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1 swift 1.6 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 nightmorph 1.67 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.66 2012/10/31 18:37:53 swift Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.6 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 swift 1.62 <guide>
6 antifa 1.4 <title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
7 dertobi123 1.12 <author title="Author">
8 pylon 1.16 Alexander Holler
9 drobbins 1.1 </author>
10 dertobi123 1.12 <author title="Translator/Editor">
11     <mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">Steven Lucy</mail>
12 antifa 1.4 </author>
13 bennyc 1.8 <author title="Editor">
14     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
15     </author>
16 dertobi123 1.11 <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail>
18     </author>
19 dertobi123 1.15 <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail>
21     </author>
22 swift 1.18 <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="flammie@gentoo.org">Flammie Pirinen</mail>
24     </author>
25 nightmorph 1.51 <author title="Editor">
26     <mail link="nightmorph"/>
27     </author>
28 swift 1.63 <author title="Editor">
29     <mail link="klondike"/>
30     </author>
31 dertobi123 1.12
32 antifa 1.4 <abstract>
33     This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
34 dertobi123 1.12 European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
35 swift 1.23 the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the euro currency symbol.
36 antifa 1.4 </abstract>
37 drobbins 1.1
38 nightmorph 1.67 <version>5</version>
39     <date>2013-01-13</date>
40 dertobi123 1.12
41 drobbins 1.1 <chapter>
42 swift 1.23 <title>Time zone</title>
43 drobbins 1.1 <section>
44 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
45    
46     <p>
47 nightmorph 1.46 In order to keep time properly, you need to select your timezone so that your
48     system knows where it is located. Look for your timezone in
49     <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. You then set your timezone in
50 swift 1.63 <path>/etc/timezone</path>. Please avoid the
51 neysx 1.31 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
52     indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact GMT+8.
53 dertobi123 1.12 </p>
54    
55 nightmorph 1.46 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
56     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
57     <comment>(Suppose you want to use Brussels)</comment>
58 rane 1.52 <comment>(First copy the proper zone to localtime)</comment>
59 nightmorph 1.51 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Brussels /etc/localtime</i>
60     <comment>(Now specify your timezone)</comment>
61 swift 1.63 # <i>nano -w /etc/timezone</i>
62     Europe/Brussels
63 nightmorph 1.46
64 antifa 1.4 # <i>date</i>
65 nightmorph 1.46 Wed Mar 8 00:46:05 CET 2006
66 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
67 dertobi123 1.12
68     <note>
69 flammie 1.41 Make sure that the timezone indicator (in this case "CET")
70 dertobi123 1.12 is correct for your area.
71     </note>
72    
73     <note>
74 cam 1.13 You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the
75 aaby 1.10 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path> in your shell rc file
76 antifa 1.4 (<path>.bash_profile</path> for bash) for a user-level setting. In this case
77 cam 1.13 <c>TZ="Europe/Berlin"</c>.
78 dertobi123 1.12 </note>
79    
80     </body>
81 drobbins 1.1 </section>
82     </chapter>
83    
84     <chapter>
85 swift 1.26 <title>Hardware Clock</title>
86 drobbins 1.1 <section>
87 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
88    
89     <p>
90 swift 1.26 In most Gentoo Linux installations, your hardware clock is set to
91 swift 1.23 UTC (or GMT, Greenwich Mean Time) and then your timezone is
92 dertobi123 1.12 taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If,
93 swift 1.26 for some reason, you need your hardware clock not to be in UTC,
94 swift 1.63 you will need to edit <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> (or if you use Gentoo
95     BSD: <path>/etc/conf.d/adjkerntz</path>) and change the
96     value of <c>clock</c> from <c>UTC</c> to <c>local</c>.
97 dertobi123 1.12 </p>
98 antifa 1.4
99     <pre caption="local vs. GMT clock">
100 neysx 1.20 <comment>(recommended:)</comment>
101 swift 1.63 clock="UTC"
102 neysx 1.20 <comment>(or:)</comment>
103 swift 1.63 clock="local"
104 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
105 dertobi123 1.12
106     </body>
107 drobbins 1.1 </section>
108     </chapter>
109    
110     <chapter>
111 swift 1.18 <title>Locale system</title>
112 drobbins 1.1 <section>
113 swift 1.18 <title>What are locales?</title>
114 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
115    
116     <p>
117 neysx 1.48 A Locale is a set of information that most programs use for determining country
118     and language specific settings. The locales and their data are part of the
119     system library and can be found at <path>/usr/share/locale</path> on most
120     systems. A locale name is generally named <c>ab_CD</c> where <c>ab</c> is your
121     two (or three) letter language code (as specified in ISO-639) and <c>CD</c> is
122     your two letter country code (as specified in ISO-3166). Variants are often
123 nightmorph 1.55 appended to locale names, e.g. <c>en_GB.UTF-8</c> or <c>de_DE@euro</c>. Please
124 neysx 1.48 explore <uri link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Locale">Wikipedia</uri> to read
125     more about locales and related articles.
126 swift 1.18 </p>
127    
128     </body>
129     </section>
130 flammie 1.32 <section id="variables">
131 swift 1.18 <title>Environment variables for locales</title>
132     <body>
133    
134     <p>
135     Locale settings are stored in environment variables. These are typically
136     set in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> (for system-wide
137     settings) and <path>~/.bashrc</path> (for user-specific settings) file.
138     The variables controlling different aspects of locale settings
139 jkt 1.50 are given in the table below. All of them
140 swift 1.18 take one name of a locale in <c>ab_CD</c> format given above.
141     </p>
142    
143     <table>
144     <tr>
145     <th>Variable name</th>
146     <th>Explanation</th>
147     </tr>
148     <tr>
149 jkt 1.49 <ti>LANG</ti>
150 swift 1.18 <ti>
151 jkt 1.49 Defines all locale settings at once, while allowing further individual
152     customization via the LC_* settings below.
153 swift 1.18 </ti>
154     </tr>
155     <tr>
156     <ti>LC_COLLATE</ti>
157     <ti>
158 flammie 1.42 Define alphabetical ordering of strings. This affects e.g. output of sorted
159 swift 1.23 directory listing.
160 swift 1.18 </ti>
161     </tr>
162     <tr>
163     <ti>LC_CTYPE</ti>
164     <ti>
165     Define the character handling properties for the system. This determines
166     which characters are seen as part of alphabet, numeric and so on. This also
167     determines the character set used, if applicable.
168     </ti>
169     </tr>
170     <tr>
171     <ti>LC_MESSAGES</ti>
172     <ti>
173     Programs' localizations for applications that use message based localization
174     scheme (majority of Gnu programs, see next chapters for closer information
175     which do, and how to get the programs, that don't, to work).
176     </ti>
177     </tr>
178     <tr>
179     <ti>LC_MONETARY</ti>
180     <ti>Defines currency units and formatting of currency type numeric values.</ti>
181     </tr>
182     <tr>
183     <ti>LC_NUMERIC</ti>
184     <ti>
185     Defines formatting of numeric values which aren't monetary. Affects things
186     such as thousand separator and decimal separator.
187     </ti>
188     </tr>
189     <tr>
190     <ti>LC_TIME</ti>
191     <ti>Defines formatting of dates and times.</ti>
192     </tr>
193     <tr>
194     <ti>LC_PAPER</ti>
195     <ti>Defines default paper size.</ti>
196     </tr>
197     <tr>
198 jkt 1.49 <ti>LC_ALL</ti>
199 swift 1.18 <ti>
200 jkt 1.49 A special variable for overriding all other settings.
201 swift 1.18 </ti>
202     </tr>
203     </table>
204    
205 swift 1.25 <note>
206 jkt 1.49 Some programs are written in such a way that they expect traditional English
207     ordering of the alphabet, while some locales, most notably the Estonian one, use
208     a different ordering. Therefore it's recommended to explicitly set LC_COLLATE to C
209     when dealing with system-wide settings.
210 swift 1.25 </note>
211    
212 jkt 1.49 <warn>
213 nightmorph 1.54 Using LC_ALL is strongly discouraged as it can't be overridden later on. Please
214 nightmorph 1.55 use it only when testing and <e>never</e> set it in a startup file.
215 jkt 1.49 </warn>
216    
217 swift 1.18 <p>
218 nightmorph 1.55 Most typically users only set the LANG variable on the global basis. This
219     example is for a unicode German locale:
220 dertobi123 1.12 </p>
221    
222 jkt 1.49 <pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
223 nightmorph 1.56 LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
224 jkt 1.49 LC_COLLATE="C"
225 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
226 dertobi123 1.12
227     <note>
228 nightmorph 1.57 Use <c>de_DE@euro</c> as your LANG if you want to use the Euro currency symbol
229 swift 1.63 (€) on non UTF-8 based locales.
230 dertobi123 1.12 </note>
231    
232 swift 1.18 <p>
233 swift 1.66 A list of locales that can be used is provided as
234     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/desc/linguas.desc</path>:
235     </p>
236    
237     <pre caption="Getting usable locales for the French language">
238     $ <i>grep -i french /usr/portage/profiles/desc/linguas.desc</i>
239     fr - French locale
240     fr_CA - French locale for Canada
241     fr_FR - French locale for France
242     </pre>
243    
244     <p>
245 jkt 1.49 It's also possible, and pretty common especially in a more traditional UNIX
246     environment, to leave the global settings unchanged, i.e. in the "<c>C</c>"
247     locale. Users can still specify their preferred locale in their own shell RC
248     file:
249 neysx 1.39 </p>
250    
251 jkt 1.49 <pre caption="Setting the user locale in ~/.bashrc">
252 nightmorph 1.56 export LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
253 jkt 1.49 export LC_COLLATE="C"
254     </pre>
255    
256     <p>
257     Another way of configuring system is to leave it in the default C locale, but
258     enable UTF-8 character representation at the same time. This option is achieved
259     using the following settings in <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path>:
260     </p>
261    
262     <pre caption="Using traditional C locale while specifying UTF-8">
263 nightmorph 1.56 LC_CTYPE=de_DE.UTF-8
264 neysx 1.39 </pre>
265    
266     <p>
267 jkt 1.49 Using the above snippet, users will be able to see localized file names
268     properly, while not being forced to your preferred language.
269 neysx 1.39 </p>
270    
271     <p>
272 swift 1.18 For message based localization to work in programs that support it, you will
273     probably need to have programs compiled with the <c>nls</c> (Native language
274     support) USE flag set. Most of the programs using nls also need the gettext
275 neysx 1.39 library to extract and use localized messages. Of course, Portage will
276 swift 1.18 automatically install it when needed.
277     </p>
278    
279 flammie 1.32 <p>
280 rane 1.35 Once you have set the right locale, be sure to update your environment
281     variables to make your system aware of the change:
282     </p>
283    
284     <pre caption="Update the environment">
285 neysx 1.39 <comment>(For system-wide default locale:)</comment>
286 rane 1.35 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
287 neysx 1.39
288 jkt 1.40 <comment>(For user-specific locale:)</comment>
289 neysx 1.39 $ <i>source ~/.bashrc</i>
290 rane 1.35 </pre>
291    
292     <p>
293     After this, you will need to kill your X server by pressing
294     <c>Ctrl-Alt-Backspace</c>, log out, then log in as user.
295     </p>
296    
297     <p>
298     Now, verify that the changes have taken effect:
299     </p>
300    
301     <pre caption="Verify env changes">
302 jkt 1.49 $ <i>locale</i>
303 rane 1.35 </pre>
304    
305     <p>
306 flammie 1.32 There is also additional localisation variable called LINGUAS, which affects
307     to localisation files that get installed in gettext-based programs, and decides
308     used localisation for some specific software packages, such as
309 nightmorph 1.67 <c>kde-base/kde-l10n</c> and <c>app-office/libreofficeoffice</c>. The variable
310 flammie 1.32 takes in <e>space</e>-separated list of language codes, and suggested
311 swift 1.65 place to set it is <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path>:
312 flammie 1.32 </p>
313    
314 neysx 1.39 <pre caption="Setting LINGUAS in make.conf">
315 swift 1.65 # <i>nano -w /etc/portage/make.conf</i>
316 flammie 1.32 <comment>(Add in the LINGUAS variable. For instance,
317     for German, Finnish and English:)</comment>
318     LINGUAS="de fi en"
319     </pre>
320    
321    
322 dertobi123 1.12 </body>
323 drobbins 1.1 </section>
324 swift 1.14 <section>
325     <title>Generating Specific Locales</title>
326     <body>
327    
328     <p>
329 rane 1.43 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
330     specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
331 dertobi123 1.15 </p>
332    
333 rane 1.43 <pre caption="Adding locales to /etc/locale.gen">
334     en_GB ISO-8859-1
335     en_GB.UTF-8 UTF-8
336     de_DE ISO-8859-1
337 nightmorph 1.58 de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
338 dertobi123 1.15 </pre>
339    
340     <p>
341 rane 1.43 The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
342     have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
343 dertobi123 1.15 </p>
344    
345 rane 1.43 <note>
346     <c>locale-gen</c> is available in <c>glibc-2.3.6-r4</c> and newer. If you have
347     an older version of glibc, you should update it now.
348     </note>
349 dertobi123 1.15
350 nightmorph 1.44 <p>
351     You can verify that your selected locales are available by running <c>locale
352     -a</c>.
353     </p>
354    
355 dertobi123 1.15 </body>
356     </section>
357 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
358    
359     <chapter>
360 antifa 1.4 <title>Keyboard layout for the console</title>
361 drobbins 1.1 <section>
362 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
363    
364     <p>
365     The keyboard layout used by the console is set in
366 swift 1.63 <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> by the <c>keymap</c> variable.
367 dertobi123 1.12 Valid values can be found in
368 cam 1.13 <path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>.
369 dertobi123 1.12 <path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout
370     (<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
371     languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
372     to decide which one fits your needs best.
373     </p>
374    
375 neysx 1.39 <pre caption="Setting the console keymap">
376 swift 1.63 keymap="de"
377     keymap="de-latin1"
378     keymap="de-latin1-nodeadkeys"
379 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
380 dertobi123 1.12
381     </body>
382 drobbins 1.1 </section>
383     </chapter>
384    
385     <chapter>
386 antifa 1.4 <title>Keyboard layout for the X server</title>
387 drobbins 1.1 <section>
388 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
389    
390     <p>
391     The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
392 alin 1.21 in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c>
393 dertobi123 1.12 option.
394     </p>
395    
396 neysx 1.39 <pre caption="Setting the X keymap">
397 swift 1.63 Section "InputClass"
398     Identifier "keyboard-all"
399     Driver "evdev"
400     Option "XkbLayout" "de"
401     #Option "XkbModel" "pc105"
402     MatchIsKeyboard "on"
403     EndSection
404 rane 1.35 </pre>
405    
406     <p>
407     If you have an international keyboard layout, you should set the option
408     <c>XkbModel</c> to <c>pc102</c> or <c>pc105</c>, as this will allow mapping of the
409     additional keys specific to your keyboard.
410     </p>
411    
412     <p>
413     Deadkeys allow you to press keys that will not show immediately but will be
414     combined with another letter to produce a single character such as é,è,á,à,
415     etc. Setting <c>XkbVariant</c> to <c>nodeadkeys</c> allows input these special
416     characters into X terminals.
417     </p>
418    
419     <p>
420     If you would like to switch between more than one keyboard layout (for example
421     English and Russian), all you have to do is add a few lines to
422     <path>xorg.conf</path> that specify the desired layouts and the shortcut
423     command.
424     </p>
425    
426     <pre caption="Switching between two keyboard layouts">
427 swift 1.63 Section "InputClass"
428     Identifier "keyboard-all"
429     Driver "evdev"
430     Option "XkbLayout" "us,ru"
431     Option "XkbOptions" "grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp_led:scroll"
432     MatchIsKeyboard "on"
433     EndSection
434 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
435 dertobi123 1.12
436 rane 1.35 <p>
437     Here, <c>XkbOptions</c> allows you to toggle between keyboard layouts by simply
438     pressing <c>Alt-Shift</c>. This will also toggle the Scroll Lock light on or
439     off, thanks to the <c>grp_led:scroll</c> option. This is a handy visual
440     indicator of which keyboard layout you are using at the moment.
441     </p>
442    
443 dertobi123 1.12 </body>
444 drobbins 1.1 </section>
445     </chapter>
446    
447     <chapter>
448 dertobi123 1.11 <title>KDE</title>
449     <section>
450     <body>
451    
452     <p>
453 nightmorph 1.60 For KDE you have to install the <c>kde-base/kde-l10n</c> and
454 nightmorph 1.64 <c>app-office/calligra-l10n</c> packages. These respect the <uri
455 nightmorph 1.59 link="#variables">LINGUAS variable</uri> described earlier.
456 swift 1.22 </p>
457 dertobi123 1.11
458     </body>
459     </section>
460     </chapter>
461    
462     <chapter>
463 antifa 1.4 <title>The Euro Symbol for the Console</title>
464 drobbins 1.1 <section>
465 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
466    
467     <p>
468 nightmorph 1.55 In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you will need to set
469 swift 1.63 <c>consolefont</c> in <path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> to a file found in
470 nightmorph 1.55 <path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the <c>.psfu.gz</c>).
471     <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol.
472 dertobi123 1.12 </p>
473    
474 neysx 1.39 <pre caption="Setting the console font">
475 swift 1.63 consolefont="lat9w-16"
476 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
477 dertobi123 1.12
478 rane 1.35 <p>
479 swift 1.63 You should verify that <c>consolefont</c> is in the boot runlevel:
480 rane 1.35 </p>
481    
482     <pre caption="Verify the proper runlevel">
483 swift 1.63 # <i>rc-update -v show | grep consolefont</i>
484 rane 1.35 </pre>
485    
486     <p>
487 swift 1.63 If no runlevel is displayed for <c>consolefont</c>, then add it to the proper level:
488 rane 1.35 </p>
489    
490     <pre caption="Add consolefont to boot">
491     # <i>rc-update add consolefont boot</i>
492     </pre>
493    
494 dertobi123 1.12 </body>
495 drobbins 1.1 </section>
496     </chapter>
497    
498     <chapter>
499 dertobi123 1.12 <title>The Euro Symbol in X</title>
500 drobbins 1.1 <section>
501 dertobi123 1.12 <title>Most Applications</title>
502     <body>
503    
504     <p>
505 nightmorph 1.45 Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little bit tougher. The
506     first thing you should do is change the <c>fixed</c> and <c>variable</c>
507     definitions in <path>/usr/share/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end in
508     <c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>.
509 dertobi123 1.12 </p>
510    
511 neysx 1.39 <pre caption="Setting default X fonts">
512 dertobi123 1.12 fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15
513     variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
514 antifa 1.4 </pre>
515 dertobi123 1.12
516     <p>
517 nightmorph 1.45 Some applications use their own font, and you will have to tell them separately
518     to use a font with the Euro symbol. You can do this at a user-specific level in
519     <path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to <path>/etc/skel/</path> for
520     use by new users), or at a global level for any application with a resource file
521     in <path>/usr/share/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In these files you
522     generally have to change an existing line, rather than adding a new one. To
523     change our xterm font, for instance:
524 dertobi123 1.12 </p>
525    
526 neysx 1.39 <pre caption="Setting fonts for xterm">
527 neysx 1.20 <comment>(in your home directory)</comment>
528 nightmorph 1.38 $ <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
529     $ <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
530 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
531 dertobi123 1.12
532     </body>
533 drobbins 1.1 </section>
534 dertobi123 1.12 <section>
535     <title>The Euro symbol in (X)Emacs</title>
536     <body>
537    
538     <p>
539     To use the Euro symbol in (X)Emacs, add the following to
540     <path>.Xdefaults</path>:
541     </p>
542 drobbins 1.1
543 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the font for emacs">
544 dertobi123 1.12 Emacs.default.attributeFont: -*-courier-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
545 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
546 dertobi123 1.12
547     <p>
548     For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little
549     more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add:
550     </p>
551    
552 antifa 1.4 <pre caption="setting the font for xemacs">
553 neysx 1.39 (define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[€])
554 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
555 dertobi123 1.12
556     <note>
557     The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol.
558     </note>
559    
560     </body>
561     </section>
562     <section>
563 nightmorph 1.67 <title>LibreOffice</title>
564 dertobi123 1.12 <body>
565    
566     <p>
567 nightmorph 1.67 The current stable <c>app-office/libreoffice</c> and
568     <c>app-office/libreoffice-bin</c> ebuilds support the <uri
569 nightmorph 1.36 link="#variables">LINGUAS variable</uri> for selecting installed GUI language
570     packs. To see the status of GUI translation, hyphenation, spell checking and
571     other localisations on your language, please refer to <uri
572 nightmorph 1.67 link="https://translations.documentfoundation.org/">LibreOffice translation web
573     site</uri>.
574 dertobi123 1.12 </p>
575    
576     </body>
577 bennyc 1.8 </section>
578 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
579    
580     </guide>

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