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1 swift 1.6 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 swift 1.26 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.25 2005/06/02 19:07:11 swift Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.6 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5     <guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
6 antifa 1.4 <title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
7 dertobi123 1.12 <author title="Author">
8 pylon 1.16 Alexander Holler
9 drobbins 1.1 </author>
10 dertobi123 1.12 <author title="Translator/Editor">
11     <mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">Steven Lucy</mail>
12 antifa 1.4 </author>
13 bennyc 1.8 <author title="Editor">
14     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
15     </author>
16 dertobi123 1.11 <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail>
18     </author>
19 dertobi123 1.15 <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail>
21     </author>
22 swift 1.18 <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="flammie@gentoo.org">Flammie Pirinen</mail>
24     </author>
25 dertobi123 1.12
26 antifa 1.4 <abstract>
27     This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
28 dertobi123 1.12 European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
29 swift 1.23 the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the euro currency symbol.
30 antifa 1.4 </abstract>
31 drobbins 1.1
32 swift 1.26 <version>1.17</version>
33     <date>2005-06-10</date>
34 dertobi123 1.12
35 drobbins 1.1 <chapter>
36 swift 1.23 <title>Time zone</title>
37 drobbins 1.1 <section>
38 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
39    
40     <p>
41     In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to
42     the correct time zone data file. Look around in
43     <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path> and pick your timezone or a near-by big city.
44     </p>
45    
46 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the timezone">
47 drobbins 1.1 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i>
48 antifa 1.4 # <i>date</i>
49     Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003
50 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
51 dertobi123 1.12
52     <note>
53     Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET")
54     is correct for your area.
55     </note>
56    
57     <note>
58 cam 1.13 You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the
59 aaby 1.10 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path> in your shell rc file
60 antifa 1.4 (<path>.bash_profile</path> for bash) for a user-level setting. In this case
61 cam 1.13 <c>TZ="Europe/Berlin"</c>.
62 dertobi123 1.12 </note>
63    
64     </body>
65 drobbins 1.1 </section>
66     </chapter>
67    
68     <chapter>
69 swift 1.26 <title>Hardware Clock</title>
70 drobbins 1.1 <section>
71 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
72    
73     <p>
74 swift 1.26 In most Gentoo Linux installations, your hardware clock is set to
75 swift 1.23 UTC (or GMT, Greenwich Mean Time) and then your timezone is
76 dertobi123 1.12 taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If,
77 swift 1.26 for some reason, you need your hardware clock not to be in UTC,
78 dertobi123 1.12 you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the
79 swift 1.26 value of <c>CLOCK</c> from <c>UTC</c> to <c>local</c>.
80 dertobi123 1.12 </p>
81 antifa 1.4
82     <pre caption="local vs. GMT clock">
83 neysx 1.20 <comment>(recommended:)</comment>
84 dertobi123 1.12 CLOCK="UTC"
85 neysx 1.20 <comment>(or:)</comment>
86 dertobi123 1.12 CLOCK="local"
87 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
88 dertobi123 1.12
89     </body>
90 drobbins 1.1 </section>
91     </chapter>
92    
93     <chapter>
94 swift 1.18 <title>Locale system</title>
95 drobbins 1.1 <section>
96 swift 1.18 <title>What are locales?</title>
97 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
98    
99     <p>
100 swift 1.18 A Locale is a set of information that most programs use for determining
101     country and language specific settings. The locales and their data
102     are part of the system library and can be found
103     at <path>/usr/share/locale</path> on most systems. A locale name is generally
104 swift 1.25 named <c>ab_CD</c> where <c>ab</c> is your two (or three) letter
105 swift 1.18 language code (as specified in ISO-639) and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country
106     code (as specified in ISO-3199).
107     </p>
108    
109     </body>
110     </section>
111     <section>
112     <title>Environment variables for locales</title>
113     <body>
114    
115     <p>
116     Locale settings are stored in environment variables. These are typically
117     set in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> (for system-wide
118     settings) and <path>~/.bashrc</path> (for user-specific settings) file.
119     The variables controlling different aspects of locale settings
120     are given in the table below, those with highest precedence (ie. those
121     that override settings below them) are at the top of the table. All variables
122     take one name of a locale in <c>ab_CD</c> format given above.
123     </p>
124    
125     <table>
126     <tr>
127     <th>Variable name</th>
128     <th>Explanation</th>
129     </tr>
130     <tr>
131     <ti>LC_ALL</ti>
132     <ti>
133     Define all locale settings at once. This is the top level setting for
134     locales which will override any other setting.
135     </ti>
136     </tr>
137     <tr>
138     <ti>LC_COLLATE</ti>
139     <ti>
140     Define alphabetical ordering of strings. This affects eg. output of sorted
141 swift 1.23 directory listing.
142 swift 1.18 </ti>
143     </tr>
144     <tr>
145     <ti>LC_CTYPE</ti>
146     <ti>
147     Define the character handling properties for the system. This determines
148     which characters are seen as part of alphabet, numeric and so on. This also
149     determines the character set used, if applicable.
150     </ti>
151     </tr>
152     <tr>
153     <ti>LC_MESSAGES</ti>
154     <ti>
155     Programs' localizations for applications that use message based localization
156     scheme (majority of Gnu programs, see next chapters for closer information
157     which do, and how to get the programs, that don't, to work).
158     </ti>
159     </tr>
160     <tr>
161     <ti>LC_MONETARY</ti>
162     <ti>Defines currency units and formatting of currency type numeric values.</ti>
163     </tr>
164     <tr>
165     <ti>LC_NUMERIC</ti>
166     <ti>
167     Defines formatting of numeric values which aren't monetary. Affects things
168     such as thousand separator and decimal separator.
169     </ti>
170     </tr>
171     <tr>
172     <ti>LC_TIME</ti>
173     <ti>Defines formatting of dates and times.</ti>
174     </tr>
175     <tr>
176     <ti>LC_PAPER</ti>
177     <ti>Defines default paper size.</ti>
178     </tr>
179     <tr>
180     <ti>LANG</ti>
181     <ti>
182     Defines all locale settings at once. This setting can be overridden by
183     individual LC_* settings above or even by LC_ALL.
184     </ti>
185     </tr>
186     </table>
187    
188 swift 1.25 <note>
189     Even though most programs work with LC_ALL only, some of them misbehave if
190     LC_ALL is set but LANG isn't. If you want to play safe, set them <e>both</e>.
191     </note>
192    
193 swift 1.18 <p>
194     Most typically users only set the LANG variable and perhaps LC_CTYPE variable
195     on user level by adding definitions to shells startup files defining
196     the environment variable manually from command line:
197 dertobi123 1.12 </p>
198    
199 swift 1.18 <pre caption="setting the German locale">
200 dertobi123 1.12 export LANG="de_DE@euro"
201 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
202 dertobi123 1.12
203     <note>
204 swift 1.18 Append <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the Euro
205 dertobi123 1.12 currency symbol (&#8364;)
206     </note>
207    
208 swift 1.18 <p>
209     For message based localization to work in programs that support it, you will
210     probably need to have programs compiled with the <c>nls</c> (Native language
211     support) USE flag set. Most of the programs using nls also need the gettext
212     library to extract and use localized messages. Of course, Gentoo's Portage will
213     automatically install it when needed.
214     </p>
215    
216 dertobi123 1.12 </body>
217 drobbins 1.1 </section>
218 swift 1.14 <section>
219     <title>Generating Specific Locales</title>
220     <body>
221    
222     <p>
223     If you use a locale that isn't available by default, you should use
224     <c>localedef</c> to generate your locale. For instance:
225     </p>
226    
227     <pre caption="Generating a locale using localedef">
228     # <i>localedef -c -i en_US -f ISO-8859-15 en_US.ISO-8859-15</i>
229     </pre>
230    
231     <p>
232     After having generated the locale, you can export the LANG variable as you see
233     fit.
234     </p>
235    
236     <pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable">
237     # <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i>
238     </pre>
239    
240     </body>
241     </section>
242 dertobi123 1.15 <section>
243     <title>The userlocales USE flag</title>
244     <body>
245    
246     <p>
247     You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
248     after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales has been
249 swift 1.23 created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
250 dertobi123 1.15 only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>.
251     </p>
252    
253     <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
254     echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use
255     </pre>
256    
257     <p>
258     Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
259     </p>
260    
261 swift 1.18 <pre caption="Adding locales to /etc/locales.build">
262 dertobi123 1.15 en_US/ISO-8859-1
263     en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
264     de_DE/ISO-8859-1
265     de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
266     </pre>
267    
268     <p>
269     The next step is to re-compile <c>glibc</c>. Of course you can defer this until
270     the next <c>glibc</c> upgrade is available.
271     </p>
272    
273     </body>
274     </section>
275 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
276    
277     <chapter>
278 antifa 1.4 <title>Keyboard layout for the console</title>
279 drobbins 1.1 <section>
280 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
281    
282     <p>
283     The keyboard layout used by the console is set in
284 cam 1.13 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> by the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable.
285 dertobi123 1.12 Valid values can be found in
286 cam 1.13 <path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>.
287 dertobi123 1.12 <path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout
288     (<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
289     languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
290     to decide which one fits your needs best.
291     </p>
292    
293 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the console keymap">
294 dertobi123 1.12 KEYMAP="de"
295     KEYMAP="de-latin1"
296     KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys"
297 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
298 dertobi123 1.12
299     </body>
300 drobbins 1.1 </section>
301     </chapter>
302    
303     <chapter>
304 antifa 1.4 <title>Keyboard layout for the X server</title>
305 drobbins 1.1 <section>
306 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
307    
308     <p>
309     The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
310 alin 1.21 in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c>
311 dertobi123 1.12 option.
312     </p>
313    
314 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the X keymap">
315 drobbins 1.1 Section "InputDevice"
316     Identifier "Keyboard1"
317     ...
318     Option "XkbLayout" "de"
319 aaby 1.10 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys"
320 drobbins 1.1 ...
321     </pre>
322 dertobi123 1.12
323     </body>
324 drobbins 1.1 </section>
325     </chapter>
326    
327     <chapter>
328 dertobi123 1.11 <title>KDE</title>
329     <section>
330     <body>
331    
332     <p>
333     For KDE you have to install the kde-i18n package with the appropriate
334 swift 1.22 LINGUAS variable set:
335     </p>
336 dertobi123 1.11
337     <pre caption="Install localized KDE">
338 swift 1.22 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
339     <comment>(Add in the LINGUAS variable. For instance, for the German language:)</comment>
340     LINGUAS="de"
341    
342     <comment>(Now install kde-i18n)</comment>
343     # <i>emerge kde-i18n</i>
344 dertobi123 1.11 </pre>
345    
346     </body>
347     </section>
348     </chapter>
349    
350     <chapter>
351 antifa 1.4 <title>The Euro Symbol for the Console</title>
352 drobbins 1.1 <section>
353 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
354    
355     <p>
356     In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you
357 cam 1.13 will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in
358 dertobi123 1.12 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in
359     <path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the
360     <c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol.
361     </p>
362    
363 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the console font">
364 dertobi123 1.12 CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16"
365 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
366 dertobi123 1.12
367     </body>
368 drobbins 1.1 </section>
369     </chapter>
370    
371     <chapter>
372 dertobi123 1.12 <title>The Euro Symbol in X</title>
373 drobbins 1.1 <section>
374 dertobi123 1.12 <title>Most Applications</title>
375     <body>
376    
377     <p>
378     Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little
379 cam 1.13 bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <c>fixed</c>
380     and <c>variable</c> definitions in
381 dertobi123 1.12 <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end
382 cam 1.13 in <c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>.
383 dertobi123 1.12 </p>
384    
385 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting default X fonts">
386 dertobi123 1.12 fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15
387     variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
388 antifa 1.4 </pre>
389 dertobi123 1.12
390     <p>
391     Some applications use their own font, and you will have to
392     tell them separately to use a font with the Euro symbol. You
393     can do this at a user-specific level in
394     <path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to
395     <path>/etc/skel/</path> for use by new users), or at a global
396     level for any application with a resource file in
397     <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In
398     these files you generally have to change an existing line,
399     rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for
400     instance:
401     </p>
402    
403 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting fonts for xterm">
404 neysx 1.20 <comment>(in your home directory)</comment>
405 dertobi123 1.12 # <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
406     # <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
407 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
408 dertobi123 1.12
409     </body>
410 drobbins 1.1 </section>
411 dertobi123 1.12 <section>
412     <title>The Euro symbol in (X)Emacs</title>
413     <body>
414    
415     <p>
416     To use the Euro symbol in (X)Emacs, add the following to
417     <path>.Xdefaults</path>:
418     </p>
419 drobbins 1.1
420 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the font for emacs">
421 dertobi123 1.12 Emacs.default.attributeFont: -*-courier-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
422 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
423 dertobi123 1.12
424     <p>
425     For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little
426     more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add:
427     </p>
428    
429 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the font for xemacs">
430 dertobi123 1.12 (define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[&#8364;])
431 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
432 dertobi123 1.12
433     <note>
434     The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol.
435     </note>
436    
437     </body>
438     </section>
439     <section>
440 swift 1.23 <title>Language for OpenOffice.org</title>
441 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
442    
443     <note>
444     Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The
445     default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS.
446     </note>
447    
448     <p>
449 swift 1.22 Please note that this package now uses the LINGUAS variable to
450 dertobi123 1.19 provide localization. The old LANGUAGE=ENUS|PORT system does <e>not</e> work
451 swift 1.23 anymore. The default language for OpenOffice.org is set as "US English". If you
452     wish to change the default language for OpenOffice.org, check the ebuild for the
453 dertobi123 1.19 default language code.
454 dertobi123 1.12 </p>
455    
456 dertobi123 1.19 <pre caption="Example: emerge openoffice for german environment">
457 swift 1.22 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
458     <comment>(Add in the LINGUAS variable. For instance, for the German language:)</comment>
459     LINGUAS="de"
460    
461     <comment>(Now install openoffice)</comment>
462     # <i>emerge openoffice</i>
463 bennyc 1.8 </pre>
464 dertobi123 1.12
465     </body>
466 bennyc 1.8 </section>
467 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
468    
469     </guide>

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