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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3
4 <guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
5 <title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
6 <author title="Author"><mail link="holler@ahsoftware.de">
7 Alexander Holler</mail>
8 </author>
9 <author title="Translator/Editor"><mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">
10 Steven Lucy</mail>
11 </author>
12 <author title="Editor">
13 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
14 </author>
15 <abstract>
16 This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
17 European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
18 the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the Euro currency symbol.
19 </abstract>
20
21 <chapter>
22 <title>Timezone</title>
23 <section>
24 <body>
25 <p>In order to keep time properly,
26 <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to the correct time zone
27 data file. Look around in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path>
28 and pick your timezone or a near-by big city.
29 <pre caption="setting the timezone">
30 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i>
31 # <i>date</i>
32 Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003
33 </pre>
34 <note>Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET")
35 is correct for your area.</note>
36 <note>You can set the value of <i>TZ</i> to be everything after the
37 <path>/usr/share/zoninfo</path> in your shell rc file
38 (<path>.bash_profile</path> for bash) for a user-level setting. In this case
39 <i>TZ="Europe/Berlin"</i>.</note>
40 </p>
41 </body>
42 </section>
43 </chapter>
44
45 <chapter>
46 <title>System Clock</title>
47 <section>
48 <body>
49 <p>
50 In most Gentoo Linux installations, your system clock is set to
51 UTC (or GMT, Greenwhich Mean Time) and then your timezone is
52 taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If,
53 for some reason, you need your system clock not to be in UTC,
54 you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the
55 value of <i>CLOCK</i>.
56
57 <pre caption="local vs. GMT clock">
58 <codenote>recommended:</codenote>
59 CLOCK="UTC"
60 <codenote>or:</codenote>
61 CLOCK="local"
62 </pre>
63 </p>
64 </body>
65 </section>
66 </chapter>
67
68 <chapter>
69 <title>POSIX Locale</title>
70 <section>
71 <body>
72 <p>
73 The next step is to set the <i>LANG</i> shell variable, which
74 is used by your shell and window manager (and some other
75 applications). Valid values can be found in
76 <path>/usr/share/locale</path> and generally take the form
77 <i>ab_CD</i>, where <i>ab</i> is your two letter language code
78 and <i>CD</i> is your two letter country code. the <i>_CD</i>
79 is left off if your language is only (or primarily) spoken in
80 one country. <i>LANG</i> can be set in
81 <path>/etc/profile</path> if you want it to take effect
82 system-wide, or in <path>~/.bashrc</path> as a user-specific
83 setting.
84 <pre caption="setting the POSIX locale">
85 export LANG="de_DE@euro"
86 </pre>
87 <note>Appended <i>@euro</i> to your locale if you want to use the new Euro
88 currency symbol (&#8364;)</note>
89 </p>
90 </body>
91 </section>
92 </chapter>
93
94 <chapter>
95 <title>Keyboard layout for the console</title>
96 <section>
97 <body>
98 <p>
99 The keyboard layout used by the console is set in
100 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> by the <i>KEYMAP</i> variable.
101 Valid values can be found in
102 <path>/usr/share/keymaps/<i>{arch}</i>/</path>.
103 <path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout
104 (<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
105 languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
106 to decide which one fits your needs best.
107 <pre caption="setting the console keymap">
108 KEYMAP="de"
109 KEYMAP="de-latin1"
110 KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys"
111 </pre>
112 </p>
113 </body>
114 </section>
115 </chapter>
116
117 <chapter>
118 <title>Keyboard layout for the X server</title>
119 <section>
120 <body>
121 <p>The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
122 in <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> by the <i>XkbLayout</i>
123 option.
124 <pre caption="setting the X keymap">
125 Section "InputDevice"
126 Identifier "Keyboard1"
127 ...
128 Option "XkbLayout" "de"
129 # Option XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys"
130 ...
131 </pre>
132 </p>
133 </body>
134 </section>
135 </chapter>
136
137 <chapter>
138 <title>The Euro Symbol for the Console</title>
139 <section>
140 <body>
141 <p>
142 In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you
143 will need to set <i>CONSOLEFONT</i> in
144 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in
145 <path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the
146 <c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat0-16</c> has the Euro symbol.
147 <pre caption="setting the console font">
148 CONSOLEFONT="lat0-16"
149 </pre>
150 </p>
151 </body>
152 </section>
153 </chapter>
154
155 <chapter>
156 <title>The Euro Symbol in X</title>
157 <section>
158 <title>Most Applications</title>
159 <body>
160 <p>Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little
161 bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <i>
162 fixed</i> and <i>variable</i> definitions in
163 <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end
164 in <i>iso8859-15</i> instead of <i>iso8859-1</i>.
165 <pre caption="setting default X fonts">
166 fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15
167 variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
168 </pre>
169 </p>
170 <p>Some applications use their own font, and you will have to
171 tell them separately to use a font with the Euro symbol. You
172 can do this at a user-specific level in
173 <path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to
174 <path>/etc/skel/</path> for use by new users), or at a global
175 level for any application with a resource file in
176 <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In
177 these files you generally have to change an existing line,
178 rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for
179 instance:
180 <pre caption="setting fonts for xterm">
181 <codenote>(in your home directory)</codenote>
182 $ <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
183 $ <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
184 </pre>
185 </p>
186 </body>
187 </section>
188
189 <section>
190 <title>The Euro symbol in (X)Emacs</title>
191 <body>
192 <p>To use the Euro symbol in (X)Emacs, add the following to
193 <path>.Xdefaults</path>:
194 <pre caption="setting the font for emacs">
195 Emacs.default.attributeFont: -*-courier-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
196 </pre>
197 </p><p>For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little
198 more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add:
199 <pre caption="setting the font for xemacs">
200 (define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[&#8364;])
201 </pre>
202 <note>The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol.</note>
203 </p>
204 </body>
205 </section>
206 <section>
207 <title>Language for OpenOffice</title>
208 <body>
209 <note>
210 Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The
211 default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS.
212 </note>
213 <p>
214 The default language for OpenOffice is set as "ENUS"(01). If you wish to
215 change the default language for OpenOffice, check the ebuild for the
216 default language code.
217 </p>
218 <pre caption="emerge openoffice with desired default language">
219 # <i>LANGUAGE="01" emerge openoffice</i>
220 <comment>01 is the ENUS language code for openoffice</comment>
221 </pre>
222 </body>
223 </section>
224 </chapter>
225
226 <version>1.8</version>
227 <date>October 25, 2003</date>
228 </guide>

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