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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.10 2003/11/21 18:33:33 aaby Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
7 <author title="Author"><mail link="holler@gentoo.de">
8 Alexander Holler</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Translator/Editor"><mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">
11 Steven Lucy</mail>
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail>
18 </author>
19 <abstract>
20 This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
21 European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
22 the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the Euro currency symbol.
23 </abstract>
24
25 <chapter>
26 <title>Timezone</title>
27 <section>
28 <body>
29 <p>In order to keep time properly,
30 <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to the correct time zone
31 data file. Look around in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path>
32 and pick your timezone or a near-by big city.
33 <pre caption="setting the timezone">
34 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i>
35 # <i>date</i>
36 Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003
37 </pre>
38 <note>Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET")
39 is correct for your area.</note>
40 <note>You can set the value of <i>TZ</i> to be everything after the
41 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path> in your shell rc file
42 (<path>.bash_profile</path> for bash) for a user-level setting. In this case
43 <i>TZ="Europe/Berlin"</i>.</note>
44 </p>
45 </body>
46 </section>
47 </chapter>
48
49 <chapter>
50 <title>System Clock</title>
51 <section>
52 <body>
53 <p>
54 In most Gentoo Linux installations, your system clock is set to
55 UTC (or GMT, Greenwhich Mean Time) and then your timezone is
56 taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If,
57 for some reason, you need your system clock not to be in UTC,
58 you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the
59 value of <i>CLOCK</i>.
60
61 <pre caption="local vs. GMT clock">
62 <codenote>recommended:</codenote>
63 CLOCK="UTC"
64 <codenote>or:</codenote>
65 CLOCK="local"
66 </pre>
67 </p>
68 </body>
69 </section>
70 </chapter>
71
72 <chapter>
73 <title>POSIX Locale</title>
74 <section>
75 <body>
76 <p>
77 The next step is to set the <i>LANG</i> shell variable, which
78 is used by your shell and window manager (and some other
79 applications). Valid values can be found in
80 <path>/usr/share/locale</path> and generally take the form
81 <i>ab_CD</i>, where <i>ab</i> is your two letter language code
82 and <i>CD</i> is your two letter country code. The <i>_CD</i>
83 is left off if your language is only (or primarily) spoken in
84 one country. <i>LANG</i> can be set in
85 <path>/etc/profile</path> if you want it to take effect
86 system-wide, or in <path>~/.bashrc</path> as a user-specific
87 setting.
88 <pre caption="setting the POSIX locale">
89 export LANG="de_DE@euro"
90 </pre>
91 <note>Appended <i>@euro</i> to your locale if you want to use the new Euro
92 currency symbol (&#8364;)</note>
93 </p>
94 </body>
95 </section>
96 </chapter>
97
98 <chapter>
99 <title>Keyboard layout for the console</title>
100 <section>
101 <body>
102 <p>
103 The keyboard layout used by the console is set in
104 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> by the <i>KEYMAP</i> variable.
105 Valid values can be found in
106 <path>/usr/share/keymaps/<i>{arch}</i>/</path>.
107 <path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout
108 (<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
109 languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
110 to decide which one fits your needs best.
111 <pre caption="setting the console keymap">
112 KEYMAP="de"
113 KEYMAP="de-latin1"
114 KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys"
115 </pre>
116 </p>
117 </body>
118 </section>
119 </chapter>
120
121 <chapter>
122 <title>Keyboard layout for the X server</title>
123 <section>
124 <body>
125 <p>The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
126 in <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> by the <i>XkbLayout</i>
127 option.
128 <pre caption="setting the X keymap">
129 Section "InputDevice"
130 Identifier "Keyboard1"
131 ...
132 Option "XkbLayout" "de"
133 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys"
134 ...
135 </pre>
136 </p>
137 </body>
138 </section>
139 </chapter>
140
141 <chapter>
142 <title>KDE</title>
143 <section>
144 <body>
145
146 <p>
147 For KDE you have to install the kde-i18n package with the appropriate
148 LINGUAS environment variable set:</p>
149
150 <pre caption="Install localized KDE">
151 # <i>LINGUAS="de" emerge kde-i18n</i>
152 </pre>
153
154 </body>
155 </section>
156 </chapter>
157
158 <chapter>
159 <title>The Euro Symbol for the Console</title>
160 <section>
161 <body>
162 <p>
163 In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you
164 will need to set <i>CONSOLEFONT</i> in
165 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in
166 <path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the
167 <c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol.
168 <pre caption="setting the console font">
169 CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16"
170 </pre>
171 </p>
172 </body>
173 </section>
174 </chapter>
175
176 <chapter>
177 <title>The Euro Symbol in X</title>
178 <section>
179 <title>Most Applications</title>
180 <body>
181 <p>Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little
182 bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <i>
183 fixed</i> and <i>variable</i> definitions in
184 <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end
185 in <i>iso8859-15</i> instead of <i>iso8859-1</i>.
186 <pre caption="setting default X fonts">
187 fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15
188 variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
189 </pre>
190 </p>
191 <p>Some applications use their own font, and you will have to
192 tell them separately to use a font with the Euro symbol. You
193 can do this at a user-specific level in
194 <path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to
195 <path>/etc/skel/</path> for use by new users), or at a global
196 level for any application with a resource file in
197 <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In
198 these files you generally have to change an existing line,
199 rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for
200 instance:
201 <pre caption="setting fonts for xterm">
202 <codenote>(in your home directory)</codenote>
203 $ <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
204 $ <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
205 </pre>
206 </p>
207 </body>
208 </section>
209
210 <section>
211 <title>The Euro symbol in (X)Emacs</title>
212 <body>
213 <p>To use the Euro symbol in (X)Emacs, add the following to
214 <path>.Xdefaults</path>:
215 <pre caption="setting the font for emacs">
216 Emacs.default.attributeFont: -*-courier-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
217 </pre>
218 </p><p>For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little
219 more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add:
220 <pre caption="setting the font for xemacs">
221 (define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[&#8364;])
222 </pre>
223 <note>The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol.</note>
224 </p>
225 </body>
226 </section>
227 <section>
228 <title>Language for OpenOffice</title>
229 <body>
230 <note>
231 Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The
232 default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS.
233 </note>
234 <p>
235 The default language for OpenOffice is set as "ENUS"(01). If you wish to
236 change the default language for OpenOffice, check the ebuild for the
237 default language code.
238 </p>
239 <pre caption="emerge openoffice with desired default language">
240 # <i>LANGUAGE="01" emerge openoffice</i>
241 <comment>01 is the ENUS language code for openoffice</comment>
242 </pre>
243 </body>
244 </section>
245 </chapter>
246
247 <version>1.9</version>
248 <date>February 12, 2004</date>
249 </guide>

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