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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.11 2004/02/12 16:56:05 dertobi123 Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
7 <author title="Author">
8 <mail link="holler@gentoo.de">Alexander Holler</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Translator/Editor">
11 <mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">Steven Lucy</mail>
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail>
18 </author>
19
20 <abstract>
21 This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
22 European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
23 the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the Euro currency symbol.
24 </abstract>
25
26 <version>1.9</version>
27 <date>February 12, 2004</date>
28
29 <chapter>
30 <title>Timezone</title>
31 <section>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to
36 the correct time zone data file. Look around in
37 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path> and pick your timezone or a near-by big city.
38 </p>
39
40 <pre caption="setting the timezone">
41 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i>
42 # <i>date</i>
43 Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003
44 </pre>
45
46 <note>
47 Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET")
48 is correct for your area.
49 </note>
50
51 <note>
52 You can set the value of <i>TZ</i> to be everything after the
53 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path> in your shell rc file
54 (<path>.bash_profile</path> for bash) for a user-level setting. In this case
55 <i>TZ="Europe/Berlin"</i>.
56 </note>
57
58 </body>
59 </section>
60 </chapter>
61
62 <chapter>
63 <title>System Clock</title>
64 <section>
65 <body>
66
67 <p>
68 In most Gentoo Linux installations, your system clock is set to
69 UTC (or GMT, Greenwhich Mean Time) and then your timezone is
70 taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If,
71 for some reason, you need your system clock not to be in UTC,
72 you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the
73 value of <i>CLOCK</i>.
74 </p>
75
76 <pre caption="local vs. GMT clock">
77 <codenote>recommended:</codenote>
78 CLOCK="UTC"
79 <codenote>or:</codenote>
80 CLOCK="local"
81 </pre>
82
83 </body>
84 </section>
85 </chapter>
86
87 <chapter>
88 <title>POSIX Locale</title>
89 <section>
90 <body>
91
92 <p>
93 The next step is to set the <i>LANG</i> shell variable, which
94 is used by your shell and window manager (and some other
95 applications). Valid values can be found in
96 <path>/usr/share/locale</path> and generally take the form
97 <i>ab_CD</i>, where <i>ab</i> is your two letter language code
98 and <i>CD</i> is your two letter country code. The <i>_CD</i>
99 is left off if your language is only (or primarily) spoken in
100 one country. <i>LANG</i> can be set in
101 <path>/etc/profile</path> if you want it to take effect
102 system-wide, or in <path>~/.bashrc</path> as a user-specific
103 setting.
104 </p>
105
106 <pre caption="setting the POSIX locale">
107 export LANG="de_DE@euro"
108 </pre>
109
110 <note>
111 Appended <i>@euro</i> to your locale if you want to use the new Euro
112 currency symbol (&#8364;)
113 </note>
114
115 </body>
116 </section>
117 </chapter>
118
119 <chapter>
120 <title>Keyboard layout for the console</title>
121 <section>
122 <body>
123
124 <p>
125 The keyboard layout used by the console is set in
126 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> by the <i>KEYMAP</i> variable.
127 Valid values can be found in
128 <path>/usr/share/keymaps/<i>{arch}</i>/</path>.
129 <path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout
130 (<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
131 languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
132 to decide which one fits your needs best.
133 </p>
134
135 <pre caption="setting the console keymap">
136 KEYMAP="de"
137 KEYMAP="de-latin1"
138 KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys"
139 </pre>
140
141 </body>
142 </section>
143 </chapter>
144
145 <chapter>
146 <title>Keyboard layout for the X server</title>
147 <section>
148 <body>
149
150 <p>
151 The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
152 in <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> by the <i>XkbLayout</i>
153 option.
154 </p>
155
156 <pre caption="setting the X keymap">
157 Section "InputDevice"
158 Identifier "Keyboard1"
159 ...
160 Option "XkbLayout" "de"
161 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys"
162 ...
163 </pre>
164
165 </body>
166 </section>
167 </chapter>
168
169 <chapter>
170 <title>KDE</title>
171 <section>
172 <body>
173
174 <p>
175 For KDE you have to install the kde-i18n package with the appropriate
176 LINGUAS environment variable set:</p>
177
178 <pre caption="Install localized KDE">
179 # <i>LINGUAS="de" emerge kde-i18n</i>
180 </pre>
181
182 </body>
183 </section>
184 </chapter>
185
186 <chapter>
187 <title>The Euro Symbol for the Console</title>
188 <section>
189 <body>
190
191 <p>
192 In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you
193 will need to set <i>CONSOLEFONT</i> in
194 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in
195 <path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the
196 <c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol.
197 </p>
198
199 <pre caption="setting the console font">
200 CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16"
201 </pre>
202
203 </body>
204 </section>
205 </chapter>
206
207 <chapter>
208 <title>The Euro Symbol in X</title>
209 <section>
210 <title>Most Applications</title>
211 <body>
212
213 <p>
214 Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little
215 bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <i>
216 fixed</i> and <i>variable</i> definitions in
217 <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end
218 in <i>iso8859-15</i> instead of <i>iso8859-1</i>.
219 </p>
220
221 <pre caption="setting default X fonts">
222 fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15
223 variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
224 </pre>
225
226 <p>
227 Some applications use their own font, and you will have to
228 tell them separately to use a font with the Euro symbol. You
229 can do this at a user-specific level in
230 <path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to
231 <path>/etc/skel/</path> for use by new users), or at a global
232 level for any application with a resource file in
233 <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In
234 these files you generally have to change an existing line,
235 rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for
236 instance:
237 </p>
238
239 <pre caption="setting fonts for xterm">
240 <codenote>(in your home directory)</codenote>
241 # <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
242 # <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
243 </pre>
244
245 </body>
246 </section>
247 <section>
248 <title>The Euro symbol in (X)Emacs</title>
249 <body>
250
251 <p>
252 To use the Euro symbol in (X)Emacs, add the following to
253 <path>.Xdefaults</path>:
254 </p>
255
256 <pre caption="setting the font for emacs">
257 Emacs.default.attributeFont: -*-courier-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
258 </pre>
259
260 <p>
261 For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little
262 more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add:
263 </p>
264
265 <pre caption="setting the font for xemacs">
266 (define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[&#8364;])
267 </pre>
268
269 <note>
270 The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol.
271 </note>
272
273 </body>
274 </section>
275 <section>
276 <title>Language for OpenOffice</title>
277 <body>
278
279 <note>
280 Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The
281 default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS.
282 </note>
283
284 <p>
285 The default language for OpenOffice is set as "ENUS"(01). If you wish to
286 change the default language for OpenOffice, check the ebuild for the
287 default language code.
288 </p>
289
290 <pre caption="emerge openoffice with desired default language">
291 # <i>LANGUAGE="01" emerge openoffice</i>
292 <comment>01 is the ENUS language code for openoffice</comment>
293 </pre>
294
295 </body>
296 </section>
297 </chapter>
298
299 </guide>

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