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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.15 2004/11/01 20:15:44 dertobi123 Exp $ -->
2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 4
4<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
5<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
6<author title="Author"><mail link="holler@ahsoftware.de"> 7<author title="Author">
7 Alexander Holler</mail> 8 <mail link="holler@gentoo.de">Alexander Holler</mail>
8</author> 9</author>
9<author title="Translator/Editor"><mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu"> 10<author title="Translator/Editor">
10 Steven Lucy</mail> 11 <mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">Steven Lucy</mail>
12</author>
13<author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
15</author>
16<author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail>
18</author>
19<author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail>
11</author> 21</author>
12 22
13<abstract> 23<abstract>
14This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any 24This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
15European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from 25European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
16the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the Euro currency symbol. 26the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the Euro currency symbol.
17</abstract> 27</abstract>
18 28
29<version>1.11</version>
30<date>November 1, 2004</date>
31
19<chapter> 32<chapter>
20<title>Timezone</title> 33<title>Timezone</title>
21<section> 34<section>
22 <body> 35<body>
23 <p>In order to keep time properly, 36
24 <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to the correct time zone 37<p>
25 data file. Look around in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path> 38In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to
26 and pick your timezone or a near-by big city. 39the correct time zone data file. Look around in
40<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path> and pick your timezone or a near-by big city.
41</p>
42
27<pre caption="setting the timezone"> 43<pre caption="setting the timezone">
28# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i> 44# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i>
29# <i>date</i> 45# <i>date</i>
30Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003 46Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003
31</pre> 47</pre>
48
49<note>
32<note>Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET") 50Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET")
33is correct for your area.</note> 51is correct for your area.
52</note>
53
54<note>
34<note>You can set the value of <i>TZ</i> to be everything after the 55You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the
35<path>/usr/share/zoninfo</path> in your shell rc file 56<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path> in your shell rc file
36(<path>.bash_profile</path> for bash) for a user-level setting. In this case 57(<path>.bash_profile</path> for bash) for a user-level setting. In this case
37<i>TZ="Europe/Berlin"</i>.</note> 58<c>TZ="Europe/Berlin"</c>.
38 </p> 59</note>
39 </body> 60
61</body>
40</section> 62</section>
41</chapter> 63</chapter>
42 64
43<chapter> 65<chapter>
44<title>System Clock</title> 66<title>System Clock</title>
45<section> 67<section>
46 <body> 68<body>
47 <p> 69
70<p>
48 In most Gentoo Linux installations, your system clock is set to 71In most Gentoo Linux installations, your system clock is set to
49 UTC (or GMT, Greenwhich Mean Time) and then your timezone is 72UTC (or GMT, Greenwhich Mean Time) and then your timezone is
50 taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If, 73taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If,
51 for some reason, you need your system clock not to be in UTC, 74for some reason, you need your system clock not to be in UTC,
52 you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the 75you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the
53 value of <i>CLOCK</i>. 76value of <c>CLOCK</c>.
77</p>
54 78
55<pre caption="local vs. GMT clock"> 79<pre caption="local vs. GMT clock">
56 <codenote>recommended:</codenote> 80<codenote>recommended:</codenote>
57 CLOCK="UTC" 81CLOCK="UTC"
58 <codenote>or:</codenote> 82<codenote>or:</codenote>
59 CLOCK="local" 83CLOCK="local"
60</pre> 84</pre>
61 </p> 85
62 </body> 86</body>
63</section> 87</section>
64</chapter> 88</chapter>
65 89
66<chapter> 90<chapter>
67<title>POSIX Locale</title> 91<title>POSIX Locale</title>
68<section> 92<section>
69 <body> 93<title>Using Existing Locales</title>
70 <p> 94<body>
95
96<p>
71 The next step is to set the <i>LANG</i> shell variable, which 97The next step is to set the <c>LANG</c> shell variable, which
72 is used by your shell and window manager (and some other 98is used by your shell and window manager (and some other
73 applications). Valid values can be found in 99applications). Valid values can be found in
74 <path>/usr/share/locale</path> and generally take the form 100<path>/usr/share/locale</path> and generally take the form
75 <i>ab_CD</i>, where <i>ab</i> is your two letter language code 101<c>ab_CD</c>, where <c>ab</c> is your two letter language code
76 and <i>CD</i> is your two letter country code. the <i>_CD</i> 102and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country code. The <c>_CD</c>
77 is left off if your language is only (or primarily) spoken in 103is left off if your language is only (or primarily) spoken in
78 one country. <i>LANG</i> can be set in 104one country. <c>LANG</c> can be set in
79 <path>/etc/profile</path> if you want it to take effect 105<path>/etc/profile</path> if you want it to take effect
80 system-wide, or in <path>~/.bashrc</path> as a user-specific 106system-wide, or in <path>~/.bashrc</path> as a user-specific
81 setting. 107setting.
108</p>
109
82<pre caption="setting the POSIX locale"> 110<pre caption="setting the POSIX locale">
83 export LANG="de_DE@euro" 111export LANG="de_DE@euro"
84</pre> 112</pre>
113
114<note>
85<note>Appended <i>@euro</i> to your locale if you want to use the new Euro 115Appended <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the new Euro
86currency symbol (&#8364;)</note> 116currency symbol (&#8364;)
117</note>
118
119</body>
120</section>
121<section>
122<title>Generating Specific Locales</title>
123<body>
124
125<p>
126If you use a locale that isn't available by default, you should use
127<c>localedef</c> to generate your locale. For instance:
87 </p> 128</p>
88 </body> 129
130<pre caption="Generating a locale using localedef">
131# <i>localedef -c -i en_US -f ISO-8859-15 en_US.ISO-8859-15</i>
132</pre>
133
134<p>
135After having generated the locale, you can export the LANG variable as you see
136fit.
137</p>
138
139<pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable">
140# <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i>
141</pre>
142
143</body>
144</section>
145<section>
146<title>The userlocales USE flag</title>
147<body>
148
149<p>
150You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
151after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales has been
152created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag und specify
153only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>.
154</p>
155
156<pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
157echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use
158</pre>
159
160<p>
161Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
162</p>
163
164<pre caption="nano -w /etc/locales.build">
165en_US/ISO-8859-1
166en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
167de_DE/ISO-8859-1
168de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
169</pre>
170
171<p>
172The next step is to re-compile <c>glibc</c>. Of course you can defer this until
173the next <c>glibc</c> upgrade is available.
174</p>
175
176</body>
89</section> 177</section>
90</chapter> 178</chapter>
91 179
92<chapter> 180<chapter>
93<title>Keyboard layout for the console</title> 181<title>Keyboard layout for the console</title>
94<section> 182<section>
95 <body> 183<body>
96 <p> 184
185<p>
97 The keyboard layoud used by the console is set in 186The keyboard layout used by the console is set in
98 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> by the <i>KEYMAP</i> variable. 187<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> by the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable.
99 Valid values can be found in 188Valid values can be found in
100 <path>/usr/share/keymaps/<i>{arch}</i>/</path>. 189<path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>.
101 <path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout 190<path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout
102 (<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some 191(<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
103 languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment 192languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
104 to decide which one fits your needs best. 193to decide which one fits your needs best.
194</p>
195
105<pre caption="setting the console keymap"> 196<pre caption="setting the console keymap">
106 KEYMAP="de" 197KEYMAP="de"
107 KEYMAP="de-latin1" 198KEYMAP="de-latin1"
108 KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys" 199KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys"
109</pre> 200</pre>
110 </p> 201
111 </body> 202</body>
112</section> 203</section>
113</chapter> 204</chapter>
114 205
115<chapter> 206<chapter>
116<title>Keyboard layout for the X server</title> 207<title>Keyboard layout for the X server</title>
117<section> 208<section>
118 <body> 209<body>
210
211<p>
119 <p>The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified 212The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
120 in <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> by the <i>XkbLayout</i> 213in <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c>
121 option. 214option.
215</p>
216
122<pre caption="setting the X keymap"> 217<pre caption="setting the X keymap">
123 Section "InputDevice" 218 Section "InputDevice"
124 Identifier "Keyboard1" 219 Identifier "Keyboard1"
125 ... 220 ...
126 Option "XkbLayout" "de" 221 Option "XkbLayout" "de"
127 # Option XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys" 222 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys"
128 ... 223 ...
129</pre> 224</pre>
130 </p> 225
131 </body> 226</body>
227</section>
228</chapter>
229
230<chapter>
231<title>KDE</title>
232<section>
233<body>
234
235<p>
236For KDE you have to install the kde-i18n package with the appropriate
237LINGUAS environment variable set:</p>
238
239<pre caption="Install localized KDE">
240# <i>LINGUAS="de" emerge kde-i18n</i>
241</pre>
242
243</body>
132</section> 244</section>
133</chapter> 245</chapter>
134 246
135<chapter> 247<chapter>
136<title>The Euro Symbol for the Console</title> 248<title>The Euro Symbol for the Console</title>
137<section> 249<section>
138 <body> 250<body>
139 <p> 251
252<p>
140 In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you 253In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you
141 will need to set <i>CONSOLEFONT</i> in 254will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in
142 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in 255<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in
143 <path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the 256<path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the
144 <c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat0-16</c> has the Euro symbol. 257<c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol.
258</p>
259
145<pre caption="setting the console font"> 260<pre caption="setting the console font">
146 CONSOLEFONT="lat0-16" 261CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16"
147</pre> 262</pre>
148 </p>
149 </body>
150</section>
151</chapter>
152 263
153<chapter> 264</body>
154 <title>The Euro Symbol in X</title>
155<section> 265</section>
266</chapter>
267
268<chapter>
269<title>The Euro Symbol in X</title>
270<section>
156 <title>Most Applications</title> 271<title>Most Applications</title>
157 <body> 272<body>
273
274<p>
158 <p>Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little 275Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little
159 bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <i> 276bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <c>fixed</c>
160 fixed</i> and <i>variable</i> definitions in 277and <c>variable</c> definitions in
161 <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end 278<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end
162 in <i>iso8859-15</i> instead of <i>iso8859-1</i>. 279in <c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>.
280</p>
281
163<pre caption="setting default X fonts"> 282<pre caption="setting default X fonts">
164 fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15 283fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15
165 variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15 284variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
166</pre> 285</pre>
167 </p> 286
287<p>
168 <p>Some applications use their own font, and you will have to 288Some applications use their own font, and you will have to
169 tell them separately to use a font with the Euro symbol. You 289tell them separately to use a font with the Euro symbol. You
170 can do this at a user-specific level in 290can do this at a user-specific level in
171 <path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to 291<path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to
172 <path>/etc/skel/</path> for use by new users), or at a global 292<path>/etc/skel/</path> for use by new users), or at a global
173 level for any application with a resource file in 293level for any application with a resource file in
174 <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In 294<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In
175 these files you generally have to change an existing line, 295these files you generally have to change an existing line,
176 rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for 296rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for
177 instance: 297instance:
298</p>
299
178<pre caption="setting fonts for xterm"> 300<pre caption="setting fonts for xterm">
179 <codenote>(in your home directory)</codenote> 301<codenote>(in your home directory)</codenote>
180 $ <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i> 302# <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
181 $ <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i> 303# <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
182</pre> 304</pre>
183 </p>
184 </body>
185</section>
186 305
306</body>
187<section> 307</section>
308<section>
188 <title>The Euro symbol in (X)Emacs</title> 309<title>The Euro symbol in (X)Emacs</title>
189 <body> 310<body>
311
312<p>
190 <p>To use the Euro symbol in (X)Emacs, add the following to 313To use the Euro symbol in (X)Emacs, add the following to
191 <path>.Xdefaults</path>: 314<path>.Xdefaults</path>:
315</p>
316
192<pre caption="setting the font for emacs"> 317<pre caption="setting the font for emacs">
193 Emacs.default.attributeFont: -*-courier-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15 318Emacs.default.attributeFont: -*-courier-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
194</pre> 319</pre>
320
321<p>
195 </p><p>For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little 322For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little
196 more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add: 323more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add:
324</p>
325
197<pre caption="setting the font for xemacs"> 326<pre caption="setting the font for xemacs">
198 (define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[&#8364;]) 327(define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[&#8364;])
199</pre> 328</pre>
329
330<note>
200 <note>The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol.</note> 331The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol.
201 </p> 332</note>
202 </body> 333
334</body>
335</section>
203</section> 336<section>
337<title>Language for OpenOffice</title>
338<body>
204 339
205</chapter> 340<note>
341Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The
342default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS.
343</note>
206 344
207<version>$Revision: 1.6 $</version> 345<p>
208<date>$Date: 2003/10/07 18:41:09 $</date> 346The default language for OpenOffice is set as "ENUS"(01). If you wish to
347change the default language for OpenOffice, check the ebuild for the
348default language code.
349</p>
350
351<pre caption="emerge openoffice with desired default language">
352# <i>LANGUAGE="01" emerge openoffice</i>
353<comment>01 is the ENUS language code for openoffice</comment>
354</pre>
355
356</body>
357</section>
358</chapter>
359
209</guide> 360</guide>

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