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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3
4 <guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
5 <title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
6 <author title="Author"><mail link="holler@ahsoftware.de">
7 Alexander Holler</mail>
8 </author>
9 <author title="Translator/Editor"><mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">
10 Steven Lucy</mail>
11 </author>
12
13 <abstract>
14 This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
15 European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
16 the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the Euro currency symbol.
17 </abstract>
18
19 <chapter>
20 <title>Timezone</title>
21 <section>
22 <body>
23 <p>In order to keep time properly,
24 <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to the correct time zone
25 data file. Look around in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path>
26 and pick your timezone or a near-by big city.
27 <pre caption="setting the timezone">
28 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i>
29 # <i>date</i>
30 Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003
31 </pre>
32 <note>Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET")
33 is correct for your area.</note>
34 <note>You can set the value of <i>TZ</i> to be everything after the
35 <path>/usr/share/zoninfo</path> in your shell rc file
36 (<path>.bash_profile</path> for bash) for a user-level setting. In this case
37 <i>TZ="Europe/Berlin"</i>.</note>
38 </p>
39 </body>
40 </section>
41 </chapter>
42
43 <chapter>
44 <title>System Clock</title>
45 <section>
46 <body>
47 <p>
48 In most Gentoo Linux installations, your system clock is set to
49 UTC (or GMT, Greenwhich Mean Time) and then your timezone is
50 taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If,
51 for some reason, you need your system clock not to be in UTC,
52 you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the
53 value of <i>CLOCK</i>.
54
55 <pre caption="local vs. GMT clock">
56 <codenote>recommended:</codenote>
57 CLOCK="UTC"
58 <codenote>or:</codenote>
59 CLOCK="local"
60 </pre>
61 </p>
62 </body>
63 </section>
64 </chapter>
65
66 <chapter>
67 <title>POSIX Locale</title>
68 <section>
69 <body>
70 <p>
71 The next step is to set the <i>LANG</i> shell variable, which
72 is used by your shell and window manager (and some other
73 applications). Valid values can be found in
74 <path>/usr/share/locale</path> and generally take the form
75 <i>ab_CD</i>, where <i>ab</i> is your two letter language code
76 and <i>CD</i> is your two letter country code. the <i>_CD</i>
77 is left off if your language is only (or primarily) spoken in
78 one country. <i>LANG</i> can be set in
79 <path>/etc/profile</path> if you want it to take effect
80 system-wide, or in <path>~/.bashrc</path> as a user-specific
81 setting.
82 <pre caption="setting the POSIX locale">
83 export LANG="de_DE@euro"
84 </pre>
85 <note>Appended <i>@euro</i> to your locale if you want to use the new Euro
86 currency symbol (&#8364;)</note>
87 </p>
88 </body>
89 </section>
90 </chapter>
91
92 <chapter>
93 <title>Keyboard layout for the console</title>
94 <section>
95 <body>
96 <p>
97 The keyboard layoud used by the console is set in
98 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> by the <i>KEYMAP</i> variable.
99 Valid values can be found in
100 <path>/usr/share/keymaps/<i>{arch}</i>/</path>.
101 <path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout
102 (<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
103 languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
104 to decide which one fits your needs best.
105 <pre caption="setting the console keymap">
106 KEYMAP="de"
107 KEYMAP="de-latin1"
108 KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys"
109 </pre>
110 </p>
111 </body>
112 </section>
113 </chapter>
114
115 <chapter>
116 <title>Keyboard layout for the X server</title>
117 <section>
118 <body>
119 <p>The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
120 in <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> by the <i>XkbLayout</i>
121 option.
122 <pre caption="setting the X keymap">
123 Section "InputDevice"
124 Identifier "Keyboard1"
125 ...
126 Option "XkbLayout" "de"
127 # Option XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys"
128 ...
129 </pre>
130 </p>
131 </body>
132 </section>
133 </chapter>
134
135 <chapter>
136 <title>The Euro Symbol for the Console</title>
137 <section>
138 <body>
139 <p>
140 In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you
141 will need to set <i>CONSOLEFONT</i> in
142 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in
143 <path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the
144 <c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat0-16</c> has the Euro symbol.
145 <pre caption="setting the console font">
146 CONSOLEFONT="lat0-16"
147 </pre>
148 </p>
149 </body>
150 </section>
151 </chapter>
152
153 <chapter>
154 <title>The Euro Symbol in X</title>
155 <section>
156 <title>Most Applications</title>
157 <body>
158 <p>Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little
159 bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <i>
160 fixed</i> and <i>variable</i> definitions in
161 <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end
162 in <i>iso8859-15</i> instead of <i>iso8859-1</i>.
163 <pre caption="setting default X fonts">
164 fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15
165 variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
166 </pre>
167 </p>
168 <p>Some applications use their own font, and you will have to
169 tell them separately to use a font with the Euro symbol. You
170 can do this at a user-specific level in
171 <path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to
172 <path>/etc/skel/</path> for use by new users), or at a global
173 level for any application with a resource file in
174 <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In
175 these files you generally have to change an existing line,
176 rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for
177 instance:
178 <pre caption="setting fonts for xterm">
179 <codenote>(in your home directory)</codenote>
180 $ <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
181 $ <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
182 </pre>
183 </p>
184 </body>
185 </section>
186
187 <section>
188 <title>The Euro symbol in (X)Emacs</title>
189 <body>
190 <p>To use the Euro symbol in (X)Emacs, add the following to
191 <path>.Xdefaults</path>:
192 <pre caption="setting the font for emacs">
193 Emacs.default.attributeFont: -*-courier-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
194 </pre>
195 </p><p>For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little
196 more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add:
197 <pre caption="setting the font for xemacs">
198 (define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[&#8364;])
199 </pre>
200 <note>The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol.</note>
201 </p>
202 </body>
203 </section>
204
205 </chapter>
206
207 <version>$Revision: 1.5 $</version>
208 <date>$Date: 2003/03/04 14:56:57 $</date>
209 </guide>

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