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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.15 2004/11/01 20:15:44 dertobi123 Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.32 2005/09/24 13:06:18 flammie Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
7<author title="Author"> 7<author title="Author">
8 <mail link="holler@gentoo.de">Alexander Holler</mail> 8 Alexander Holler
9</author> 9</author>
10<author title="Translator/Editor"> 10<author title="Translator/Editor">
11 <mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">Steven Lucy</mail> 11 <mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">Steven Lucy</mail>
12</author> 12</author>
13<author title="Editor"> 13<author title="Editor">
16<author title="Editor"> 16<author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail> 17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail>
18</author> 18</author>
19<author title="Editor"> 19<author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail> 20 <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail>
21</author>
22<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="flammie@gentoo.org">Flammie Pirinen</mail>
21</author> 24</author>
22 25
23<abstract> 26<abstract>
24This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any 27This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
25European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from 28European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
26the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the Euro currency symbol. 29the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the euro currency symbol.
27</abstract> 30</abstract>
28 31
29<version>1.11</version> 32<version>1.23</version>
30<date>November 1, 2004</date> 33<date>2005-09-24</date>
31 34
32<chapter> 35<chapter>
33<title>Timezone</title> 36<title>Time zone</title>
34<section> 37<section>
35<body> 38<body>
36 39
37<p> 40<p>
38In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to 41In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to the
39the correct time zone data file. Look around in 42correct time zone data file. Look around in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path>
40<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path> and pick your timezone or a near-by big city. 43and pick your timezone or a near-by big city. Please avoid the
44<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
45indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact GMT+8.
41</p> 46</p>
42 47
43<pre caption="setting the timezone"> 48<pre caption="setting the timezone">
44# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i> 49# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i>
45# <i>date</i> 50# <i>date</i>
61</body> 66</body>
62</section> 67</section>
63</chapter> 68</chapter>
64 69
65<chapter> 70<chapter>
66<title>System Clock</title> 71<title>Hardware Clock</title>
67<section> 72<section>
68<body> 73<body>
69 74
70<p> 75<p>
71In most Gentoo Linux installations, your system clock is set to 76In most Gentoo Linux installations, your hardware clock is set to
72UTC (or GMT, Greenwhich Mean Time) and then your timezone is 77UTC (or GMT, Greenwich Mean Time) and then your timezone is
73taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If, 78taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If,
74for some reason, you need your system clock not to be in UTC, 79for some reason, you need your hardware clock not to be in UTC,
75you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the 80you will need to edit <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> and change the
76value of <c>CLOCK</c>. 81value of <c>CLOCK</c> from <c>UTC</c> to <c>local</c>.
77</p> 82</p>
78 83
79<pre caption="local vs. GMT clock"> 84<pre caption="local vs. GMT clock">
80<codenote>recommended:</codenote> 85<comment>(recommended:)</comment>
81CLOCK="UTC" 86CLOCK="UTC"
82<codenote>or:</codenote> 87<comment>(or:)</comment>
83CLOCK="local" 88CLOCK="local"
84</pre> 89</pre>
85 90
86</body> 91</body>
87</section> 92</section>
88</chapter> 93</chapter>
89 94
90<chapter> 95<chapter>
91<title>POSIX Locale</title> 96<title>Locale system</title>
97<section>
98<title>What are locales?</title>
99<body>
100
101<p>
102A Locale is a set of information that most programs use for determining
103country and language specific settings. The locales and their data
104are part of the system library and can be found
105at <path>/usr/share/locale</path> on most systems. A locale name is generally
106named <c>ab_CD</c> where <c>ab</c> is your two (or three) letter
107language code (as specified in ISO-639) and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country
108code (as specified in ISO-3199).
109</p>
110
111</body>
92<section> 112</section>
93<title>Using Existing Locales</title> 113<section id="variables">
114<title>Environment variables for locales</title>
94<body> 115<body>
95 116
96<p>
97The next step is to set the <c>LANG</c> shell variable, which
98is used by your shell and window manager (and some other
99applications). Valid values can be found in
100<path>/usr/share/locale</path> and generally take the form
101<c>ab_CD</c>, where <c>ab</c> is your two letter language code
102and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country code. The <c>_CD</c>
103is left off if your language is only (or primarily) spoken in
104one country. <c>LANG</c> can be set in
105<path>/etc/profile</path> if you want it to take effect
106system-wide, or in <path>~/.bashrc</path> as a user-specific
107setting.
108</p> 117<p>
118Locale settings are stored in environment variables. These are typically
119set in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> (for system-wide
120settings) and <path>~/.bashrc</path> (for user-specific settings) file.
121The variables controlling different aspects of locale settings
122are given in the table below, those with highest precedence (ie. those
123that override settings below them) are at the top of the table. All variables
124take one name of a locale in <c>ab_CD</c> format given above.
125</p>
109 126
127<table>
128<tr>
129 <th>Variable name</th>
130 <th>Explanation</th>
131</tr>
132<tr>
133 <ti>LC_ALL</ti>
134 <ti>
135 Define all locale settings at once. This is the top level setting for
136 locales which will override any other setting.
137 </ti>
138</tr>
139<tr>
140 <ti>LC_COLLATE</ti>
141 <ti>
142 Define alphabetical ordering of strings. This affects eg. output of sorted
143 directory listing.
144 </ti>
145</tr>
146<tr>
147 <ti>LC_CTYPE</ti>
148 <ti>
149 Define the character handling properties for the system. This determines
150 which characters are seen as part of alphabet, numeric and so on. This also
151 determines the character set used, if applicable.
152 </ti>
153</tr>
154<tr>
155 <ti>LC_MESSAGES</ti>
156 <ti>
157 Programs' localizations for applications that use message based localization
158 scheme (majority of Gnu programs, see next chapters for closer information
159 which do, and how to get the programs, that don't, to work).
160 </ti>
161</tr>
162<tr>
163 <ti>LC_MONETARY</ti>
164 <ti>Defines currency units and formatting of currency type numeric values.</ti>
165</tr>
166<tr>
167 <ti>LC_NUMERIC</ti>
168 <ti>
169 Defines formatting of numeric values which aren't monetary. Affects things
170 such as thousand separator and decimal separator.
171 </ti>
172</tr>
173<tr>
174 <ti>LC_TIME</ti>
175 <ti>Defines formatting of dates and times.</ti>
176</tr>
177<tr>
178 <ti>LC_PAPER</ti>
179 <ti>Defines default paper size.</ti>
180</tr>
181<tr>
182 <ti>LANG</ti>
183 <ti>
184 Defines all locale settings at once. This setting can be overridden by
185 individual LC_* settings above or even by LC_ALL.
186 </ti>
187</tr>
188</table>
189
190<note>
191Even though most programs work with LC_ALL only, some of them misbehave if
192LC_ALL is set but LANG isn't. If you want to play safe, set them <e>both</e>.
193</note>
194
195<p>
196Most typically users only set the LANG variable and perhaps LC_CTYPE variable
197on user level by adding definitions to shells startup files defining
198the environment variable manually from command line:
199</p>
200
110<pre caption="setting the POSIX locale"> 201<pre caption="setting the German locale">
111export LANG="de_DE@euro" 202export LANG="de_DE@euro"
112</pre> 203</pre>
113 204
114<note> 205<note>
115Appended <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the new Euro 206Append <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the Euro
116currency symbol (&#8364;) 207currency symbol (&#8364;)
117</note> 208</note>
118 209
210<p>
211For message based localization to work in programs that support it, you will
212probably need to have programs compiled with the <c>nls</c> (Native language
213support) USE flag set. Most of the programs using nls also need the gettext
214library to extract and use localized messages. Of course, Gentoo's Portage will
215automatically install it when needed.
216</p>
217
218<p>
219There is also additional localisation variable called LINGUAS, which affects
220to localisation files that get installed in gettext-based programs, and decides
221used localisation for some specific software packages, such as
222<c>kde-base/kde-i18n</c> and <c>app-office/openoffice</c>. The variable
223takes in <e>space</e>-separated list of language codes, and suggested
224place to set it is <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
225</p>
226
227<pre caption="setting LINGUAS in make.conf">
228# <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
229<comment>(Add in the LINGUAS variable. For instance,
230for German, Finnish and English:)</comment>
231LINGUAS="de fi en"
232</pre>
233
234
119</body> 235</body>
120</section> 236</section>
121<section> 237<section>
122<title>Generating Specific Locales</title> 238<title>Generating Specific Locales</title>
123<body> 239<body>
147<body> 263<body>
148 264
149<p> 265<p>
150You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now 266You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
151after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales has been 267after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales has been
152created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag und specify 268created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
153only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. 269only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>.
154</p> 270</p>
155 271
156<pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc"> 272<pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
157echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use 273echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use
159 275
160<p> 276<p>
161Now specify the locales you want to be able to use: 277Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
162</p> 278</p>
163 279
164<pre caption="nano -w /etc/locales.build"> 280<pre caption="Adding locales to /etc/locales.build">
165en_US/ISO-8859-1 281en_US/ISO-8859-1
166en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8 282en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
167de_DE/ISO-8859-1 283de_DE/ISO-8859-1
168de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15 284de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
169</pre> 285</pre>
182<section> 298<section>
183<body> 299<body>
184 300
185<p> 301<p>
186The keyboard layout used by the console is set in 302The keyboard layout used by the console is set in
187<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> by the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. 303<path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> by the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable.
188Valid values can be found in 304Valid values can be found in
189<path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>. 305<path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>.
190<path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout 306<path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout
191(<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some 307(<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
192languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment 308languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
208<section> 324<section>
209<body> 325<body>
210 326
211<p> 327<p>
212The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified 328The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
213in <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c> 329in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c>
214option. 330option.
215</p> 331</p>
216 332
217<pre caption="setting the X keymap"> 333<pre caption="setting the X keymap">
218 Section "InputDevice" 334 Section "InputDevice"
231<title>KDE</title> 347<title>KDE</title>
232<section> 348<section>
233<body> 349<body>
234 350
235<p> 351<p>
236For KDE you have to install the kde-i18n package with the appropriate 352For KDE you have to install the <c>kde-base/kde-i18n</c> package. Kde-i18n
237LINGUAS environment variable set:</p> 353respects <uri link="#variables">LINGUAS variable</uri> described earlier.
238
239<pre caption="Install localized KDE">
240# <i>LINGUAS="de" emerge kde-i18n</i>
241</pre> 354</p>
242 355
243</body> 356</body>
244</section> 357</section>
245</chapter> 358</chapter>
246 359
296rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for 409rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for
297instance: 410instance:
298</p> 411</p>
299 412
300<pre caption="setting fonts for xterm"> 413<pre caption="setting fonts for xterm">
301<codenote>(in your home directory)</codenote> 414<comment>(in your home directory)</comment>
302# <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i> 415# <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
303# <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i> 416# <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
304</pre> 417</pre>
305 418
306</body> 419</body>
332</note> 445</note>
333 446
334</body> 447</body>
335</section> 448</section>
336<section> 449<section>
337<title>Language for OpenOffice</title> 450<title>OpenOffice.Org</title>
338<body> 451<body>
339 452
340<note>
341Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The
342default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS.
343</note>
344
345<p>
346The default language for OpenOffice is set as "ENUS"(01). If you wish to
347change the default language for OpenOffice, check the ebuild for the
348default language code.
349</p> 453<p>
350 454The current <c>app-office/openoffice</c> (or <c>-ximian</c>) source ebuilds
351<pre caption="emerge openoffice with desired default language"> 455support <uri link="#variables">LINGUAS variable</uri> for selecting installed
352# <i>LANGUAGE="01" emerge openoffice</i> 456GUI language packs. The current <e>stable</e>
353<comment>01 is the ENUS language code for openoffice</comment> 457<c>app-office/openoffice-bin</c> binary ebuilds do <e>not</e> yet
458support LINGUAS variable, however, so in order to use localised OpenOffice.Org
459you must either install the source version, or, with your discretion, the
460unstable binary version. To see status of GUI translation,
461hyphenation, spell checking and other localisations on your language, please
462refer to
463<uri link="http://l10n.openoffice.org/languages.html">OpenOffice.Org
464localisation web site</uri>.
354</pre> 465</p>
355 466
356</body> 467</body>
357</section> 468</section>
358</chapter> 469</chapter>
359 470

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