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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.9 2003/11/15 00:35:19 neysx Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
7 <author title="Author"><mail link="holler@ahsoftware.de">
8 Alexander Holler</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Translator/Editor"><mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">
11 Steven Lucy</mail>
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
15 </author>
16 <abstract>
17 This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
18 European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
19 the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the Euro currency symbol.
20 </abstract>
21
22 <chapter>
23 <title>Timezone</title>
24 <section>
25 <body>
26 <p>In order to keep time properly,
27 <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to the correct time zone
28 data file. Look around in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path>
29 and pick your timezone or a near-by big city.
30 <pre caption="setting the timezone">
31 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i>
32 # <i>date</i>
33 Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003
34 </pre>
35 <note>Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET")
36 is correct for your area.</note>
37 <note>You can set the value of <i>TZ</i> to be everything after the
38 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path> in your shell rc file
39 (<path>.bash_profile</path> for bash) for a user-level setting. In this case
40 <i>TZ="Europe/Berlin"</i>.</note>
41 </p>
42 </body>
43 </section>
44 </chapter>
45
46 <chapter>
47 <title>System Clock</title>
48 <section>
49 <body>
50 <p>
51 In most Gentoo Linux installations, your system clock is set to
52 UTC (or GMT, Greenwhich Mean Time) and then your timezone is
53 taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If,
54 for some reason, you need your system clock not to be in UTC,
55 you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the
56 value of <i>CLOCK</i>.
57
58 <pre caption="local vs. GMT clock">
59 <codenote>recommended:</codenote>
60 CLOCK="UTC"
61 <codenote>or:</codenote>
62 CLOCK="local"
63 </pre>
64 </p>
65 </body>
66 </section>
67 </chapter>
68
69 <chapter>
70 <title>POSIX Locale</title>
71 <section>
72 <body>
73 <p>
74 The next step is to set the <i>LANG</i> shell variable, which
75 is used by your shell and window manager (and some other
76 applications). Valid values can be found in
77 <path>/usr/share/locale</path> and generally take the form
78 <i>ab_CD</i>, where <i>ab</i> is your two letter language code
79 and <i>CD</i> is your two letter country code. The <i>_CD</i>
80 is left off if your language is only (or primarily) spoken in
81 one country. <i>LANG</i> can be set in
82 <path>/etc/profile</path> if you want it to take effect
83 system-wide, or in <path>~/.bashrc</path> as a user-specific
84 setting.
85 <pre caption="setting the POSIX locale">
86 export LANG="de_DE@euro"
87 </pre>
88 <note>Appended <i>@euro</i> to your locale if you want to use the new Euro
89 currency symbol (&#8364;)</note>
90 </p>
91 </body>
92 </section>
93 </chapter>
94
95 <chapter>
96 <title>Keyboard layout for the console</title>
97 <section>
98 <body>
99 <p>
100 The keyboard layout used by the console is set in
101 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> by the <i>KEYMAP</i> variable.
102 Valid values can be found in
103 <path>/usr/share/keymaps/<i>{arch}</i>/</path>.
104 <path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout
105 (<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
106 languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
107 to decide which one fits your needs best.
108 <pre caption="setting the console keymap">
109 KEYMAP="de"
110 KEYMAP="de-latin1"
111 KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys"
112 </pre>
113 </p>
114 </body>
115 </section>
116 </chapter>
117
118 <chapter>
119 <title>Keyboard layout for the X server</title>
120 <section>
121 <body>
122 <p>The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
123 in <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> by the <i>XkbLayout</i>
124 option.
125 <pre caption="setting the X keymap">
126 Section "InputDevice"
127 Identifier "Keyboard1"
128 ...
129 Option "XkbLayout" "de"
130 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys"
131 ...
132 </pre>
133 </p>
134 </body>
135 </section>
136 </chapter>
137
138 <chapter>
139 <title>The Euro Symbol for the Console</title>
140 <section>
141 <body>
142 <p>
143 In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you
144 will need to set <i>CONSOLEFONT</i> in
145 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in
146 <path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the
147 <c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat0-16</c> has the Euro symbol.
148 <pre caption="setting the console font">
149 CONSOLEFONT="lat0-16"
150 </pre>
151 </p>
152 </body>
153 </section>
154 </chapter>
155
156 <chapter>
157 <title>The Euro Symbol in X</title>
158 <section>
159 <title>Most Applications</title>
160 <body>
161 <p>Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little
162 bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <i>
163 fixed</i> and <i>variable</i> definitions in
164 <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end
165 in <i>iso8859-15</i> instead of <i>iso8859-1</i>.
166 <pre caption="setting default X fonts">
167 fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15
168 variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
169 </pre>
170 </p>
171 <p>Some applications use their own font, and you will have to
172 tell them separately to use a font with the Euro symbol. You
173 can do this at a user-specific level in
174 <path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to
175 <path>/etc/skel/</path> for use by new users), or at a global
176 level for any application with a resource file in
177 <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In
178 these files you generally have to change an existing line,
179 rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for
180 instance:
181 <pre caption="setting fonts for xterm">
182 <codenote>(in your home directory)</codenote>
183 $ <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
184 $ <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
185 </pre>
186 </p>
187 </body>
188 </section>
189
190 <section>
191 <title>The Euro symbol in (X)Emacs</title>
192 <body>
193 <p>To use the Euro symbol in (X)Emacs, add the following to
194 <path>.Xdefaults</path>:
195 <pre caption="setting the font for emacs">
196 Emacs.default.attributeFont: -*-courier-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
197 </pre>
198 </p><p>For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little
199 more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add:
200 <pre caption="setting the font for xemacs">
201 (define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[&#8364;])
202 </pre>
203 <note>The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol.</note>
204 </p>
205 </body>
206 </section>
207 <section>
208 <title>Language for OpenOffice</title>
209 <body>
210 <note>
211 Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The
212 default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS.
213 </note>
214 <p>
215 The default language for OpenOffice is set as "ENUS"(01). If you wish to
216 change the default language for OpenOffice, check the ebuild for the
217 default language code.
218 </p>
219 <pre caption="emerge openoffice with desired default language">
220 # <i>LANGUAGE="01" emerge openoffice</i>
221 <comment>01 is the ENUS language code for openoffice</comment>
222 </pre>
223 </body>
224 </section>
225 </chapter>
226
227 <version>1.8</version>
228 <date>October 25, 2003</date>
229 </guide>

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