ENUS|PORT system does <e>not</e> work
440     anymore. The default language for OpenOffice is set as "US English". If you
441     wish to change the default language for OpenOffice, check the ebuild for the
442     default language code.
443 dertobi123 1.12 </p>
444    
445 dertobi123 1.19 <pre caption="Example: emerge openoffice for german environment">
446     # <i>LINGUAS="de" emerge openoffice</i>
447 bennyc 1.8 </pre>
448 dertobi123 1.12
449     </body>
450 bennyc 1.8 </section>
451 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
452    
453     </guide>

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