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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.16 2004/12/14 00:58:15 pylon Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
7 <author title="Author">
8 Alexander Holler
9 </author>
10 <author title="Translator/Editor">
11 <mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">Steven Lucy</mail>
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail>
21 </author>
22
23 <abstract>
24 This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
25 European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
26 the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the Euro currency symbol.
27 </abstract>
28
29 <version>1.12</version>
30 <date>November 1, 2004</date>
31
32 <chapter>
33 <title>Timezone</title>
34 <section>
35 <body>
36
37 <p>
38 In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to
39 the correct time zone data file. Look around in
40 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path> and pick your timezone or a near-by big city.
41 </p>
42
43 <pre caption="setting the timezone">
44 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i>
45 # <i>date</i>
46 Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003
47 </pre>
48
49 <note>
50 Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET")
51 is correct for your area.
52 </note>
53
54 <note>
55 You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the
56 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path> in your shell rc file
57 (<path>.bash_profile</path> for bash) for a user-level setting. In this case
58 <c>TZ="Europe/Berlin"</c>.
59 </note>
60
61 </body>
62 </section>
63 </chapter>
64
65 <chapter>
66 <title>System Clock</title>
67 <section>
68 <body>
69
70 <p>
71 In most Gentoo Linux installations, your system clock is set to
72 UTC (or GMT, Greenwhich Mean Time) and then your timezone is
73 taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If,
74 for some reason, you need your system clock not to be in UTC,
75 you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the
76 value of <c>CLOCK</c>.
77 </p>
78
79 <pre caption="local vs. GMT clock">
80 <codenote>recommended:</codenote>
81 CLOCK="UTC"
82 <codenote>or:</codenote>
83 CLOCK="local"
84 </pre>
85
86 </body>
87 </section>
88 </chapter>
89
90 <chapter>
91 <title>POSIX Locale</title>
92 <section>
93 <title>Using Existing Locales</title>
94 <body>
95
96 <p>
97 The next step is to set the <c>LANG</c> shell variable, which
98 is used by your shell and window manager (and some other
99 applications). Valid values can be found in
100 <path>/usr/share/locale</path> and generally take the form
101 <c>ab_CD</c>, where <c>ab</c> is your two letter language code
102 and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country code. The <c>_CD</c>
103 is left off if your language is only (or primarily) spoken in
104 one country. <c>LANG</c> can be set in
105 <path>/etc/profile</path> if you want it to take effect
106 system-wide, or in <path>~/.bashrc</path> as a user-specific
107 setting.
108 </p>
109
110 <pre caption="setting the POSIX locale">
111 export LANG="de_DE@euro"
112 </pre>
113
114 <note>
115 Appended <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the new Euro
116 currency symbol (&#8364;)
117 </note>
118
119 </body>
120 </section>
121 <section>
122 <title>Generating Specific Locales</title>
123 <body>
124
125 <p>
126 If you use a locale that isn't available by default, you should use
127 <c>localedef</c> to generate your locale. For instance:
128 </p>
129
130 <pre caption="Generating a locale using localedef">
131 # <i>localedef -c -i en_US -f ISO-8859-15 en_US.ISO-8859-15</i>
132 </pre>
133
134 <p>
135 After having generated the locale, you can export the LANG variable as you see
136 fit.
137 </p>
138
139 <pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable">
140 # <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i>
141 </pre>
142
143 </body>
144 </section>
145 <section>
146 <title>The userlocales USE flag</title>
147 <body>
148
149 <p>
150 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
151 after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales has been
152 created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag und specify
153 only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>.
154 </p>
155
156 <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
157 echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use
158 </pre>
159
160 <p>
161 Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
162 </p>
163
164 <pre caption="nano -w /etc/locales.build">
165 en_US/ISO-8859-1
166 en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
167 de_DE/ISO-8859-1
168 de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
169 </pre>
170
171 <p>
172 The next step is to re-compile <c>glibc</c>. Of course you can defer this until
173 the next <c>glibc</c> upgrade is available.
174 </p>
175
176 </body>
177 </section>
178 </chapter>
179
180 <chapter>
181 <title>Keyboard layout for the console</title>
182 <section>
183 <body>
184
185 <p>
186 The keyboard layout used by the console is set in
187 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> by the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable.
188 Valid values can be found in
189 <path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>.
190 <path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout
191 (<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
192 languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
193 to decide which one fits your needs best.
194 </p>
195
196 <pre caption="setting the console keymap">
197 KEYMAP="de"
198 KEYMAP="de-latin1"
199 KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys"
200 </pre>
201
202 </body>
203 </section>
204 </chapter>
205
206 <chapter>
207 <title>Keyboard layout for the X server</title>
208 <section>
209 <body>
210
211 <p>
212 The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
213 in <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c>
214 option.
215 </p>
216
217 <pre caption="setting the X keymap">
218 Section "InputDevice"
219 Identifier "Keyboard1"
220 ...
221 Option "XkbLayout" "de"
222 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys"
223 ...
224 </pre>
225
226 </body>
227 </section>
228 </chapter>
229
230 <chapter>
231 <title>KDE</title>
232 <section>
233 <body>
234
235 <p>
236 For KDE you have to install the kde-i18n package with the appropriate
237 LINGUAS environment variable set:</p>
238
239 <pre caption="Install localized KDE">
240 # <i>LINGUAS="de" emerge kde-i18n</i>
241 </pre>
242
243 </body>
244 </section>
245 </chapter>
246
247 <chapter>
248 <title>The Euro Symbol for the Console</title>
249 <section>
250 <body>
251
252 <p>
253 In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you
254 will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in
255 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in
256 <path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the
257 <c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol.
258 </p>
259
260 <pre caption="setting the console font">
261 CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16"
262 </pre>
263
264 </body>
265 </section>
266 </chapter>
267
268 <chapter>
269 <title>The Euro Symbol in X</title>
270 <section>
271 <title>Most Applications</title>
272 <body>
273
274 <p>
275 Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little
276 bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <c>fixed</c>
277 and <c>variable</c> definitions in
278 <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end
279 in <c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>.
280 </p>
281
282 <pre caption="setting default X fonts">
283 fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15
284 variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
285 </pre>
286
287 <p>
288 Some applications use their own font, and you will have to
289 tell them separately to use a font with the Euro symbol. You
290 can do this at a user-specific level in
291 <path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to
292 <path>/etc/skel/</path> for use by new users), or at a global
293 level for any application with a resource file in
294 <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In
295 these files you generally have to change an existing line,
296 rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for
297 instance:
298 </p>
299
300 <pre caption="setting fonts for xterm">
301 <codenote>(in your home directory)</codenote>
302 # <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
303 # <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
304 </pre>
305
306 </body>
307 </section>
308 <section>
309 <title>The Euro symbol in (X)Emacs</title>
310 <body>
311
312 <p>
313 To use the Euro symbol in (X)Emacs, add the following to
314 <path>.Xdefaults</path>:
315 </p>
316
317 <pre caption="setting the font for emacs">
318 Emacs.default.attributeFont: -*-courier-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
319 </pre>
320
321 <p>
322 For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little
323 more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add:
324 </p>
325
326 <pre caption="setting the font for xemacs">
327 (define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[&#8364;])
328 </pre>
329
330 <note>
331 The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol.
332 </note>
333
334 </body>
335 </section>
336 <section>
337 <title>Language for OpenOffice</title>
338 <body>
339
340 <note>
341 Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The
342 default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS.
343 </note>
344
345 <p>
346 The default language for OpenOffice is set as "ENUS"(01). If you wish to
347 change the default language for OpenOffice, check the ebuild for the
348 default language code.
349 </p>
350
351 <pre caption="emerge openoffice with desired default language">
352 # <i>LANGUAGE="01" emerge openoffice</i>
353 <comment>01 is the ENUS language code for openoffice</comment>
354 </pre>
355
356 </body>
357 </section>
358 </chapter>
359
360 </guide>

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