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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.18 2005/02/05 14:53:36 swift Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
7 <author title="Author">
8 Alexander Holler
9 </author>
10 <author title="Translator/Editor">
11 <mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">Steven Lucy</mail>
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="flammie@gentoo.org">Flammie Pirinen</mail>
24 </author>
25
26 <abstract>
27 This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
28 European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
29 the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the Euro currency symbol.
30 </abstract>
31
32 <version>1.13</version>
33 <date>2005-02-05</date>
34
35 <chapter>
36 <title>Timezone</title>
37 <section>
38 <body>
39
40 <p>
41 In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to
42 the correct time zone data file. Look around in
43 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path> and pick your timezone or a near-by big city.
44 </p>
45
46 <pre caption="setting the timezone">
47 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i>
48 # <i>date</i>
49 Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003
50 </pre>
51
52 <note>
53 Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET")
54 is correct for your area.
55 </note>
56
57 <note>
58 You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the
59 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path> in your shell rc file
60 (<path>.bash_profile</path> for bash) for a user-level setting. In this case
61 <c>TZ="Europe/Berlin"</c>.
62 </note>
63
64 </body>
65 </section>
66 </chapter>
67
68 <chapter>
69 <title>System Clock</title>
70 <section>
71 <body>
72
73 <p>
74 In most Gentoo Linux installations, your system clock is set to
75 UTC (or GMT, Greenwhich Mean Time) and then your timezone is
76 taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If,
77 for some reason, you need your system clock not to be in UTC,
78 you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the
79 value of <c>CLOCK</c>.
80 </p>
81
82 <pre caption="local vs. GMT clock">
83 <codenote>recommended:</codenote>
84 CLOCK="UTC"
85 <codenote>or:</codenote>
86 CLOCK="local"
87 </pre>
88
89 </body>
90 </section>
91 </chapter>
92
93 <chapter>
94 <title>Locale system</title>
95 <section>
96 <title>What are locales?</title>
97 <body>
98
99 <p>
100 A Locale is a set of information that most programs use for determining
101 country and language specific settings. The locales and their data
102 are part of the system library and can be found
103 at <path>/usr/share/locale</path> on most systems. A locale name is generally
104 named <c>ab_CD</c >where <c>ab</c> is your two (or three) letter
105 language code (as specified in ISO-639) and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country
106 code (as specified in ISO-3199).
107 </p>
108
109 </body>
110 </section>
111 <section>
112 <title>Environment variables for locales</title>
113 <body>
114
115 <p>
116 Locale settings are stored in environment variables. These are typically
117 set in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> (for system-wide
118 settings) and <path>~/.bashrc</path> (for user-specific settings) file.
119 The variables controlling different aspects of locale settings
120 are given in the table below, those with highest precedence (ie. those
121 that override settings below them) are at the top of the table. All variables
122 take one name of a locale in <c>ab_CD</c> format given above.
123 </p>
124
125 <table>
126 <tr>
127 <th>Variable name</th>
128 <th>Explanation</th>
129 </tr>
130 <tr>
131 <ti>LC_ALL</ti>
132 <ti>
133 Define all locale settings at once. This is the top level setting for
134 locales which will override any other setting.
135 </ti>
136 </tr>
137 <tr>
138 <ti>LC_COLLATE</ti>
139 <ti>
140 Define alphabetical ordering of strings. This affects eg. output of sorted
141 dir listing.
142 </ti>
143 </tr>
144 <tr>
145 <ti>LC_CTYPE</ti>
146 <ti>
147 Define the character handling properties for the system. This determines
148 which characters are seen as part of alphabet, numeric and so on. This also
149 determines the character set used, if applicable.
150 </ti>
151 </tr>
152 <tr>
153 <ti>LC_MESSAGES</ti>
154 <ti>
155 Programs' localizations for applications that use message based localization
156 scheme (majority of Gnu programs, see next chapters for closer information
157 which do, and how to get the programs, that don't, to work).
158 </ti>
159 </tr>
160 <tr>
161 <ti>LC_MONETARY</ti>
162 <ti>Defines currency units and formatting of currency type numeric values.</ti>
163 </tr>
164 <tr>
165 <ti>LC_NUMERIC</ti>
166 <ti>
167 Defines formatting of numeric values which aren't monetary. Affects things
168 such as thousand separator and decimal separator.
169 </ti>
170 </tr>
171 <tr>
172 <ti>LC_TIME</ti>
173 <ti>Defines formatting of dates and times.</ti>
174 </tr>
175 <tr>
176 <ti>LC_PAPER</ti>
177 <ti>Defines default paper size.</ti>
178 </tr>
179 <tr>
180 <ti>LANG</ti>
181 <ti>
182 Defines all locale settings at once. This setting can be overridden by
183 individual LC_* settings above or even by LC_ALL.
184 </ti>
185 </tr>
186 </table>
187
188 <p>
189 Most typically users only set the LANG variable and perhaps LC_CTYPE variable
190 on user level by adding definitions to shells startup files defining
191 the environment variable manually from command line:
192 </p>
193
194 <pre caption="setting the German locale">
195 export LANG="de_DE@euro"
196 </pre>
197
198 <note>
199 Append <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the Euro
200 currency symbol (&#8364;)
201 </note>
202
203 <p>
204 For message based localization to work in programs that support it, you will
205 probably need to have programs compiled with the <c>nls</c> (Native language
206 support) USE flag set. Most of the programs using nls also need the gettext
207 library to extract and use localized messages. Of course, Gentoo's Portage will
208 automatically install it when needed.
209 </p>
210
211 </body>
212 </section>
213 <section>
214 <title>Generating Specific Locales</title>
215 <body>
216
217 <p>
218 If you use a locale that isn't available by default, you should use
219 <c>localedef</c> to generate your locale. For instance:
220 </p>
221
222 <pre caption="Generating a locale using localedef">
223 # <i>localedef -c -i en_US -f ISO-8859-15 en_US.ISO-8859-15</i>
224 </pre>
225
226 <p>
227 After having generated the locale, you can export the LANG variable as you see
228 fit.
229 </p>
230
231 <pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable">
232 # <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i>
233 </pre>
234
235 </body>
236 </section>
237 <section>
238 <title>The userlocales USE flag</title>
239 <body>
240
241 <p>
242 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
243 after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales has been
244 created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag und specify
245 only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>.
246 </p>
247
248 <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
249 echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use
250 </pre>
251
252 <p>
253 Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
254 </p>
255
256 <pre caption="Adding locales to /etc/locales.build">
257 en_US/ISO-8859-1
258 en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
259 de_DE/ISO-8859-1
260 de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
261 </pre>
262
263 <p>
264 The next step is to re-compile <c>glibc</c>. Of course you can defer this until
265 the next <c>glibc</c> upgrade is available.
266 </p>
267
268 </body>
269 </section>
270 </chapter>
271
272 <chapter>
273 <title>Keyboard layout for the console</title>
274 <section>
275 <body>
276
277 <p>
278 The keyboard layout used by the console is set in
279 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> by the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable.
280 Valid values can be found in
281 <path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>.
282 <path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout
283 (<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
284 languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
285 to decide which one fits your needs best.
286 </p>
287
288 <pre caption="setting the console keymap">
289 KEYMAP="de"
290 KEYMAP="de-latin1"
291 KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys"
292 </pre>
293
294 </body>
295 </section>
296 </chapter>
297
298 <chapter>
299 <title>Keyboard layout for the X server</title>
300 <section>
301 <body>
302
303 <p>
304 The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
305 in <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c>
306 option.
307 </p>
308
309 <pre caption="setting the X keymap">
310 Section "InputDevice"
311 Identifier "Keyboard1"
312 ...
313 Option "XkbLayout" "de"
314 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys"
315 ...
316 </pre>
317
318 </body>
319 </section>
320 </chapter>
321
322 <chapter>
323 <title>KDE</title>
324 <section>
325 <body>
326
327 <p>
328 For KDE you have to install the kde-i18n package with the appropriate
329 LINGUAS environment variable set:</p>
330
331 <pre caption="Install localized KDE">
332 # <i>LINGUAS="de" emerge kde-i18n</i>
333 </pre>
334
335 </body>
336 </section>
337 </chapter>
338
339 <chapter>
340 <title>The Euro Symbol for the Console</title>
341 <section>
342 <body>
343
344 <p>
345 In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you
346 will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in
347 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in
348 <path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the
349 <c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol.
350 </p>
351
352 <pre caption="setting the console font">
353 CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16"
354 </pre>
355
356 </body>
357 </section>
358 </chapter>
359
360 <chapter>
361 <title>The Euro Symbol in X</title>
362 <section>
363 <title>Most Applications</title>
364 <body>
365
366 <p>
367 Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little
368 bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <c>fixed</c>
369 and <c>variable</c> definitions in
370 <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end
371 in <c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>.
372 </p>
373
374 <pre caption="setting default X fonts">
375 fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15
376 variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
377 </pre>
378
379 <p>
380 Some applications use their own font, and you will have to
381 tell them separately to use a font with the Euro symbol. You
382 can do this at a user-specific level in
383 <path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to
384 <path>/etc/skel/</path> for use by new users), or at a global
385 level for any application with a resource file in
386 <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In
387 these files you generally have to change an existing line,
388 rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for
389 instance:
390 </p>
391
392 <pre caption="setting fonts for xterm">
393 <codenote>(in your home directory)</codenote>
394 # <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
395 # <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
396 </pre>
397
398 </body>
399 </section>
400 <section>
401 <title>The Euro symbol in (X)Emacs</title>
402 <body>
403
404 <p>
405 To use the Euro symbol in (X)Emacs, add the following to
406 <path>.Xdefaults</path>:
407 </p>
408
409 <pre caption="setting the font for emacs">
410 Emacs.default.attributeFont: -*-courier-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
411 </pre>
412
413 <p>
414 For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little
415 more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add:
416 </p>
417
418 <pre caption="setting the font for xemacs">
419 (define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[&#8364;])
420 </pre>
421
422 <note>
423 The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol.
424 </note>
425
426 </body>
427 </section>
428 <section>
429 <title>Language for OpenOffice</title>
430 <body>
431
432 <note>
433 Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The
434 default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS.
435 </note>
436
437 <p>
438 Please note that this package now uses the LINGUAS environment variable to
439 provide localization. The old LANGUAGE=ENUS|PORT system does <e>not</e> work
440 anymore. The default language for OpenOffice is set as "US English". If you
441 wish to change the default language for OpenOffice, check the ebuild for the
442 default language code.
443 </p>
444
445 <pre caption="Example: emerge openoffice for german environment">
446 # <i>LINGUAS="de" emerge openoffice</i>
447 </pre>
448
449 </body>
450 </section>
451 </chapter>
452
453 </guide>

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