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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.11 2004/02/12 16:56:05 dertobi123 Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.15 2004/11/01 20:15:44 dertobi123 Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
7<author title="Author"><mail link="holler@gentoo.de"> 7<author title="Author">
8 Alexander Holler</mail> 8 <mail link="holler@gentoo.de">Alexander Holler</mail>
9</author> 9</author>
10<author title="Translator/Editor"><mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu"> 10<author title="Translator/Editor">
11 Steven Lucy</mail> 11 <mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">Steven Lucy</mail>
12</author> 12</author>
13<author title="Editor"> 13<author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail> 14 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
15</author> 15</author>
16<author title="Editor"> 16<author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail> 17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail>
18</author> 18</author>
19<author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail>
21</author>
22
19<abstract> 23<abstract>
20This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any 24This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
21European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from 25European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
22the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the Euro currency symbol. 26the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the Euro currency symbol.
23</abstract> 27</abstract>
24 28
29<version>1.11</version>
30<date>November 1, 2004</date>
31
25<chapter> 32<chapter>
26<title>Timezone</title> 33<title>Timezone</title>
27<section> 34<section>
28 <body> 35<body>
29 <p>In order to keep time properly, 36
30 <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to the correct time zone 37<p>
31 data file. Look around in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path> 38In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to
32 and pick your timezone or a near-by big city. 39the correct time zone data file. Look around in
40<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path> and pick your timezone or a near-by big city.
41</p>
42
33<pre caption="setting the timezone"> 43<pre caption="setting the timezone">
34# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i> 44# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i>
35# <i>date</i> 45# <i>date</i>
36Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003 46Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003
37</pre> 47</pre>
48
49<note>
38<note>Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET") 50Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET")
39is correct for your area.</note> 51is correct for your area.
52</note>
53
54<note>
40<note>You can set the value of <i>TZ</i> to be everything after the 55You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the
41<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path> in your shell rc file 56<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path> in your shell rc file
42(<path>.bash_profile</path> for bash) for a user-level setting. In this case 57(<path>.bash_profile</path> for bash) for a user-level setting. In this case
43<i>TZ="Europe/Berlin"</i>.</note> 58<c>TZ="Europe/Berlin"</c>.
44 </p> 59</note>
45 </body> 60
61</body>
46</section> 62</section>
47</chapter> 63</chapter>
48 64
49<chapter> 65<chapter>
50<title>System Clock</title> 66<title>System Clock</title>
51<section> 67<section>
52 <body> 68<body>
53 <p> 69
70<p>
54 In most Gentoo Linux installations, your system clock is set to 71In most Gentoo Linux installations, your system clock is set to
55 UTC (or GMT, Greenwhich Mean Time) and then your timezone is 72UTC (or GMT, Greenwhich Mean Time) and then your timezone is
56 taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If, 73taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If,
57 for some reason, you need your system clock not to be in UTC, 74for some reason, you need your system clock not to be in UTC,
58 you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the 75you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the
59 value of <i>CLOCK</i>. 76value of <c>CLOCK</c>.
77</p>
60 78
61<pre caption="local vs. GMT clock"> 79<pre caption="local vs. GMT clock">
62 <codenote>recommended:</codenote> 80<codenote>recommended:</codenote>
63 CLOCK="UTC" 81CLOCK="UTC"
64 <codenote>or:</codenote> 82<codenote>or:</codenote>
65 CLOCK="local" 83CLOCK="local"
66</pre> 84</pre>
67 </p> 85
68 </body> 86</body>
69</section> 87</section>
70</chapter> 88</chapter>
71 89
72<chapter> 90<chapter>
73<title>POSIX Locale</title> 91<title>POSIX Locale</title>
74<section> 92<section>
75 <body> 93<title>Using Existing Locales</title>
76 <p> 94<body>
95
96<p>
77 The next step is to set the <i>LANG</i> shell variable, which 97The next step is to set the <c>LANG</c> shell variable, which
78 is used by your shell and window manager (and some other 98is used by your shell and window manager (and some other
79 applications). Valid values can be found in 99applications). Valid values can be found in
80 <path>/usr/share/locale</path> and generally take the form 100<path>/usr/share/locale</path> and generally take the form
81 <i>ab_CD</i>, where <i>ab</i> is your two letter language code 101<c>ab_CD</c>, where <c>ab</c> is your two letter language code
82 and <i>CD</i> is your two letter country code. The <i>_CD</i> 102and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country code. The <c>_CD</c>
83 is left off if your language is only (or primarily) spoken in 103is left off if your language is only (or primarily) spoken in
84 one country. <i>LANG</i> can be set in 104one country. <c>LANG</c> can be set in
85 <path>/etc/profile</path> if you want it to take effect 105<path>/etc/profile</path> if you want it to take effect
86 system-wide, or in <path>~/.bashrc</path> as a user-specific 106system-wide, or in <path>~/.bashrc</path> as a user-specific
87 setting. 107setting.
108</p>
109
88<pre caption="setting the POSIX locale"> 110<pre caption="setting the POSIX locale">
89 export LANG="de_DE@euro" 111export LANG="de_DE@euro"
90</pre> 112</pre>
113
114<note>
91<note>Appended <i>@euro</i> to your locale if you want to use the new Euro 115Appended <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the new Euro
92currency symbol (&#8364;)</note> 116currency symbol (&#8364;)
117</note>
118
119</body>
120</section>
121<section>
122<title>Generating Specific Locales</title>
123<body>
124
125<p>
126If you use a locale that isn't available by default, you should use
127<c>localedef</c> to generate your locale. For instance:
93 </p> 128</p>
94 </body> 129
130<pre caption="Generating a locale using localedef">
131# <i>localedef -c -i en_US -f ISO-8859-15 en_US.ISO-8859-15</i>
132</pre>
133
134<p>
135After having generated the locale, you can export the LANG variable as you see
136fit.
137</p>
138
139<pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable">
140# <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i>
141</pre>
142
143</body>
144</section>
145<section>
146<title>The userlocales USE flag</title>
147<body>
148
149<p>
150You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
151after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales has been
152created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag und specify
153only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>.
154</p>
155
156<pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
157echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use
158</pre>
159
160<p>
161Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
162</p>
163
164<pre caption="nano -w /etc/locales.build">
165en_US/ISO-8859-1
166en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
167de_DE/ISO-8859-1
168de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
169</pre>
170
171<p>
172The next step is to re-compile <c>glibc</c>. Of course you can defer this until
173the next <c>glibc</c> upgrade is available.
174</p>
175
176</body>
95</section> 177</section>
96</chapter> 178</chapter>
97 179
98<chapter> 180<chapter>
99<title>Keyboard layout for the console</title> 181<title>Keyboard layout for the console</title>
100<section> 182<section>
101 <body> 183<body>
102 <p> 184
185<p>
103 The keyboard layout used by the console is set in 186The keyboard layout used by the console is set in
104 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> by the <i>KEYMAP</i> variable. 187<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> by the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable.
105 Valid values can be found in 188Valid values can be found in
106 <path>/usr/share/keymaps/<i>{arch}</i>/</path>. 189<path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>.
107 <path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout 190<path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout
108 (<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some 191(<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
109 languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment 192languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
110 to decide which one fits your needs best. 193to decide which one fits your needs best.
194</p>
195
111<pre caption="setting the console keymap"> 196<pre caption="setting the console keymap">
112 KEYMAP="de" 197KEYMAP="de"
113 KEYMAP="de-latin1" 198KEYMAP="de-latin1"
114 KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys" 199KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys"
115</pre> 200</pre>
116 </p> 201
117 </body> 202</body>
118</section> 203</section>
119</chapter> 204</chapter>
120 205
121<chapter> 206<chapter>
122<title>Keyboard layout for the X server</title> 207<title>Keyboard layout for the X server</title>
123<section> 208<section>
124 <body> 209<body>
210
211<p>
125 <p>The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified 212The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
126 in <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> by the <i>XkbLayout</i> 213in <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c>
127 option. 214option.
215</p>
216
128<pre caption="setting the X keymap"> 217<pre caption="setting the X keymap">
129 Section "InputDevice" 218 Section "InputDevice"
130 Identifier "Keyboard1" 219 Identifier "Keyboard1"
131 ... 220 ...
132 Option "XkbLayout" "de" 221 Option "XkbLayout" "de"
133 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys" 222 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys"
134 ... 223 ...
135</pre> 224</pre>
136 </p> 225
137 </body> 226</body>
138</section> 227</section>
139</chapter> 228</chapter>
140 229
141<chapter> 230<chapter>
142<title>KDE</title> 231<title>KDE</title>
156</chapter> 245</chapter>
157 246
158<chapter> 247<chapter>
159<title>The Euro Symbol for the Console</title> 248<title>The Euro Symbol for the Console</title>
160<section> 249<section>
161 <body> 250<body>
162 <p> 251
252<p>
163 In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you 253In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you
164 will need to set <i>CONSOLEFONT</i> in 254will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in
165 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in 255<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in
166 <path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the 256<path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the
167 <c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol. 257<c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol.
258</p>
259
168<pre caption="setting the console font"> 260<pre caption="setting the console font">
169 CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16" 261CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16"
170</pre> 262</pre>
171 </p>
172 </body>
173</section>
174</chapter>
175 263
176<chapter> 264</body>
177 <title>The Euro Symbol in X</title>
178<section> 265</section>
266</chapter>
267
268<chapter>
269<title>The Euro Symbol in X</title>
270<section>
179 <title>Most Applications</title> 271<title>Most Applications</title>
180 <body> 272<body>
273
274<p>
181 <p>Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little 275Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little
182 bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <i> 276bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <c>fixed</c>
183 fixed</i> and <i>variable</i> definitions in 277and <c>variable</c> definitions in
184 <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end 278<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end
185 in <i>iso8859-15</i> instead of <i>iso8859-1</i>. 279in <c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>.
280</p>
281
186<pre caption="setting default X fonts"> 282<pre caption="setting default X fonts">
187 fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15 283fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15
188 variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15 284variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
189</pre> 285</pre>
190 </p> 286
287<p>
191 <p>Some applications use their own font, and you will have to 288Some applications use their own font, and you will have to
192 tell them separately to use a font with the Euro symbol. You 289tell them separately to use a font with the Euro symbol. You
193 can do this at a user-specific level in 290can do this at a user-specific level in
194 <path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to 291<path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to
195 <path>/etc/skel/</path> for use by new users), or at a global 292<path>/etc/skel/</path> for use by new users), or at a global
196 level for any application with a resource file in 293level for any application with a resource file in
197 <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In 294<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In
198 these files you generally have to change an existing line, 295these files you generally have to change an existing line,
199 rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for 296rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for
200 instance: 297instance:
298</p>
299
201<pre caption="setting fonts for xterm"> 300<pre caption="setting fonts for xterm">
202 <codenote>(in your home directory)</codenote> 301<codenote>(in your home directory)</codenote>
203 $ <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i> 302# <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
204 $ <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i> 303# <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
205</pre> 304</pre>
206 </p>
207 </body>
208</section>
209 305
306</body>
210<section> 307</section>
308<section>
211 <title>The Euro symbol in (X)Emacs</title> 309<title>The Euro symbol in (X)Emacs</title>
212 <body> 310<body>
311
312<p>
213 <p>To use the Euro symbol in (X)Emacs, add the following to 313To use the Euro symbol in (X)Emacs, add the following to
214 <path>.Xdefaults</path>: 314<path>.Xdefaults</path>:
315</p>
316
215<pre caption="setting the font for emacs"> 317<pre caption="setting the font for emacs">
216 Emacs.default.attributeFont: -*-courier-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15 318Emacs.default.attributeFont: -*-courier-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
217</pre> 319</pre>
320
321<p>
218 </p><p>For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little 322For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little
219 more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add: 323more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add:
324</p>
325
220<pre caption="setting the font for xemacs"> 326<pre caption="setting the font for xemacs">
221 (define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[&#8364;]) 327(define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[&#8364;])
222</pre> 328</pre>
329
330<note>
223 <note>The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol.</note> 331The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol.
224 </p> 332</note>
225 </body> 333
226</section> 334</body>
227<section> 335</section>
336<section>
228 <title>Language for OpenOffice</title> 337<title>Language for OpenOffice</title>
229 <body> 338<body>
339
230 <note> 340<note>
231 Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The 341Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The
232 default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS. 342default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS.
233 </note> 343</note>
234 <p> 344
345<p>
235 The default language for OpenOffice is set as "ENUS"(01). If you wish to 346The default language for OpenOffice is set as "ENUS"(01). If you wish to
236 change the default language for OpenOffice, check the ebuild for the 347change the default language for OpenOffice, check the ebuild for the
237 default language code. 348default language code.
238 </p> 349</p>
350
239<pre caption="emerge openoffice with desired default language"> 351<pre caption="emerge openoffice with desired default language">
240# <i>LANGUAGE="01" emerge openoffice</i> 352# <i>LANGUAGE="01" emerge openoffice</i>
241<comment>01 is the ENUS language code for openoffice</comment> 353<comment>01 is the ENUS language code for openoffice</comment>
242</pre> 354</pre>
355
243 </body> 356</body>
244</section> 357</section>
245</chapter> 358</chapter>
246 359
247<version>1.9</version>
248<date>February 12, 2004</date>
249</guide> 360</guide>

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