/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml
Gentoo

Diff of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log | View Patch Patch

Revision 1.3 Revision 1.15
1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.15 2004/11/01 20:15:44 dertobi123 Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 4
4<guide link = "/doc/en/guide-localization.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
5<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Instructions</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
6<author><mail link="holler@ahsoftware.de"> 7<author title="Author">
7 Alexander Holler</mail> 8 <mail link="holler@gentoo.de">Alexander Holler</mail>
8</author> 9</author>
10<author title="Translator/Editor">
11 <mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">Steven Lucy</mail>
12</author>
13<author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
15</author>
16<author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail>
18</author>
19<author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail>
21</author>
9 22
10<abstract>This instructions explains the few steps you need to follow to use Gentoo Linux 23<abstract>
11with another language than english. It also explains what to do to get the Euro character shown.</abstract> 24This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
25European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
26the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the Euro currency symbol.
27</abstract>
12 28
13<chapter> 29<version>1.11</version>
14<title>Preface</title> 30<date>November 1, 2004</date>
15<section>
16 <body>
17 <p>As I'm a German I explain how to enable the german language. If you want
18 another language, you just have to replace the german language code <i>de</i> with
19 the corresponding code for your country, e.g. <i>fr</i> for France or <i>es</i> for Spain.
20 </p>
21 </body>
22</section>
23</chapter>
24 31
25<chapter> 32<chapter>
26<title>Timezone</title> 33<title>Timezone</title>
27<section> 34<section>
28 <body> 35<body>
29 <p>To enable the right timezone <path>/etc/localtime</path> should point to the 36
30 appropriate file with the datas for your timezone. You will find those files
31 in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path>.
32<pre> 37<p>
38In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to
39the correct time zone data file. Look around in
40<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path> and pick your timezone or a near-by big city.
41</p>
42
43<pre caption="setting the timezone">
33# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i> 44# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i>
45# <i>date</i>
46Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003
34</pre> 47</pre>
35 </p>
36 </body>
37</section>
38</chapter>
39 48
40<chapter> 49<note>
41<title>Hardware clock</title> 50Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET")
51is correct for your area.
52</note>
53
54<note>
55You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the
56<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path> in your shell rc file
57(<path>.bash_profile</path> for bash) for a user-level setting. In this case
58<c>TZ="Europe/Berlin"</c>.
59</note>
60
61</body>
42<section> 62</section>
43 <body> 63</chapter>
44 <p>If your hardware clock is set to local time and not to GMT you have to correct 64
45 the variable <i>CLOCK</i> in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>. 65<chapter>
66<title>System Clock</title>
67<section>
68<body>
69
46<pre> 70<p>
71In most Gentoo Linux installations, your system clock is set to
72UTC (or GMT, Greenwhich Mean Time) and then your timezone is
73taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If,
74for some reason, you need your system clock not to be in UTC,
75you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the
76value of <c>CLOCK</c>.
77</p>
78
79<pre caption="local vs. GMT clock">
80<codenote>recommended:</codenote>
81CLOCK="UTC"
82<codenote>or:</codenote>
47 CLOCK="local" 83CLOCK="local"
48</pre> 84</pre>
49 </p>
50 </body>
51</section>
52</chapter>
53 85
54<chapter> 86</body>
55<title>Language</title>
56<section> 87</section>
57 <body> 88</chapter>
58 <p>Telling programms what language you prefer will be done with the environment variable 89
59 <i>LANG</i>. If you want to set the language system-wide for all users you should export 90<chapter>
60 <i>LANG</i> in <path>/etc/profile</path>. If not, this can be done in through your private 91<title>POSIX Locale</title>
61 <path>.bashrc</path> in your home directory. You can find available languages in 92<section>
62 <path>/usr/share/i18n/locales</path>. 93<title>Using Existing Locales</title>
94<body>
95
63<pre> 96<p>
97The next step is to set the <c>LANG</c> shell variable, which
98is used by your shell and window manager (and some other
99applications). Valid values can be found in
100<path>/usr/share/locale</path> and generally take the form
101<c>ab_CD</c>, where <c>ab</c> is your two letter language code
102and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country code. The <c>_CD</c>
103is left off if your language is only (or primarily) spoken in
104one country. <c>LANG</c> can be set in
105<path>/etc/profile</path> if you want it to take effect
106system-wide, or in <path>~/.bashrc</path> as a user-specific
107setting.
108</p>
109
110<pre caption="setting the POSIX locale">
64 export LANG="de_DE@euro" 111export LANG="de_DE@euro"
65</pre> 112</pre>
66 </p>
67 </body>
68</section>
69</chapter>
70 113
71<chapter> 114<note>
72<title>Keyboard-layout (terminal)</title> 115Appended <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the new Euro
116currency symbol (&#8364;)
117</note>
118
119</body>
73<section> 120</section>
74 <body> 121<section>
75 <p>The keyboard-layout for terminal sessions is set through <i>KEYMAP</i> in 122<title>Generating Specific Locales</title>
76 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>. You will find the appropriate tables in 123<body>
77 <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path>. If you aren't using composed characters with 124
78 tildes (e.g. &#245;), accent graph (e.g. &#232;) or similar, you could use the 125<p>
79 nodeadkeys-variants. This will save you to enter a space after typing letters 126If you use a locale that isn't available by default, you should use
80 like ~. 127<c>localedef</c> to generate your locale. For instance:
128</p>
129
130<pre caption="Generating a locale using localedef">
131# <i>localedef -c -i en_US -f ISO-8859-15 en_US.ISO-8859-15</i>
81<pre> 132</pre>
133
134<p>
135After having generated the locale, you can export the LANG variable as you see
136fit.
137</p>
138
139<pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable">
140# <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i>
141</pre>
142
143</body>
144</section>
145<section>
146<title>The userlocales USE flag</title>
147<body>
148
149<p>
150You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
151after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales has been
152created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag und specify
153only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>.
154</p>
155
156<pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
157echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use
158</pre>
159
160<p>
161Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
162</p>
163
164<pre caption="nano -w /etc/locales.build">
165en_US/ISO-8859-1
166en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
167de_DE/ISO-8859-1
168de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
169</pre>
170
171<p>
172The next step is to re-compile <c>glibc</c>. Of course you can defer this until
173the next <c>glibc</c> upgrade is available.
174</p>
175
176</body>
177</section>
178</chapter>
179
180<chapter>
181<title>Keyboard layout for the console</title>
182<section>
183<body>
184
185<p>
186The keyboard layout used by the console is set in
187<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> by the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable.
188Valid values can be found in
189<path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>.
190<path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout
191(<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
192languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
193to decide which one fits your needs best.
194</p>
195
196<pre caption="setting the console keymap">
197KEYMAP="de"
82 KEYMAP="de-latin1" 198KEYMAP="de-latin1"
83 # KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys" 199KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys"
84</pre> 200</pre>
85 </p>
86 </body>
87</section>
88</chapter>
89 201
90<chapter> 202</body>
91<title>Keyboard-layout (X server)</title>
92<section> 203</section>
93 <body> 204</chapter>
94 <p>The keyboard-layout for the X server is set with the option 205
95 <i>XkbLayout</i> in the file <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path>. 206<chapter>
207<title>Keyboard layout for the X server</title>
208<section>
209<body>
210
96<pre> 211<p>
212The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
213in <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c>
214option.
215</p>
216
217<pre caption="setting the X keymap">
97 Section "InputDevice" 218 Section "InputDevice"
98 Identifier "Keyboard1" 219 Identifier "Keyboard1"
99 ... 220 ...
100 Option "XkbLayout" "de" 221 Option "XkbLayout" "de"
101 # Option XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys" 222 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys"
102 ... 223 ...
103</pre> 224</pre>
104 </p>
105 </body>
106</section>
107</chapter>
108 225
109<chapter> 226</body>
110<title>Euro character (terminal)</title>
111<section> 227</section>
112 <body>
113 <p>If you want to see the Euro character in a session without using X, you have
114 to use a console font which contains it. The console font is set with
115 <i>CONSOLEFONT</i> in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>. Available fonts will be find in
116 <path>/usr/share/consolefonts</path>.
117<pre>
118 CONSOLEFONT="lat0-16"
119</pre>
120 </p>
121 </body>
122</section>
123</chapter>
124
125<chapter> 228</chapter>
126 <title>Euro character (X server)</title> 229
127<section> 230<chapter>
128 <title>General</title> 231<title>KDE</title>
129 <body>
130 <p>Using the above settings and KDE you should already get the Euro character with
131 Alt-Gr-E in all KDE-programs. Remaining the non-KDE-programs.
132 </p><p>Unfortunately this is not as easy as the settings before. You have to set the right
133 font for every single X-program. So I will just explain how to enable the Euro character
134 for xterm and (X)Emacs. You can change the fonts for programs under X in your private
135 <path>.Xdefaults</path> in your home directory. To enable it for other (new) users you could
136 copy this file to <path>/etc/skel</path>.
137 </p>
138 </body>
139</section> 232<section>
233<body>
140 234
235<p>
236For KDE you have to install the kde-i18n package with the appropriate
237LINGUAS environment variable set:</p>
238
239<pre caption="Install localized KDE">
240# <i>LINGUAS="de" emerge kde-i18n</i>
241</pre>
242
243</body>
141<section> 244</section>
142 <title>Euro character for xterm</title> 245</chapter>
143 <body> 246
144 <p>Insert the following in your <path>.Xdefaults</path>: 247<chapter>
145<pre> 248<title>The Euro Symbol for the Console</title>
146 xterm*font: 7x13euro
147</pre>
148 </p>
149 </body>
150</section> 249<section>
250<body>
151 251
252<p>
253In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you
254will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in
255<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in
256<path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the
257<c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol.
258</p>
259
260<pre caption="setting the console font">
261CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16"
262</pre>
263
264</body>
152<section> 265</section>
153 <title>Euro character for (X)Emacs</title> 266</chapter>
154 <body> 267
155 <p>For (X)Emacs you define the font in <path>.Xdefaults</path> as shown below: 268<chapter>
269<title>The Euro Symbol in X</title>
270<section>
271<title>Most Applications</title>
272<body>
273
274<p>
275Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little
276bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <c>fixed</c>
277and <c>variable</c> definitions in
278<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end
279in <c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>.
280</p>
281
282<pre caption="setting default X fonts">
283fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15
284variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
156<pre> 285</pre>
286
287<p>
288Some applications use their own font, and you will have to
289tell them separately to use a font with the Euro symbol. You
290can do this at a user-specific level in
291<path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to
292<path>/etc/skel/</path> for use by new users), or at a global
293level for any application with a resource file in
294<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In
295these files you generally have to change an existing line,
296rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for
297instance:
298</p>
299
300<pre caption="setting fonts for xterm">
301<codenote>(in your home directory)</codenote>
302# <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
303# <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
304</pre>
305
306</body>
307</section>
308<section>
309<title>The Euro symbol in (X)Emacs</title>
310<body>
311
312<p>
313To use the Euro symbol in (X)Emacs, add the following to
314<path>.Xdefaults</path>:
315</p>
316
317<pre caption="setting the font for emacs">
157 Emacs.default.attributeFont: -*-courier-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15 318Emacs.default.attributeFont: -*-courier-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
158</pre>
159 </p><p>If you are using XEmacs (not Emacs) you will have to tell him what to do with
160 the <i>EuroSign</i>. This will be done through a definition in
161 <path>.xemacs/init.el</path> in your home directory:
162<pre> 319</pre>
320
321<p>
322For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little
323more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add:
324</p>
325
326<pre caption="setting the font for xemacs">
163 (define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[&#8364;]) 327(define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[&#8364;])
164</pre> 328</pre>
165 <note>The character in the square brackets is the Euro character.</note> 329
166 </p> 330<note>
167 </body> 331The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol.
332</note>
333
334</body>
335</section>
168</section> 336<section>
337<title>Language for OpenOffice</title>
338<body>
169 339
170</chapter> 340<note>
341Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The
342default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS.
343</note>
171 344
172<version>$Revision: 1.3 $</version> 345<p>
173<date>$Date: 2002/11/18 14:40:50 $</date> 346The default language for OpenOffice is set as "ENUS"(01). If you wish to
347change the default language for OpenOffice, check the ebuild for the
348default language code.
349</p>
350
351<pre caption="emerge openoffice with desired default language">
352# <i>LANGUAGE="01" emerge openoffice</i>
353<comment>01 is the ENUS language code for openoffice</comment>
354</pre>
355
356</body>
357</section>
358</chapter>
359
174</guide> 360</guide>

Legend:
Removed from v.1.3  
changed lines
  Added in v.1.15

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20