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#103041 Add same warning about GMT* time zones as in handbook

1 swift 1.6 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 neysx 1.31 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.30 2005/08/20 16:35:31 swift Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.6 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5     <guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
6 antifa 1.4 <title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
7 dertobi123 1.12 <author title="Author">
8 pylon 1.16 Alexander Holler
9 drobbins 1.1 </author>
10 dertobi123 1.12 <author title="Translator/Editor">
11     <mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">Steven Lucy</mail>
12 antifa 1.4 </author>
13 bennyc 1.8 <author title="Editor">
14     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
15     </author>
16 dertobi123 1.11 <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail>
18     </author>
19 dertobi123 1.15 <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail>
21     </author>
22 swift 1.18 <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="flammie@gentoo.org">Flammie Pirinen</mail>
24     </author>
25 dertobi123 1.12
26 antifa 1.4 <abstract>
27     This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
28 dertobi123 1.12 European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
29 swift 1.23 the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the euro currency symbol.
30 antifa 1.4 </abstract>
31 drobbins 1.1
32 neysx 1.31 <version>1.22</version>
33     <date>2005-08-22</date>
34 dertobi123 1.12
35 drobbins 1.1 <chapter>
36 swift 1.23 <title>Time zone</title>
37 drobbins 1.1 <section>
38 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
39    
40     <p>
41 neysx 1.31 In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to the
42     correct time zone data file. Look around in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path>
43     and pick your timezone or a near-by big city. Please avoid the
44     <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
45     indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact GMT+8.
46 dertobi123 1.12 </p>
47    
48 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the timezone">
49 drobbins 1.1 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i>
50 antifa 1.4 # <i>date</i>
51     Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003
52 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
53 dertobi123 1.12
54     <note>
55     Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET")
56     is correct for your area.
57     </note>
58    
59     <note>
60 cam 1.13 You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the
61 aaby 1.10 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path> in your shell rc file
62 antifa 1.4 (<path>.bash_profile</path> for bash) for a user-level setting. In this case
63 cam 1.13 <c>TZ="Europe/Berlin"</c>.
64 dertobi123 1.12 </note>
65    
66     </body>
67 drobbins 1.1 </section>
68     </chapter>
69    
70     <chapter>
71 swift 1.26 <title>Hardware Clock</title>
72 drobbins 1.1 <section>
73 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
74    
75     <p>
76 swift 1.26 In most Gentoo Linux installations, your hardware clock is set to
77 swift 1.23 UTC (or GMT, Greenwich Mean Time) and then your timezone is
78 dertobi123 1.12 taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If,
79 swift 1.26 for some reason, you need your hardware clock not to be in UTC,
80 fox2mike 1.28 you will need to edit <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> and change the
81 swift 1.26 value of <c>CLOCK</c> from <c>UTC</c> to <c>local</c>.
82 dertobi123 1.12 </p>
83 antifa 1.4
84     <pre caption="local vs. GMT clock">
85 neysx 1.20 <comment>(recommended:)</comment>
86 dertobi123 1.12 CLOCK="UTC"
87 neysx 1.20 <comment>(or:)</comment>
88 dertobi123 1.12 CLOCK="local"
89 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
90 dertobi123 1.12
91     </body>
92 drobbins 1.1 </section>
93     </chapter>
94    
95     <chapter>
96 swift 1.18 <title>Locale system</title>
97 drobbins 1.1 <section>
98 swift 1.18 <title>What are locales?</title>
99 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
100    
101     <p>
102 swift 1.18 A Locale is a set of information that most programs use for determining
103     country and language specific settings. The locales and their data
104     are part of the system library and can be found
105     at <path>/usr/share/locale</path> on most systems. A locale name is generally
106 swift 1.25 named <c>ab_CD</c> where <c>ab</c> is your two (or three) letter
107 swift 1.18 language code (as specified in ISO-639) and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country
108     code (as specified in ISO-3199).
109     </p>
110    
111     </body>
112     </section>
113     <section>
114     <title>Environment variables for locales</title>
115     <body>
116    
117     <p>
118     Locale settings are stored in environment variables. These are typically
119     set in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> (for system-wide
120     settings) and <path>~/.bashrc</path> (for user-specific settings) file.
121     The variables controlling different aspects of locale settings
122     are given in the table below, those with highest precedence (ie. those
123     that override settings below them) are at the top of the table. All variables
124     take one name of a locale in <c>ab_CD</c> format given above.
125     </p>
126    
127     <table>
128     <tr>
129     <th>Variable name</th>
130     <th>Explanation</th>
131     </tr>
132     <tr>
133     <ti>LC_ALL</ti>
134     <ti>
135     Define all locale settings at once. This is the top level setting for
136     locales which will override any other setting.
137     </ti>
138     </tr>
139     <tr>
140     <ti>LC_COLLATE</ti>
141     <ti>
142     Define alphabetical ordering of strings. This affects eg. output of sorted
143 swift 1.23 directory listing.
144 swift 1.18 </ti>
145     </tr>
146     <tr>
147     <ti>LC_CTYPE</ti>
148     <ti>
149     Define the character handling properties for the system. This determines
150     which characters are seen as part of alphabet, numeric and so on. This also
151     determines the character set used, if applicable.
152     </ti>
153     </tr>
154     <tr>
155     <ti>LC_MESSAGES</ti>
156     <ti>
157     Programs' localizations for applications that use message based localization
158     scheme (majority of Gnu programs, see next chapters for closer information
159     which do, and how to get the programs, that don't, to work).
160     </ti>
161     </tr>
162     <tr>
163     <ti>LC_MONETARY</ti>
164     <ti>Defines currency units and formatting of currency type numeric values.</ti>
165     </tr>
166     <tr>
167     <ti>LC_NUMERIC</ti>
168     <ti>
169     Defines formatting of numeric values which aren't monetary. Affects things
170     such as thousand separator and decimal separator.
171     </ti>
172     </tr>
173     <tr>
174     <ti>LC_TIME</ti>
175     <ti>Defines formatting of dates and times.</ti>
176     </tr>
177     <tr>
178     <ti>LC_PAPER</ti>
179     <ti>Defines default paper size.</ti>
180     </tr>
181     <tr>
182     <ti>LANG</ti>
183     <ti>
184     Defines all locale settings at once. This setting can be overridden by
185     individual LC_* settings above or even by LC_ALL.
186     </ti>
187     </tr>
188     </table>
189    
190 swift 1.25 <note>
191     Even though most programs work with LC_ALL only, some of them misbehave if
192     LC_ALL is set but LANG isn't. If you want to play safe, set them <e>both</e>.
193     </note>
194    
195 swift 1.18 <p>
196     Most typically users only set the LANG variable and perhaps LC_CTYPE variable
197     on user level by adding definitions to shells startup files defining
198     the environment variable manually from command line:
199 dertobi123 1.12 </p>
200    
201 swift 1.18 <pre caption="setting the German locale">
202 dertobi123 1.12 export LANG="de_DE@euro"
203 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
204 dertobi123 1.12
205     <note>
206 swift 1.18 Append <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the Euro
207 dertobi123 1.12 currency symbol (&#8364;)
208     </note>
209    
210 swift 1.18 <p>
211     For message based localization to work in programs that support it, you will
212     probably need to have programs compiled with the <c>nls</c> (Native language
213     support) USE flag set. Most of the programs using nls also need the gettext
214     library to extract and use localized messages. Of course, Gentoo's Portage will
215     automatically install it when needed.
216     </p>
217    
218 dertobi123 1.12 </body>
219 drobbins 1.1 </section>
220 swift 1.14 <section>
221     <title>Generating Specific Locales</title>
222     <body>
223    
224     <p>
225     If you use a locale that isn't available by default, you should use
226     <c>localedef</c> to generate your locale. For instance:
227     </p>
228    
229     <pre caption="Generating a locale using localedef">
230     # <i>localedef -c -i en_US -f ISO-8859-15 en_US.ISO-8859-15</i>
231     </pre>
232    
233     <p>
234     After having generated the locale, you can export the LANG variable as you see
235     fit.
236     </p>
237    
238     <pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable">
239     # <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i>
240     </pre>
241    
242     </body>
243     </section>
244 dertobi123 1.15 <section>
245     <title>The userlocales USE flag</title>
246     <body>
247    
248     <p>
249     You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
250     after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales has been
251 swift 1.23 created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
252 dertobi123 1.15 only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>.
253     </p>
254    
255     <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
256     echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use
257     </pre>
258    
259     <p>
260     Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
261     </p>
262    
263 swift 1.18 <pre caption="Adding locales to /etc/locales.build">
264 dertobi123 1.15 en_US/ISO-8859-1
265     en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
266     de_DE/ISO-8859-1
267     de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
268     </pre>
269    
270     <p>
271     The next step is to re-compile <c>glibc</c>. Of course you can defer this until
272     the next <c>glibc</c> upgrade is available.
273     </p>
274    
275     </body>
276     </section>
277 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
278    
279     <chapter>
280 antifa 1.4 <title>Keyboard layout for the console</title>
281 drobbins 1.1 <section>
282 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
283    
284     <p>
285     The keyboard layout used by the console is set in
286 fox2mike 1.27 <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> by the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable.
287 dertobi123 1.12 Valid values can be found in
288 cam 1.13 <path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>.
289 dertobi123 1.12 <path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout
290     (<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
291     languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
292     to decide which one fits your needs best.
293     </p>
294    
295 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the console keymap">
296 dertobi123 1.12 KEYMAP="de"
297     KEYMAP="de-latin1"
298     KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys"
299 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
300 dertobi123 1.12
301     </body>
302 drobbins 1.1 </section>
303     </chapter>
304    
305     <chapter>
306 antifa 1.4 <title>Keyboard layout for the X server</title>
307 drobbins 1.1 <section>
308 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
309    
310     <p>
311     The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
312 alin 1.21 in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c>
313 dertobi123 1.12 option.
314     </p>
315    
316 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the X keymap">
317 drobbins 1.1 Section "InputDevice"
318     Identifier "Keyboard1"
319     ...
320     Option "XkbLayout" "de"
321 aaby 1.10 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys"
322 drobbins 1.1 ...
323     </pre>
324 dertobi123 1.12
325     </body>
326 drobbins 1.1 </section>
327     </chapter>
328    
329     <chapter>
330 dertobi123 1.11 <title>KDE</title>
331     <section>
332     <body>
333    
334     <p>
335     For KDE you have to install the kde-i18n package with the appropriate
336 swift 1.22 LINGUAS variable set:
337     </p>
338 dertobi123 1.11
339     <pre caption="Install localized KDE">
340 swift 1.22 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
341     <comment>(Add in the LINGUAS variable. For instance, for the German language:)</comment>
342     LINGUAS="de"
343    
344     <comment>(Now install kde-i18n)</comment>
345     # <i>emerge kde-i18n</i>
346 dertobi123 1.11 </pre>
347    
348     </body>
349     </section>
350     </chapter>
351    
352     <chapter>
353 antifa 1.4 <title>The Euro Symbol for the Console</title>
354 drobbins 1.1 <section>
355 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
356    
357     <p>
358     In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you
359 cam 1.13 will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in
360 dertobi123 1.12 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in
361     <path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the
362     <c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol.
363     </p>
364    
365 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the console font">
366 dertobi123 1.12 CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16"
367 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
368 dertobi123 1.12
369     </body>
370 drobbins 1.1 </section>
371     </chapter>
372    
373     <chapter>
374 dertobi123 1.12 <title>The Euro Symbol in X</title>
375 drobbins 1.1 <section>
376 dertobi123 1.12 <title>Most Applications</title>
377     <body>
378    
379     <p>
380     Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little
381 cam 1.13 bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <c>fixed</c>
382     and <c>variable</c> definitions in
383 dertobi123 1.12 <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end
384 cam 1.13 in <c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>.
385 dertobi123 1.12 </p>
386    
387 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting default X fonts">
388 dertobi123 1.12 fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15
389     variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
390 antifa 1.4 </pre>
391 dertobi123 1.12
392     <p>
393     Some applications use their own font, and you will have to
394     tell them separately to use a font with the Euro symbol. You
395     can do this at a user-specific level in
396     <path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to
397     <path>/etc/skel/</path> for use by new users), or at a global
398     level for any application with a resource file in
399     <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In
400     these files you generally have to change an existing line,
401     rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for
402     instance:
403     </p>
404    
405 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting fonts for xterm">
406 neysx 1.20 <comment>(in your home directory)</comment>
407 dertobi123 1.12 # <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
408     # <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
409 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
410 dertobi123 1.12
411     </body>
412 drobbins 1.1 </section>
413 dertobi123 1.12 <section>
414     <title>The Euro symbol in (X)Emacs</title>
415     <body>
416    
417     <p>
418     To use the Euro symbol in (X)Emacs, add the following to
419     <path>.Xdefaults</path>:
420     </p>
421 drobbins 1.1
422 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the font for emacs">
423 dertobi123 1.12 Emacs.default.attributeFont: -*-courier-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
424 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
425 dertobi123 1.12
426     <p>
427     For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little
428     more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add:
429     </p>
430    
431 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the font for xemacs">
432 dertobi123 1.12 (define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[&#8364;])
433 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
434 dertobi123 1.12
435     <note>
436     The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol.
437     </note>
438    
439     </body>
440     </section>
441     <section>
442 swift 1.23 <title>Language for OpenOffice.org</title>
443 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
444    
445     <note>
446     Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The
447     default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS.
448     </note>
449    
450     <p>
451 swift 1.22 Please note that this package now uses the LINGUAS variable to
452 dertobi123 1.19 provide localization. The old LANGUAGE=ENUS|PORT system does <e>not</e> work
453 swift 1.23 anymore. The default language for OpenOffice.org is set as "US English". If you
454     wish to change the default language for OpenOffice.org, check the ebuild for the
455 dertobi123 1.19 default language code.
456 dertobi123 1.12 </p>
457    
458 swift 1.30 <pre caption="Example: emerge openoffice for german + english environment">
459 swift 1.22 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
460 swift 1.29 <comment>(Add in the LINGUAS variable. For instance, for the German and English language:)</comment>
461     LINGUAS="de en"
462 swift 1.22
463     <comment>(Now install openoffice)</comment>
464     # <i>emerge openoffice</i>
465 bennyc 1.8 </pre>
466 dertobi123 1.12
467     </body>
468 bennyc 1.8 </section>
469 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
470    
471     </guide>

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