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1 swift 1.6 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 flammie 1.32 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.31 2005/08/21 22:44:26 neysx Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.6 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5     <guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
6 antifa 1.4 <title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
7 dertobi123 1.12 <author title="Author">
8 pylon 1.16 Alexander Holler
9 drobbins 1.1 </author>
10 dertobi123 1.12 <author title="Translator/Editor">
11     <mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">Steven Lucy</mail>
12 antifa 1.4 </author>
13 bennyc 1.8 <author title="Editor">
14     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
15     </author>
16 dertobi123 1.11 <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail>
18     </author>
19 dertobi123 1.15 <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail>
21     </author>
22 swift 1.18 <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="flammie@gentoo.org">Flammie Pirinen</mail>
24     </author>
25 dertobi123 1.12
26 antifa 1.4 <abstract>
27     This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
28 dertobi123 1.12 European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
29 swift 1.23 the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the euro currency symbol.
30 antifa 1.4 </abstract>
31 drobbins 1.1
32 flammie 1.32 <version>1.23</version>
33     <date>2005-09-24</date>
34 dertobi123 1.12
35 drobbins 1.1 <chapter>
36 swift 1.23 <title>Time zone</title>
37 drobbins 1.1 <section>
38 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
39    
40     <p>
41 neysx 1.31 In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to the
42     correct time zone data file. Look around in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path>
43     and pick your timezone or a near-by big city. Please avoid the
44     <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
45     indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact GMT+8.
46 dertobi123 1.12 </p>
47    
48 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the timezone">
49 drobbins 1.1 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i>
50 antifa 1.4 # <i>date</i>
51     Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003
52 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
53 dertobi123 1.12
54     <note>
55     Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET")
56     is correct for your area.
57     </note>
58    
59     <note>
60 cam 1.13 You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the
61 aaby 1.10 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path> in your shell rc file
62 antifa 1.4 (<path>.bash_profile</path> for bash) for a user-level setting. In this case
63 cam 1.13 <c>TZ="Europe/Berlin"</c>.
64 dertobi123 1.12 </note>
65    
66     </body>
67 drobbins 1.1 </section>
68     </chapter>
69    
70     <chapter>
71 swift 1.26 <title>Hardware Clock</title>
72 drobbins 1.1 <section>
73 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
74    
75     <p>
76 swift 1.26 In most Gentoo Linux installations, your hardware clock is set to
77 swift 1.23 UTC (or GMT, Greenwich Mean Time) and then your timezone is
78 dertobi123 1.12 taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If,
79 swift 1.26 for some reason, you need your hardware clock not to be in UTC,
80 fox2mike 1.28 you will need to edit <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> and change the
81 swift 1.26 value of <c>CLOCK</c> from <c>UTC</c> to <c>local</c>.
82 dertobi123 1.12 </p>
83 antifa 1.4
84     <pre caption="local vs. GMT clock">
85 neysx 1.20 <comment>(recommended:)</comment>
86 dertobi123 1.12 CLOCK="UTC"
87 neysx 1.20 <comment>(or:)</comment>
88 dertobi123 1.12 CLOCK="local"
89 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
90 dertobi123 1.12
91     </body>
92 drobbins 1.1 </section>
93     </chapter>
94    
95     <chapter>
96 swift 1.18 <title>Locale system</title>
97 drobbins 1.1 <section>
98 swift 1.18 <title>What are locales?</title>
99 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
100    
101     <p>
102 swift 1.18 A Locale is a set of information that most programs use for determining
103     country and language specific settings. The locales and their data
104     are part of the system library and can be found
105     at <path>/usr/share/locale</path> on most systems. A locale name is generally
106 swift 1.25 named <c>ab_CD</c> where <c>ab</c> is your two (or three) letter
107 swift 1.18 language code (as specified in ISO-639) and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country
108     code (as specified in ISO-3199).
109     </p>
110    
111     </body>
112     </section>
113 flammie 1.32 <section id="variables">
114 swift 1.18 <title>Environment variables for locales</title>
115     <body>
116    
117     <p>
118     Locale settings are stored in environment variables. These are typically
119     set in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> (for system-wide
120     settings) and <path>~/.bashrc</path> (for user-specific settings) file.
121     The variables controlling different aspects of locale settings
122     are given in the table below, those with highest precedence (ie. those
123     that override settings below them) are at the top of the table. All variables
124     take one name of a locale in <c>ab_CD</c> format given above.
125     </p>
126    
127     <table>
128     <tr>
129     <th>Variable name</th>
130     <th>Explanation</th>
131     </tr>
132     <tr>
133     <ti>LC_ALL</ti>
134     <ti>
135     Define all locale settings at once. This is the top level setting for
136     locales which will override any other setting.
137     </ti>
138     </tr>
139     <tr>
140     <ti>LC_COLLATE</ti>
141     <ti>
142     Define alphabetical ordering of strings. This affects eg. output of sorted
143 swift 1.23 directory listing.
144 swift 1.18 </ti>
145     </tr>
146     <tr>
147     <ti>LC_CTYPE</ti>
148     <ti>
149     Define the character handling properties for the system. This determines
150     which characters are seen as part of alphabet, numeric and so on. This also
151     determines the character set used, if applicable.
152     </ti>
153     </tr>
154     <tr>
155     <ti>LC_MESSAGES</ti>
156     <ti>
157     Programs' localizations for applications that use message based localization
158     scheme (majority of Gnu programs, see next chapters for closer information
159     which do, and how to get the programs, that don't, to work).
160     </ti>
161     </tr>
162     <tr>
163     <ti>LC_MONETARY</ti>
164     <ti>Defines currency units and formatting of currency type numeric values.</ti>
165     </tr>
166     <tr>
167     <ti>LC_NUMERIC</ti>
168     <ti>
169     Defines formatting of numeric values which aren't monetary. Affects things
170     such as thousand separator and decimal separator.
171     </ti>
172     </tr>
173     <tr>
174     <ti>LC_TIME</ti>
175     <ti>Defines formatting of dates and times.</ti>
176     </tr>
177     <tr>
178     <ti>LC_PAPER</ti>
179     <ti>Defines default paper size.</ti>
180     </tr>
181     <tr>
182     <ti>LANG</ti>
183     <ti>
184     Defines all locale settings at once. This setting can be overridden by
185     individual LC_* settings above or even by LC_ALL.
186     </ti>
187     </tr>
188     </table>
189    
190 swift 1.25 <note>
191     Even though most programs work with LC_ALL only, some of them misbehave if
192     LC_ALL is set but LANG isn't. If you want to play safe, set them <e>both</e>.
193     </note>
194    
195 swift 1.18 <p>
196     Most typically users only set the LANG variable and perhaps LC_CTYPE variable
197     on user level by adding definitions to shells startup files defining
198     the environment variable manually from command line:
199 dertobi123 1.12 </p>
200    
201 swift 1.18 <pre caption="setting the German locale">
202 dertobi123 1.12 export LANG="de_DE@euro"
203 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
204 dertobi123 1.12
205     <note>
206 swift 1.18 Append <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the Euro
207 dertobi123 1.12 currency symbol (&#8364;)
208     </note>
209    
210 swift 1.18 <p>
211     For message based localization to work in programs that support it, you will
212     probably need to have programs compiled with the <c>nls</c> (Native language
213     support) USE flag set. Most of the programs using nls also need the gettext
214     library to extract and use localized messages. Of course, Gentoo's Portage will
215     automatically install it when needed.
216     </p>
217    
218 flammie 1.32 <p>
219     There is also additional localisation variable called LINGUAS, which affects
220     to localisation files that get installed in gettext-based programs, and decides
221     used localisation for some specific software packages, such as
222     <c>kde-base/kde-i18n</c> and <c>app-office/openoffice</c>. The variable
223     takes in <e>space</e>-separated list of language codes, and suggested
224     place to set it is <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
225     </p>
226    
227     <pre caption="setting LINGUAS in make.conf">
228     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
229     <comment>(Add in the LINGUAS variable. For instance,
230     for German, Finnish and English:)</comment>
231     LINGUAS="de fi en"
232     </pre>
233    
234    
235 dertobi123 1.12 </body>
236 drobbins 1.1 </section>
237 swift 1.14 <section>
238     <title>Generating Specific Locales</title>
239     <body>
240    
241     <p>
242     If you use a locale that isn't available by default, you should use
243     <c>localedef</c> to generate your locale. For instance:
244     </p>
245    
246     <pre caption="Generating a locale using localedef">
247     # <i>localedef -c -i en_US -f ISO-8859-15 en_US.ISO-8859-15</i>
248     </pre>
249    
250     <p>
251     After having generated the locale, you can export the LANG variable as you see
252     fit.
253     </p>
254    
255     <pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable">
256     # <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i>
257     </pre>
258    
259     </body>
260     </section>
261 dertobi123 1.15 <section>
262     <title>The userlocales USE flag</title>
263     <body>
264    
265     <p>
266     You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
267     after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales has been
268 swift 1.23 created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
269 dertobi123 1.15 only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>.
270     </p>
271    
272     <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
273     echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use
274     </pre>
275    
276     <p>
277     Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
278     </p>
279    
280 swift 1.18 <pre caption="Adding locales to /etc/locales.build">
281 dertobi123 1.15 en_US/ISO-8859-1
282     en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
283     de_DE/ISO-8859-1
284     de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
285     </pre>
286    
287     <p>
288     The next step is to re-compile <c>glibc</c>. Of course you can defer this until
289     the next <c>glibc</c> upgrade is available.
290     </p>
291    
292     </body>
293     </section>
294 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
295    
296     <chapter>
297 antifa 1.4 <title>Keyboard layout for the console</title>
298 drobbins 1.1 <section>
299 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
300    
301     <p>
302     The keyboard layout used by the console is set in
303 fox2mike 1.27 <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> by the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable.
304 dertobi123 1.12 Valid values can be found in
305 cam 1.13 <path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>.
306 dertobi123 1.12 <path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout
307     (<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
308     languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
309     to decide which one fits your needs best.
310     </p>
311    
312 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the console keymap">
313 dertobi123 1.12 KEYMAP="de"
314     KEYMAP="de-latin1"
315     KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys"
316 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
317 dertobi123 1.12
318     </body>
319 drobbins 1.1 </section>
320     </chapter>
321    
322     <chapter>
323 antifa 1.4 <title>Keyboard layout for the X server</title>
324 drobbins 1.1 <section>
325 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
326    
327     <p>
328     The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
329 alin 1.21 in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c>
330 dertobi123 1.12 option.
331     </p>
332    
333 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the X keymap">
334 drobbins 1.1 Section "InputDevice"
335     Identifier "Keyboard1"
336     ...
337     Option "XkbLayout" "de"
338 aaby 1.10 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys"
339 drobbins 1.1 ...
340     </pre>
341 dertobi123 1.12
342     </body>
343 drobbins 1.1 </section>
344     </chapter>
345    
346     <chapter>
347 dertobi123 1.11 <title>KDE</title>
348     <section>
349     <body>
350    
351     <p>
352 flammie 1.32 For KDE you have to install the <c>kde-base/kde-i18n</c> package. Kde-i18n
353     respects <uri link="#variables">LINGUAS variable</uri> described earlier.
354 swift 1.22 </p>
355 dertobi123 1.11
356     </body>
357     </section>
358     </chapter>
359    
360     <chapter>
361 antifa 1.4 <title>The Euro Symbol for the Console</title>
362 drobbins 1.1 <section>
363 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
364    
365     <p>
366     In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you
367 cam 1.13 will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in
368 dertobi123 1.12 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in
369     <path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the
370     <c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol.
371     </p>
372    
373 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the console font">
374 dertobi123 1.12 CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16"
375 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
376 dertobi123 1.12
377     </body>
378 drobbins 1.1 </section>
379     </chapter>
380    
381     <chapter>
382 dertobi123 1.12 <title>The Euro Symbol in X</title>
383 drobbins 1.1 <section>
384 dertobi123 1.12 <title>Most Applications</title>
385     <body>
386    
387     <p>
388     Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little
389 cam 1.13 bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <c>fixed</c>
390     and <c>variable</c> definitions in
391 dertobi123 1.12 <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end
392 cam 1.13 in <c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>.
393 dertobi123 1.12 </p>
394    
395 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting default X fonts">
396 dertobi123 1.12 fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15
397     variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
398 antifa 1.4 </pre>
399 dertobi123 1.12
400     <p>
401     Some applications use their own font, and you will have to
402     tell them separately to use a font with the Euro symbol. You
403     can do this at a user-specific level in
404     <path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to
405     <path>/etc/skel/</path> for use by new users), or at a global
406     level for any application with a resource file in
407     <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In
408     these files you generally have to change an existing line,
409     rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for
410     instance:
411     </p>
412    
413 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting fonts for xterm">
414 neysx 1.20 <comment>(in your home directory)</comment>
415 dertobi123 1.12 # <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
416     # <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
417 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
418 dertobi123 1.12
419     </body>
420 drobbins 1.1 </section>
421 dertobi123 1.12 <section>
422     <title>The Euro symbol in (X)Emacs</title>
423     <body>
424    
425     <p>
426     To use the Euro symbol in (X)Emacs, add the following to
427     <path>.Xdefaults</path>:
428     </p>
429 drobbins 1.1
430 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the font for emacs">
431 dertobi123 1.12 Emacs.default.attributeFont: -*-courier-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
432 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
433 dertobi123 1.12
434     <p>
435     For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little
436     more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add:
437     </p>
438    
439 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the font for xemacs">
440 dertobi123 1.12 (define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[&#8364;])
441 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
442 dertobi123 1.12
443     <note>
444     The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol.
445     </note>
446    
447     </body>
448     </section>
449     <section>
450 flammie 1.32 <title>OpenOffice.Org</title>
451 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
452    
453     <p>
454 flammie 1.32 The current <c>app-office/openoffice</c> (or <c>-ximian</c>) source ebuilds
455     support <uri link="#variables">LINGUAS variable</uri> for selecting installed
456     GUI language packs. The current <e>stable</e>
457     <c>app-office/openoffice-bin</c> binary ebuilds do <e>not</e> yet
458     support LINGUAS variable, however, so in order to use localised OpenOffice.Org
459     you must either install the source version, or, with your discretion, the
460     unstable binary version. To see status of GUI translation,
461     hyphenation, spell checking and other localisations on your language, please
462     refer to
463     <uri link="http://l10n.openoffice.org/languages.html">OpenOffice.Org
464     localisation web site</uri>.
465 dertobi123 1.12 </p>
466    
467     </body>
468 bennyc 1.8 </section>
469 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
470    
471     </guide>

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