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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.15 2004/11/01 20:15:44 dertobi123 Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.27 2005/06/20 11:37:36 fox2mike Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
7<author title="Author"> 7<author title="Author">
8 <mail link="holler@gentoo.de">Alexander Holler</mail> 8 Alexander Holler
9</author> 9</author>
10<author title="Translator/Editor"> 10<author title="Translator/Editor">
11 <mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">Steven Lucy</mail> 11 <mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">Steven Lucy</mail>
12</author> 12</author>
13<author title="Editor"> 13<author title="Editor">
16<author title="Editor"> 16<author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail> 17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail>
18</author> 18</author>
19<author title="Editor"> 19<author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail> 20 <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail>
21</author>
22<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="flammie@gentoo.org">Flammie Pirinen</mail>
21</author> 24</author>
22 25
23<abstract> 26<abstract>
24This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any 27This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
25European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from 28European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
26the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the Euro currency symbol. 29the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the euro currency symbol.
27</abstract> 30</abstract>
28 31
29<version>1.11</version> 32<version>1.18</version>
30<date>November 1, 2004</date> 33<date>2005-06-20</date>
31 34
32<chapter> 35<chapter>
33<title>Timezone</title> 36<title>Time zone</title>
34<section> 37<section>
35<body> 38<body>
36 39
37<p> 40<p>
38In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to 41In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to
61</body> 64</body>
62</section> 65</section>
63</chapter> 66</chapter>
64 67
65<chapter> 68<chapter>
66<title>System Clock</title> 69<title>Hardware Clock</title>
67<section> 70<section>
68<body> 71<body>
69 72
70<p> 73<p>
71In most Gentoo Linux installations, your system clock is set to 74In most Gentoo Linux installations, your hardware clock is set to
72UTC (or GMT, Greenwhich Mean Time) and then your timezone is 75UTC (or GMT, Greenwich Mean Time) and then your timezone is
73taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If, 76taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If,
74for some reason, you need your system clock not to be in UTC, 77for some reason, you need your hardware clock not to be in UTC,
75you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the 78you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the
76value of <c>CLOCK</c>. 79value of <c>CLOCK</c> from <c>UTC</c> to <c>local</c>.
77</p> 80</p>
78 81
79<pre caption="local vs. GMT clock"> 82<pre caption="local vs. GMT clock">
80<codenote>recommended:</codenote> 83<comment>(recommended:)</comment>
81CLOCK="UTC" 84CLOCK="UTC"
82<codenote>or:</codenote> 85<comment>(or:)</comment>
83CLOCK="local" 86CLOCK="local"
84</pre> 87</pre>
85 88
86</body> 89</body>
87</section> 90</section>
88</chapter> 91</chapter>
89 92
90<chapter> 93<chapter>
91<title>POSIX Locale</title> 94<title>Locale system</title>
95<section>
96<title>What are locales?</title>
97<body>
98
99<p>
100A Locale is a set of information that most programs use for determining
101country and language specific settings. The locales and their data
102are part of the system library and can be found
103at <path>/usr/share/locale</path> on most systems. A locale name is generally
104named <c>ab_CD</c> where <c>ab</c> is your two (or three) letter
105language code (as specified in ISO-639) and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country
106code (as specified in ISO-3199).
107</p>
108
109</body>
92<section> 110</section>
93<title>Using Existing Locales</title> 111<section>
112<title>Environment variables for locales</title>
94<body> 113<body>
95 114
96<p>
97The next step is to set the <c>LANG</c> shell variable, which
98is used by your shell and window manager (and some other
99applications). Valid values can be found in
100<path>/usr/share/locale</path> and generally take the form
101<c>ab_CD</c>, where <c>ab</c> is your two letter language code
102and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country code. The <c>_CD</c>
103is left off if your language is only (or primarily) spoken in
104one country. <c>LANG</c> can be set in
105<path>/etc/profile</path> if you want it to take effect
106system-wide, or in <path>~/.bashrc</path> as a user-specific
107setting.
108</p> 115<p>
116Locale settings are stored in environment variables. These are typically
117set in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> (for system-wide
118settings) and <path>~/.bashrc</path> (for user-specific settings) file.
119The variables controlling different aspects of locale settings
120are given in the table below, those with highest precedence (ie. those
121that override settings below them) are at the top of the table. All variables
122take one name of a locale in <c>ab_CD</c> format given above.
123</p>
109 124
125<table>
126<tr>
127 <th>Variable name</th>
128 <th>Explanation</th>
129</tr>
130<tr>
131 <ti>LC_ALL</ti>
132 <ti>
133 Define all locale settings at once. This is the top level setting for
134 locales which will override any other setting.
135 </ti>
136</tr>
137<tr>
138 <ti>LC_COLLATE</ti>
139 <ti>
140 Define alphabetical ordering of strings. This affects eg. output of sorted
141 directory listing.
142 </ti>
143</tr>
144<tr>
145 <ti>LC_CTYPE</ti>
146 <ti>
147 Define the character handling properties for the system. This determines
148 which characters are seen as part of alphabet, numeric and so on. This also
149 determines the character set used, if applicable.
150 </ti>
151</tr>
152<tr>
153 <ti>LC_MESSAGES</ti>
154 <ti>
155 Programs' localizations for applications that use message based localization
156 scheme (majority of Gnu programs, see next chapters for closer information
157 which do, and how to get the programs, that don't, to work).
158 </ti>
159</tr>
160<tr>
161 <ti>LC_MONETARY</ti>
162 <ti>Defines currency units and formatting of currency type numeric values.</ti>
163</tr>
164<tr>
165 <ti>LC_NUMERIC</ti>
166 <ti>
167 Defines formatting of numeric values which aren't monetary. Affects things
168 such as thousand separator and decimal separator.
169 </ti>
170</tr>
171<tr>
172 <ti>LC_TIME</ti>
173 <ti>Defines formatting of dates and times.</ti>
174</tr>
175<tr>
176 <ti>LC_PAPER</ti>
177 <ti>Defines default paper size.</ti>
178</tr>
179<tr>
180 <ti>LANG</ti>
181 <ti>
182 Defines all locale settings at once. This setting can be overridden by
183 individual LC_* settings above or even by LC_ALL.
184 </ti>
185</tr>
186</table>
187
188<note>
189Even though most programs work with LC_ALL only, some of them misbehave if
190LC_ALL is set but LANG isn't. If you want to play safe, set them <e>both</e>.
191</note>
192
193<p>
194Most typically users only set the LANG variable and perhaps LC_CTYPE variable
195on user level by adding definitions to shells startup files defining
196the environment variable manually from command line:
197</p>
198
110<pre caption="setting the POSIX locale"> 199<pre caption="setting the German locale">
111export LANG="de_DE@euro" 200export LANG="de_DE@euro"
112</pre> 201</pre>
113 202
114<note> 203<note>
115Appended <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the new Euro 204Append <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the Euro
116currency symbol (&#8364;) 205currency symbol (&#8364;)
117</note> 206</note>
207
208<p>
209For message based localization to work in programs that support it, you will
210probably need to have programs compiled with the <c>nls</c> (Native language
211support) USE flag set. Most of the programs using nls also need the gettext
212library to extract and use localized messages. Of course, Gentoo's Portage will
213automatically install it when needed.
214</p>
118 215
119</body> 216</body>
120</section> 217</section>
121<section> 218<section>
122<title>Generating Specific Locales</title> 219<title>Generating Specific Locales</title>
147<body> 244<body>
148 245
149<p> 246<p>
150You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now 247You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
151after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales has been 248after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales has been
152created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag und specify 249created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
153only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. 250only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>.
154</p> 251</p>
155 252
156<pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc"> 253<pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
157echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use 254echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use
159 256
160<p> 257<p>
161Now specify the locales you want to be able to use: 258Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
162</p> 259</p>
163 260
164<pre caption="nano -w /etc/locales.build"> 261<pre caption="Adding locales to /etc/locales.build">
165en_US/ISO-8859-1 262en_US/ISO-8859-1
166en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8 263en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
167de_DE/ISO-8859-1 264de_DE/ISO-8859-1
168de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15 265de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
169</pre> 266</pre>
182<section> 279<section>
183<body> 280<body>
184 281
185<p> 282<p>
186The keyboard layout used by the console is set in 283The keyboard layout used by the console is set in
187<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> by the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. 284<path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> by the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable.
188Valid values can be found in 285Valid values can be found in
189<path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>. 286<path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>.
190<path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout 287<path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout
191(<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some 288(<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
192languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment 289languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
208<section> 305<section>
209<body> 306<body>
210 307
211<p> 308<p>
212The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified 309The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
213in <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c> 310in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c>
214option. 311option.
215</p> 312</p>
216 313
217<pre caption="setting the X keymap"> 314<pre caption="setting the X keymap">
218 Section "InputDevice" 315 Section "InputDevice"
232<section> 329<section>
233<body> 330<body>
234 331
235<p> 332<p>
236For KDE you have to install the kde-i18n package with the appropriate 333For KDE you have to install the kde-i18n package with the appropriate
237LINGUAS environment variable set:</p> 334LINGUAS variable set:
335</p>
238 336
239<pre caption="Install localized KDE"> 337<pre caption="Install localized KDE">
338# <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
339<comment>(Add in the LINGUAS variable. For instance, for the German language:)</comment>
340LINGUAS="de"
341
342<comment>(Now install kde-i18n)</comment>
240# <i>LINGUAS="de" emerge kde-i18n</i> 343# <i>emerge kde-i18n</i>
241</pre> 344</pre>
242 345
243</body> 346</body>
244</section> 347</section>
245</chapter> 348</chapter>
296rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for 399rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for
297instance: 400instance:
298</p> 401</p>
299 402
300<pre caption="setting fonts for xterm"> 403<pre caption="setting fonts for xterm">
301<codenote>(in your home directory)</codenote> 404<comment>(in your home directory)</comment>
302# <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i> 405# <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
303# <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i> 406# <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
304</pre> 407</pre>
305 408
306</body> 409</body>
332</note> 435</note>
333 436
334</body> 437</body>
335</section> 438</section>
336<section> 439<section>
337<title>Language for OpenOffice</title> 440<title>Language for OpenOffice.org</title>
338<body> 441<body>
339 442
340<note> 443<note>
341Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The 444Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The
342default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS. 445default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS.
343</note> 446</note>
344 447
345<p> 448<p>
449Please note that this package now uses the LINGUAS variable to
450provide localization. The old LANGUAGE=ENUS|PORT system does <e>not</e> work
346The default language for OpenOffice is set as "ENUS"(01). If you wish to 451anymore. The default language for OpenOffice.org is set as "US English". If you
347change the default language for OpenOffice, check the ebuild for the 452wish to change the default language for OpenOffice.org, check the ebuild for the
348default language code. 453default language code.
349</p> 454</p>
350 455
351<pre caption="emerge openoffice with desired default language"> 456<pre caption="Example: emerge openoffice for german environment">
457# <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
458<comment>(Add in the LINGUAS variable. For instance, for the German language:)</comment>
459LINGUAS="de"
460
461<comment>(Now install openoffice)</comment>
352# <i>LANGUAGE="01" emerge openoffice</i> 462# <i>emerge openoffice</i>
353<comment>01 is the ENUS language code for openoffice</comment>
354</pre> 463</pre>
355 464
356</body> 465</body>
357</section> 466</section>
358</chapter> 467</chapter>

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