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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.9 2003/11/15 00:35:19 neysx Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.15 2004/11/01 20:15:44 dertobi123 Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
7<author title="Author"><mail link="holler@ahsoftware.de"> 7<author title="Author">
8 Alexander Holler</mail> 8 <mail link="holler@gentoo.de">Alexander Holler</mail>
9</author> 9</author>
10<author title="Translator/Editor"><mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu"> 10<author title="Translator/Editor">
11 Steven Lucy</mail> 11 <mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">Steven Lucy</mail>
12</author> 12</author>
13<author title="Editor"> 13<author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail> 14 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
15</author> 15</author>
16<author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail>
18</author>
19<author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail>
21</author>
22
16<abstract> 23<abstract>
17This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any 24This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
18European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from 25European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
19the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the Euro currency symbol. 26the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the Euro currency symbol.
20</abstract> 27</abstract>
21 28
29<version>1.11</version>
30<date>November 1, 2004</date>
31
22<chapter> 32<chapter>
23<title>Timezone</title> 33<title>Timezone</title>
24<section> 34<section>
25 <body> 35<body>
26 <p>In order to keep time properly, 36
27 <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to the correct time zone 37<p>
28 data file. Look around in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path> 38In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to
29 and pick your timezone or a near-by big city. 39the correct time zone data file. Look around in
40<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path> and pick your timezone or a near-by big city.
41</p>
42
30<pre caption="setting the timezone"> 43<pre caption="setting the timezone">
31# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i> 44# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i>
32# <i>date</i> 45# <i>date</i>
33Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003 46Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003
34</pre> 47</pre>
48
49<note>
35<note>Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET") 50Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET")
36is correct for your area.</note> 51is correct for your area.
52</note>
53
54<note>
37<note>You can set the value of <i>TZ</i> to be everything after the 55You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the
38<path>/usr/share/zoninfo</path> in your shell rc file 56<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path> in your shell rc file
39(<path>.bash_profile</path> for bash) for a user-level setting. In this case 57(<path>.bash_profile</path> for bash) for a user-level setting. In this case
40<i>TZ="Europe/Berlin"</i>.</note> 58<c>TZ="Europe/Berlin"</c>.
41 </p> 59</note>
42 </body> 60
61</body>
43</section> 62</section>
44</chapter> 63</chapter>
45 64
46<chapter> 65<chapter>
47<title>System Clock</title> 66<title>System Clock</title>
48<section> 67<section>
49 <body> 68<body>
50 <p> 69
70<p>
51 In most Gentoo Linux installations, your system clock is set to 71In most Gentoo Linux installations, your system clock is set to
52 UTC (or GMT, Greenwhich Mean Time) and then your timezone is 72UTC (or GMT, Greenwhich Mean Time) and then your timezone is
53 taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If, 73taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If,
54 for some reason, you need your system clock not to be in UTC, 74for some reason, you need your system clock not to be in UTC,
55 you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the 75you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the
56 value of <i>CLOCK</i>. 76value of <c>CLOCK</c>.
77</p>
57 78
58<pre caption="local vs. GMT clock"> 79<pre caption="local vs. GMT clock">
59 <codenote>recommended:</codenote> 80<codenote>recommended:</codenote>
60 CLOCK="UTC" 81CLOCK="UTC"
61 <codenote>or:</codenote> 82<codenote>or:</codenote>
62 CLOCK="local" 83CLOCK="local"
63</pre> 84</pre>
64 </p> 85
65 </body> 86</body>
66</section> 87</section>
67</chapter> 88</chapter>
68 89
69<chapter> 90<chapter>
70<title>POSIX Locale</title> 91<title>POSIX Locale</title>
71<section> 92<section>
72 <body> 93<title>Using Existing Locales</title>
73 <p> 94<body>
95
96<p>
74 The next step is to set the <i>LANG</i> shell variable, which 97The next step is to set the <c>LANG</c> shell variable, which
75 is used by your shell and window manager (and some other 98is used by your shell and window manager (and some other
76 applications). Valid values can be found in 99applications). Valid values can be found in
77 <path>/usr/share/locale</path> and generally take the form 100<path>/usr/share/locale</path> and generally take the form
78 <i>ab_CD</i>, where <i>ab</i> is your two letter language code 101<c>ab_CD</c>, where <c>ab</c> is your two letter language code
79 and <i>CD</i> is your two letter country code. the <i>_CD</i> 102and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country code. The <c>_CD</c>
80 is left off if your language is only (or primarily) spoken in 103is left off if your language is only (or primarily) spoken in
81 one country. <i>LANG</i> can be set in 104one country. <c>LANG</c> can be set in
82 <path>/etc/profile</path> if you want it to take effect 105<path>/etc/profile</path> if you want it to take effect
83 system-wide, or in <path>~/.bashrc</path> as a user-specific 106system-wide, or in <path>~/.bashrc</path> as a user-specific
84 setting. 107setting.
108</p>
109
85<pre caption="setting the POSIX locale"> 110<pre caption="setting the POSIX locale">
86 export LANG="de_DE@euro" 111export LANG="de_DE@euro"
87</pre> 112</pre>
113
114<note>
88<note>Appended <i>@euro</i> to your locale if you want to use the new Euro 115Appended <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the new Euro
89currency symbol (&#8364;)</note> 116currency symbol (&#8364;)
117</note>
118
119</body>
120</section>
121<section>
122<title>Generating Specific Locales</title>
123<body>
124
125<p>
126If you use a locale that isn't available by default, you should use
127<c>localedef</c> to generate your locale. For instance:
90 </p> 128</p>
91 </body> 129
130<pre caption="Generating a locale using localedef">
131# <i>localedef -c -i en_US -f ISO-8859-15 en_US.ISO-8859-15</i>
132</pre>
133
134<p>
135After having generated the locale, you can export the LANG variable as you see
136fit.
137</p>
138
139<pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable">
140# <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i>
141</pre>
142
143</body>
144</section>
145<section>
146<title>The userlocales USE flag</title>
147<body>
148
149<p>
150You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
151after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales has been
152created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag und specify
153only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>.
154</p>
155
156<pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
157echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use
158</pre>
159
160<p>
161Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
162</p>
163
164<pre caption="nano -w /etc/locales.build">
165en_US/ISO-8859-1
166en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
167de_DE/ISO-8859-1
168de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
169</pre>
170
171<p>
172The next step is to re-compile <c>glibc</c>. Of course you can defer this until
173the next <c>glibc</c> upgrade is available.
174</p>
175
176</body>
92</section> 177</section>
93</chapter> 178</chapter>
94 179
95<chapter> 180<chapter>
96<title>Keyboard layout for the console</title> 181<title>Keyboard layout for the console</title>
97<section> 182<section>
98 <body> 183<body>
99 <p> 184
185<p>
100 The keyboard layout used by the console is set in 186The keyboard layout used by the console is set in
101 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> by the <i>KEYMAP</i> variable. 187<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> by the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable.
102 Valid values can be found in 188Valid values can be found in
103 <path>/usr/share/keymaps/<i>{arch}</i>/</path>. 189<path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>.
104 <path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout 190<path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout
105 (<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some 191(<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
106 languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment 192languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
107 to decide which one fits your needs best. 193to decide which one fits your needs best.
194</p>
195
108<pre caption="setting the console keymap"> 196<pre caption="setting the console keymap">
109 KEYMAP="de" 197KEYMAP="de"
110 KEYMAP="de-latin1" 198KEYMAP="de-latin1"
111 KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys" 199KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys"
112</pre> 200</pre>
113 </p> 201
114 </body> 202</body>
115</section> 203</section>
116</chapter> 204</chapter>
117 205
118<chapter> 206<chapter>
119<title>Keyboard layout for the X server</title> 207<title>Keyboard layout for the X server</title>
120<section> 208<section>
121 <body> 209<body>
210
211<p>
122 <p>The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified 212The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
123 in <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> by the <i>XkbLayout</i> 213in <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c>
124 option. 214option.
215</p>
216
125<pre caption="setting the X keymap"> 217<pre caption="setting the X keymap">
126 Section "InputDevice" 218 Section "InputDevice"
127 Identifier "Keyboard1" 219 Identifier "Keyboard1"
128 ... 220 ...
129 Option "XkbLayout" "de" 221 Option "XkbLayout" "de"
130 # Option XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys" 222 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys"
131 ... 223 ...
132</pre> 224</pre>
133 </p> 225
134 </body> 226</body>
227</section>
228</chapter>
229
230<chapter>
231<title>KDE</title>
232<section>
233<body>
234
235<p>
236For KDE you have to install the kde-i18n package with the appropriate
237LINGUAS environment variable set:</p>
238
239<pre caption="Install localized KDE">
240# <i>LINGUAS="de" emerge kde-i18n</i>
241</pre>
242
243</body>
135</section> 244</section>
136</chapter> 245</chapter>
137 246
138<chapter> 247<chapter>
139<title>The Euro Symbol for the Console</title> 248<title>The Euro Symbol for the Console</title>
140<section> 249<section>
141 <body> 250<body>
142 <p> 251
252<p>
143 In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you 253In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you
144 will need to set <i>CONSOLEFONT</i> in 254will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in
145 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in 255<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in
146 <path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the 256<path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the
147 <c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat0-16</c> has the Euro symbol. 257<c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol.
258</p>
259
148<pre caption="setting the console font"> 260<pre caption="setting the console font">
149 CONSOLEFONT="lat0-16" 261CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16"
150</pre> 262</pre>
151 </p>
152 </body>
153</section>
154</chapter>
155 263
156<chapter> 264</body>
157 <title>The Euro Symbol in X</title>
158<section> 265</section>
266</chapter>
267
268<chapter>
269<title>The Euro Symbol in X</title>
270<section>
159 <title>Most Applications</title> 271<title>Most Applications</title>
160 <body> 272<body>
273
274<p>
161 <p>Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little 275Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little
162 bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <i> 276bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <c>fixed</c>
163 fixed</i> and <i>variable</i> definitions in 277and <c>variable</c> definitions in
164 <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end 278<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end
165 in <i>iso8859-15</i> instead of <i>iso8859-1</i>. 279in <c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>.
280</p>
281
166<pre caption="setting default X fonts"> 282<pre caption="setting default X fonts">
167 fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15 283fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15
168 variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15 284variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
169</pre> 285</pre>
170 </p> 286
287<p>
171 <p>Some applications use their own font, and you will have to 288Some applications use their own font, and you will have to
172 tell them separately to use a font with the Euro symbol. You 289tell them separately to use a font with the Euro symbol. You
173 can do this at a user-specific level in 290can do this at a user-specific level in
174 <path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to 291<path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to
175 <path>/etc/skel/</path> for use by new users), or at a global 292<path>/etc/skel/</path> for use by new users), or at a global
176 level for any application with a resource file in 293level for any application with a resource file in
177 <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In 294<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In
178 these files you generally have to change an existing line, 295these files you generally have to change an existing line,
179 rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for 296rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for
180 instance: 297instance:
298</p>
299
181<pre caption="setting fonts for xterm"> 300<pre caption="setting fonts for xterm">
182 <codenote>(in your home directory)</codenote> 301<codenote>(in your home directory)</codenote>
183 $ <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i> 302# <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
184 $ <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i> 303# <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
185</pre> 304</pre>
186 </p>
187 </body>
188</section>
189 305
306</body>
190<section> 307</section>
308<section>
191 <title>The Euro symbol in (X)Emacs</title> 309<title>The Euro symbol in (X)Emacs</title>
192 <body> 310<body>
311
312<p>
193 <p>To use the Euro symbol in (X)Emacs, add the following to 313To use the Euro symbol in (X)Emacs, add the following to
194 <path>.Xdefaults</path>: 314<path>.Xdefaults</path>:
315</p>
316
195<pre caption="setting the font for emacs"> 317<pre caption="setting the font for emacs">
196 Emacs.default.attributeFont: -*-courier-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15 318Emacs.default.attributeFont: -*-courier-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
197</pre> 319</pre>
320
321<p>
198 </p><p>For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little 322For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little
199 more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add: 323more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add:
324</p>
325
200<pre caption="setting the font for xemacs"> 326<pre caption="setting the font for xemacs">
201 (define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[&#8364;]) 327(define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[&#8364;])
202</pre> 328</pre>
329
330<note>
203 <note>The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol.</note> 331The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol.
204 </p> 332</note>
205 </body> 333
206</section> 334</body>
207<section> 335</section>
336<section>
208 <title>Language for OpenOffice</title> 337<title>Language for OpenOffice</title>
209 <body> 338<body>
339
210 <note> 340<note>
211 Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The 341Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The
212 default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS. 342default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS.
213 </note> 343</note>
214 <p> 344
345<p>
215 The default language for OpenOffice is set as "ENUS"(01). If you wish to 346The default language for OpenOffice is set as "ENUS"(01). If you wish to
216 change the default language for OpenOffice, check the ebuild for the 347change the default language for OpenOffice, check the ebuild for the
217 default language code. 348default language code.
218 </p> 349</p>
350
219<pre caption="emerge openoffice with desired default language"> 351<pre caption="emerge openoffice with desired default language">
220# <i>LANGUAGE="01" emerge openoffice</i> 352# <i>LANGUAGE="01" emerge openoffice</i>
221<comment>01 is the ENUS language code for openoffice</comment> 353<comment>01 is the ENUS language code for openoffice</comment>
222</pre> 354</pre>
355
223 </body> 356</body>
224</section> 357</section>
225</chapter> 358</chapter>
226 359
227<version>1.8</version>
228<date>October 25, 2003</date>
229</guide> 360</guide>

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