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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.13 2004/04/11 10:52:16 cam Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
7 <author title="Author">
8 <mail link="holler@gentoo.de">Alexander Holler</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Translator/Editor">
11 <mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">Steven Lucy</mail>
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail>
18 </author>
19
20 <abstract>
21 This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
22 European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
23 the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the Euro currency symbol.
24 </abstract>
25
26 <version>1.10</version>
27 <date>April 11, 2004</date>
28
29 <chapter>
30 <title>Timezone</title>
31 <section>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to
36 the correct time zone data file. Look around in
37 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path> and pick your timezone or a near-by big city.
38 </p>
39
40 <pre caption="setting the timezone">
41 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i>
42 # <i>date</i>
43 Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003
44 </pre>
45
46 <note>
47 Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET")
48 is correct for your area.
49 </note>
50
51 <note>
52 You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the
53 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path> in your shell rc file
54 (<path>.bash_profile</path> for bash) for a user-level setting. In this case
55 <c>TZ="Europe/Berlin"</c>.
56 </note>
57
58 </body>
59 </section>
60 </chapter>
61
62 <chapter>
63 <title>System Clock</title>
64 <section>
65 <body>
66
67 <p>
68 In most Gentoo Linux installations, your system clock is set to
69 UTC (or GMT, Greenwhich Mean Time) and then your timezone is
70 taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If,
71 for some reason, you need your system clock not to be in UTC,
72 you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the
73 value of <c>CLOCK</c>.
74 </p>
75
76 <pre caption="local vs. GMT clock">
77 <codenote>recommended:</codenote>
78 CLOCK="UTC"
79 <codenote>or:</codenote>
80 CLOCK="local"
81 </pre>
82
83 </body>
84 </section>
85 </chapter>
86
87 <chapter>
88 <title>POSIX Locale</title>
89 <section>
90 <title>Using Existing Locales</title>
91 <body>
92
93 <p>
94 The next step is to set the <c>LANG</c> shell variable, which
95 is used by your shell and window manager (and some other
96 applications). Valid values can be found in
97 <path>/usr/share/locale</path> and generally take the form
98 <c>ab_CD</c>, where <c>ab</c> is your two letter language code
99 and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country code. The <c>_CD</c>
100 is left off if your language is only (or primarily) spoken in
101 one country. <c>LANG</c> can be set in
102 <path>/etc/profile</path> if you want it to take effect
103 system-wide, or in <path>~/.bashrc</path> as a user-specific
104 setting.
105 </p>
106
107 <pre caption="setting the POSIX locale">
108 export LANG="de_DE@euro"
109 </pre>
110
111 <note>
112 Appended <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the new Euro
113 currency symbol (&#8364;)
114 </note>
115
116 </body>
117 </section>
118 <section>
119 <title>Generating Specific Locales</title>
120 <body>
121
122 <p>
123 If you use a locale that isn't available by default, you should use
124 <c>localedef</c> to generate your locale. For instance:
125 </p>
126
127 <pre caption="Generating a locale using localedef">
128 # <i>localedef -c -i en_US -f ISO-8859-15 en_US.ISO-8859-15</i>
129 </pre>
130
131 <p>
132 After having generated the locale, you can export the LANG variable as you see
133 fit.
134 </p>
135
136 <pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable">
137 # <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i>
138 </pre>
139
140 </body>
141 </section>
142 </chapter>
143
144 <chapter>
145 <title>Keyboard layout for the console</title>
146 <section>
147 <body>
148
149 <p>
150 The keyboard layout used by the console is set in
151 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> by the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable.
152 Valid values can be found in
153 <path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>.
154 <path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout
155 (<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
156 languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
157 to decide which one fits your needs best.
158 </p>
159
160 <pre caption="setting the console keymap">
161 KEYMAP="de"
162 KEYMAP="de-latin1"
163 KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys"
164 </pre>
165
166 </body>
167 </section>
168 </chapter>
169
170 <chapter>
171 <title>Keyboard layout for the X server</title>
172 <section>
173 <body>
174
175 <p>
176 The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
177 in <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c>
178 option.
179 </p>
180
181 <pre caption="setting the X keymap">
182 Section "InputDevice"
183 Identifier "Keyboard1"
184 ...
185 Option "XkbLayout" "de"
186 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys"
187 ...
188 </pre>
189
190 </body>
191 </section>
192 </chapter>
193
194 <chapter>
195 <title>KDE</title>
196 <section>
197 <body>
198
199 <p>
200 For KDE you have to install the kde-i18n package with the appropriate
201 LINGUAS environment variable set:</p>
202
203 <pre caption="Install localized KDE">
204 # <i>LINGUAS="de" emerge kde-i18n</i>
205 </pre>
206
207 </body>
208 </section>
209 </chapter>
210
211 <chapter>
212 <title>The Euro Symbol for the Console</title>
213 <section>
214 <body>
215
216 <p>
217 In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you
218 will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in
219 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in
220 <path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the
221 <c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol.
222 </p>
223
224 <pre caption="setting the console font">
225 CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16"
226 </pre>
227
228 </body>
229 </section>
230 </chapter>
231
232 <chapter>
233 <title>The Euro Symbol in X</title>
234 <section>
235 <title>Most Applications</title>
236 <body>
237
238 <p>
239 Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little
240 bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <c>fixed</c>
241 and <c>variable</c> definitions in
242 <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end
243 in <c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>.
244 </p>
245
246 <pre caption="setting default X fonts">
247 fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15
248 variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
249 </pre>
250
251 <p>
252 Some applications use their own font, and you will have to
253 tell them separately to use a font with the Euro symbol. You
254 can do this at a user-specific level in
255 <path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to
256 <path>/etc/skel/</path> for use by new users), or at a global
257 level for any application with a resource file in
258 <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In
259 these files you generally have to change an existing line,
260 rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for
261 instance:
262 </p>
263
264 <pre caption="setting fonts for xterm">
265 <codenote>(in your home directory)</codenote>
266 # <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
267 # <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
268 </pre>
269
270 </body>
271 </section>
272 <section>
273 <title>The Euro symbol in (X)Emacs</title>
274 <body>
275
276 <p>
277 To use the Euro symbol in (X)Emacs, add the following to
278 <path>.Xdefaults</path>:
279 </p>
280
281 <pre caption="setting the font for emacs">
282 Emacs.default.attributeFont: -*-courier-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
283 </pre>
284
285 <p>
286 For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little
287 more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add:
288 </p>
289
290 <pre caption="setting the font for xemacs">
291 (define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[&#8364;])
292 </pre>
293
294 <note>
295 The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol.
296 </note>
297
298 </body>
299 </section>
300 <section>
301 <title>Language for OpenOffice</title>
302 <body>
303
304 <note>
305 Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The
306 default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS.
307 </note>
308
309 <p>
310 The default language for OpenOffice is set as "ENUS"(01). If you wish to
311 change the default language for OpenOffice, check the ebuild for the
312 default language code.
313 </p>
314
315 <pre caption="emerge openoffice with desired default language">
316 # <i>LANGUAGE="01" emerge openoffice</i>
317 <comment>01 is the ENUS language code for openoffice</comment>
318 </pre>
319
320 </body>
321 </section>
322 </chapter>
323
324 </guide>

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