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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.12 2004/02/12 22:25:42 dertobi123 Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.28 2005/06/24 18:04:15 fox2mike Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
7<author title="Author"> 7<author title="Author">
8 <mail link="holler@gentoo.de">Alexander Holler</mail> 8 Alexander Holler
9</author> 9</author>
10<author title="Translator/Editor"> 10<author title="Translator/Editor">
11 <mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">Steven Lucy</mail> 11 <mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">Steven Lucy</mail>
12</author> 12</author>
13<author title="Editor"> 13<author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail> 14 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
15</author> 15</author>
16<author title="Editor"> 16<author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail> 17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail>
18</author>
19<author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail>
21</author>
22<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="flammie@gentoo.org">Flammie Pirinen</mail>
18</author> 24</author>
19 25
20<abstract> 26<abstract>
21This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any 27This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
22European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from 28European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
23the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the Euro currency symbol. 29the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the euro currency symbol.
24</abstract> 30</abstract>
25 31
26<version>1.9</version> 32<version>1.19</version>
27<date>February 12, 2004</date> 33<date>2005-06-24</date>
28 34
29<chapter> 35<chapter>
30<title>Timezone</title> 36<title>Time zone</title>
31<section> 37<section>
32<body> 38<body>
33 39
34<p> 40<p>
35In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to 41In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to
47Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET") 53Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET")
48is correct for your area. 54is correct for your area.
49</note> 55</note>
50 56
51<note> 57<note>
52You can set the value of <i>TZ</i> to be everything after the 58You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the
53<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path> in your shell rc file 59<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path> in your shell rc file
54(<path>.bash_profile</path> for bash) for a user-level setting. In this case 60(<path>.bash_profile</path> for bash) for a user-level setting. In this case
55<i>TZ="Europe/Berlin"</i>. 61<c>TZ="Europe/Berlin"</c>.
56</note> 62</note>
57 63
58</body> 64</body>
59</section>
60</chapter>
61
62<chapter>
63<title>System Clock</title>
64<section> 65</section>
65<body> 66</chapter>
66 67
68<chapter>
69<title>Hardware Clock</title>
70<section>
71<body>
72
67<p> 73<p>
68In most Gentoo Linux installations, your system clock is set to 74In most Gentoo Linux installations, your hardware clock is set to
69UTC (or GMT, Greenwhich Mean Time) and then your timezone is 75UTC (or GMT, Greenwich Mean Time) and then your timezone is
70taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If, 76taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If,
71for some reason, you need your system clock not to be in UTC, 77for some reason, you need your hardware clock not to be in UTC,
72you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the 78you will need to edit <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> and change the
73value of <i>CLOCK</i>. 79value of <c>CLOCK</c> from <c>UTC</c> to <c>local</c>.
74</p> 80</p>
75 81
76<pre caption="local vs. GMT clock"> 82<pre caption="local vs. GMT clock">
77<codenote>recommended:</codenote> 83<comment>(recommended:)</comment>
78CLOCK="UTC" 84CLOCK="UTC"
79<codenote>or:</codenote> 85<comment>(or:)</comment>
80CLOCK="local" 86CLOCK="local"
81</pre> 87</pre>
82 88
83</body> 89</body>
84</section> 90</section>
85</chapter> 91</chapter>
86 92
87<chapter> 93<chapter>
88<title>POSIX Locale</title> 94<title>Locale system</title>
95<section>
96<title>What are locales?</title>
97<body>
98
99<p>
100A Locale is a set of information that most programs use for determining
101country and language specific settings. The locales and their data
102are part of the system library and can be found
103at <path>/usr/share/locale</path> on most systems. A locale name is generally
104named <c>ab_CD</c> where <c>ab</c> is your two (or three) letter
105language code (as specified in ISO-639) and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country
106code (as specified in ISO-3199).
107</p>
108
109</body>
89<section> 110</section>
111<section>
112<title>Environment variables for locales</title>
90<body> 113<body>
91 114
92<p>
93The next step is to set the <i>LANG</i> shell variable, which
94is used by your shell and window manager (and some other
95applications). Valid values can be found in
96<path>/usr/share/locale</path> and generally take the form
97<i>ab_CD</i>, where <i>ab</i> is your two letter language code
98and <i>CD</i> is your two letter country code. The <i>_CD</i>
99is left off if your language is only (or primarily) spoken in
100one country. <i>LANG</i> can be set in
101<path>/etc/profile</path> if you want it to take effect
102system-wide, or in <path>~/.bashrc</path> as a user-specific
103setting.
104</p> 115<p>
116Locale settings are stored in environment variables. These are typically
117set in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> (for system-wide
118settings) and <path>~/.bashrc</path> (for user-specific settings) file.
119The variables controlling different aspects of locale settings
120are given in the table below, those with highest precedence (ie. those
121that override settings below them) are at the top of the table. All variables
122take one name of a locale in <c>ab_CD</c> format given above.
123</p>
105 124
125<table>
126<tr>
127 <th>Variable name</th>
128 <th>Explanation</th>
129</tr>
130<tr>
131 <ti>LC_ALL</ti>
132 <ti>
133 Define all locale settings at once. This is the top level setting for
134 locales which will override any other setting.
135 </ti>
136</tr>
137<tr>
138 <ti>LC_COLLATE</ti>
139 <ti>
140 Define alphabetical ordering of strings. This affects eg. output of sorted
141 directory listing.
142 </ti>
143</tr>
144<tr>
145 <ti>LC_CTYPE</ti>
146 <ti>
147 Define the character handling properties for the system. This determines
148 which characters are seen as part of alphabet, numeric and so on. This also
149 determines the character set used, if applicable.
150 </ti>
151</tr>
152<tr>
153 <ti>LC_MESSAGES</ti>
154 <ti>
155 Programs' localizations for applications that use message based localization
156 scheme (majority of Gnu programs, see next chapters for closer information
157 which do, and how to get the programs, that don't, to work).
158 </ti>
159</tr>
160<tr>
161 <ti>LC_MONETARY</ti>
162 <ti>Defines currency units and formatting of currency type numeric values.</ti>
163</tr>
164<tr>
165 <ti>LC_NUMERIC</ti>
166 <ti>
167 Defines formatting of numeric values which aren't monetary. Affects things
168 such as thousand separator and decimal separator.
169 </ti>
170</tr>
171<tr>
172 <ti>LC_TIME</ti>
173 <ti>Defines formatting of dates and times.</ti>
174</tr>
175<tr>
176 <ti>LC_PAPER</ti>
177 <ti>Defines default paper size.</ti>
178</tr>
179<tr>
180 <ti>LANG</ti>
181 <ti>
182 Defines all locale settings at once. This setting can be overridden by
183 individual LC_* settings above or even by LC_ALL.
184 </ti>
185</tr>
186</table>
187
188<note>
189Even though most programs work with LC_ALL only, some of them misbehave if
190LC_ALL is set but LANG isn't. If you want to play safe, set them <e>both</e>.
191</note>
192
193<p>
194Most typically users only set the LANG variable and perhaps LC_CTYPE variable
195on user level by adding definitions to shells startup files defining
196the environment variable manually from command line:
197</p>
198
106<pre caption="setting the POSIX locale"> 199<pre caption="setting the German locale">
107export LANG="de_DE@euro" 200export LANG="de_DE@euro"
108</pre> 201</pre>
109 202
110<note> 203<note>
111Appended <i>@euro</i> to your locale if you want to use the new Euro 204Append <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the Euro
112currency symbol (&#8364;) 205currency symbol (&#8364;)
113</note> 206</note>
114 207
208<p>
209For message based localization to work in programs that support it, you will
210probably need to have programs compiled with the <c>nls</c> (Native language
211support) USE flag set. Most of the programs using nls also need the gettext
212library to extract and use localized messages. Of course, Gentoo's Portage will
213automatically install it when needed.
214</p>
215
216</body>
217</section>
218<section>
219<title>Generating Specific Locales</title>
220<body>
221
222<p>
223If you use a locale that isn't available by default, you should use
224<c>localedef</c> to generate your locale. For instance:
225</p>
226
227<pre caption="Generating a locale using localedef">
228# <i>localedef -c -i en_US -f ISO-8859-15 en_US.ISO-8859-15</i>
229</pre>
230
231<p>
232After having generated the locale, you can export the LANG variable as you see
233fit.
234</p>
235
236<pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable">
237# <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i>
238</pre>
239
240</body>
241</section>
242<section>
243<title>The userlocales USE flag</title>
244<body>
245
246<p>
247You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
248after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales has been
249created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
250only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>.
251</p>
252
253<pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
254echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use
255</pre>
256
257<p>
258Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
259</p>
260
261<pre caption="Adding locales to /etc/locales.build">
262en_US/ISO-8859-1
263en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
264de_DE/ISO-8859-1
265de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
266</pre>
267
268<p>
269The next step is to re-compile <c>glibc</c>. Of course you can defer this until
270the next <c>glibc</c> upgrade is available.
271</p>
272
115</body> 273</body>
116</section> 274</section>
117</chapter> 275</chapter>
118 276
119<chapter> 277<chapter>
121<section> 279<section>
122<body> 280<body>
123 281
124<p> 282<p>
125The keyboard layout used by the console is set in 283The keyboard layout used by the console is set in
126<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> by the <i>KEYMAP</i> variable. 284<path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> by the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable.
127Valid values can be found in 285Valid values can be found in
128<path>/usr/share/keymaps/<i>{arch}</i>/</path>. 286<path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>.
129<path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout 287<path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout
130(<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some 288(<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
131languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment 289languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
132to decide which one fits your needs best. 290to decide which one fits your needs best.
133</p> 291</p>
147<section> 305<section>
148<body> 306<body>
149 307
150<p> 308<p>
151The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified 309The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
152in <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> by the <i>XkbLayout</i> 310in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c>
153option. 311option.
154</p> 312</p>
155 313
156<pre caption="setting the X keymap"> 314<pre caption="setting the X keymap">
157 Section "InputDevice" 315 Section "InputDevice"
171<section> 329<section>
172<body> 330<body>
173 331
174<p> 332<p>
175For KDE you have to install the kde-i18n package with the appropriate 333For KDE you have to install the kde-i18n package with the appropriate
176LINGUAS environment variable set:</p> 334LINGUAS variable set:
335</p>
177 336
178<pre caption="Install localized KDE"> 337<pre caption="Install localized KDE">
338# <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
339<comment>(Add in the LINGUAS variable. For instance, for the German language:)</comment>
340LINGUAS="de"
341
342<comment>(Now install kde-i18n)</comment>
179# <i>LINGUAS="de" emerge kde-i18n</i> 343# <i>emerge kde-i18n</i>
180</pre> 344</pre>
181 345
182</body> 346</body>
183</section> 347</section>
184</chapter> 348</chapter>
188<section> 352<section>
189<body> 353<body>
190 354
191<p> 355<p>
192In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you 356In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you
193will need to set <i>CONSOLEFONT</i> in 357will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in
194<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in 358<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in
195<path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the 359<path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the
196<c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol. 360<c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol.
197</p> 361</p>
198 362
210<title>Most Applications</title> 374<title>Most Applications</title>
211<body> 375<body>
212 376
213<p> 377<p>
214Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little 378Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little
215bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <i> 379bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <c>fixed</c>
216fixed</i> and <i>variable</i> definitions in 380and <c>variable</c> definitions in
217<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end 381<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end
218in <i>iso8859-15</i> instead of <i>iso8859-1</i>. 382in <c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>.
219</p> 383</p>
220 384
221<pre caption="setting default X fonts"> 385<pre caption="setting default X fonts">
222fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15 386fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15
223variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15 387variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
235rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for 399rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for
236instance: 400instance:
237</p> 401</p>
238 402
239<pre caption="setting fonts for xterm"> 403<pre caption="setting fonts for xterm">
240<codenote>(in your home directory)</codenote> 404<comment>(in your home directory)</comment>
241# <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i> 405# <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
242# <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i> 406# <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
243</pre> 407</pre>
244 408
245</body> 409</body>
271</note> 435</note>
272 436
273</body> 437</body>
274</section> 438</section>
275<section> 439<section>
276<title>Language for OpenOffice</title> 440<title>Language for OpenOffice.org</title>
277<body> 441<body>
278 442
279<note> 443<note>
280Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The 444Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The
281default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS. 445default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS.
282</note> 446</note>
283 447
284<p> 448<p>
449Please note that this package now uses the LINGUAS variable to
450provide localization. The old LANGUAGE=ENUS|PORT system does <e>not</e> work
285The default language for OpenOffice is set as "ENUS"(01). If you wish to 451anymore. The default language for OpenOffice.org is set as "US English". If you
286change the default language for OpenOffice, check the ebuild for the 452wish to change the default language for OpenOffice.org, check the ebuild for the
287default language code. 453default language code.
288</p> 454</p>
289 455
290<pre caption="emerge openoffice with desired default language"> 456<pre caption="Example: emerge openoffice for german environment">
457# <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
458<comment>(Add in the LINGUAS variable. For instance, for the German language:)</comment>
459LINGUAS="de"
460
461<comment>(Now install openoffice)</comment>
291# <i>LANGUAGE="01" emerge openoffice</i> 462# <i>emerge openoffice</i>
292<comment>01 is the ENUS language code for openoffice</comment>
293</pre> 463</pre>
294 464
295</body> 465</body>
296</section> 466</section>
297</chapter> 467</chapter>

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