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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.28 2005/06/24 18:04:15 fox2mike Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.37 2006/04/24 21:15:22 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
7<author title="Author"> 7<author title="Author">
27This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any 27This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
28European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from 28European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
29the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the euro currency symbol. 29the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the euro currency symbol.
30</abstract> 30</abstract>
31 31
32<version>1.19</version> 32<version>1.27</version>
33<date>2005-06-24</date> 33<date>2006-04-24</date>
34 34
35<chapter> 35<chapter>
36<title>Time zone</title> 36<title>Time zone</title>
37<section> 37<section>
38<body> 38<body>
39 39
40<p> 40<p>
41In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to 41In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must contain the
42the correct time zone data file. Look around in 42correct time zone data. Look around in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path>
43<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path> and pick your timezone or a near-by big city. 43and pick your timezone or a near-by big city. Please avoid the
44<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
45indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact GMT+8.
44</p> 46</p>
45 47
46<pre caption="setting the timezone"> 48<pre caption="setting the timezone">
47# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i> 49# <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i>
48# <i>date</i> 50# <i>date</i>
49Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003 51Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003
50</pre> 52</pre>
51 53
52<note> 54<note>
101country and language specific settings. The locales and their data 103country and language specific settings. The locales and their data
102are part of the system library and can be found 104are part of the system library and can be found
103at <path>/usr/share/locale</path> on most systems. A locale name is generally 105at <path>/usr/share/locale</path> on most systems. A locale name is generally
104named <c>ab_CD</c> where <c>ab</c> is your two (or three) letter 106named <c>ab_CD</c> where <c>ab</c> is your two (or three) letter
105language code (as specified in ISO-639) and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country 107language code (as specified in ISO-639) and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country
106code (as specified in ISO-3199). 108code (as specified in ISO-3166).
107</p> 109</p>
108 110
109</body> 111</body>
110</section>
111<section> 112</section>
113<section id="variables">
112<title>Environment variables for locales</title> 114<title>Environment variables for locales</title>
113<body> 115<body>
114 116
115<p> 117<p>
116Locale settings are stored in environment variables. These are typically 118Locale settings are stored in environment variables. These are typically
211support) USE flag set. Most of the programs using nls also need the gettext 213support) USE flag set. Most of the programs using nls also need the gettext
212library to extract and use localized messages. Of course, Gentoo's Portage will 214library to extract and use localized messages. Of course, Gentoo's Portage will
213automatically install it when needed. 215automatically install it when needed.
214</p> 216</p>
215 217
218<p>
219Once you have set the right locale, be sure to update your environment
220variables to make your system aware of the change:
221</p>
222
223<pre caption="Update the environment">
224# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
225</pre>
226
227<p>
228After this, you will need to kill your X server by pressing
229<c>Ctrl-Alt-Backspace</c>, log out, then log in as user.
230</p>
231
232<p>
233Now, verify that the changes have taken effect:
234</p>
235
236<pre caption="Verify env changes">
237$ <i>env | grep -i LC_</i>
238</pre>
239
240<p>
241There is also additional localisation variable called LINGUAS, which affects
242to localisation files that get installed in gettext-based programs, and decides
243used localisation for some specific software packages, such as
244<c>kde-base/kde-i18n</c> and <c>app-office/openoffice</c>. The variable
245takes in <e>space</e>-separated list of language codes, and suggested
246place to set it is <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
247</p>
248
249<pre caption="setting LINGUAS in make.conf">
250# <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
251<comment>(Add in the LINGUAS variable. For instance,
252for German, Finnish and English:)</comment>
253LINGUAS="de fi en"
254</pre>
255
256
216</body> 257</body>
217</section> 258</section>
218<section> 259<section>
219<title>Generating Specific Locales</title> 260<title>Generating Specific Locales</title>
220<body> 261<body>
234</p> 275</p>
235 276
236<pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable"> 277<pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable">
237# <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i> 278# <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i>
238</pre> 279</pre>
280
281<p>
282Be sure to update the environment after the change:
283</p>
284
285<pre caption="Update the environment">
286# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
287</pre>
288
289<p>
290After this, you will need to kill your X server by pressing
291<c>Ctrl-Alt-Backspace</c>, log out, then log in as user.
292</p>
239 293
240</body> 294</body>
241</section> 295</section>
242<section> 296<section>
243<title>The userlocales USE flag</title> 297<title>The userlocales USE flag</title>
314<pre caption="setting the X keymap"> 368<pre caption="setting the X keymap">
315 Section "InputDevice" 369 Section "InputDevice"
316 Identifier "Keyboard1" 370 Identifier "Keyboard1"
317 ... 371 ...
318 Option "XkbLayout" "de" 372 Option "XkbLayout" "de"
319 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys" 373 #Option "XkbModel" "pc105" <comment>## this is for international keyboards.</comment>
374 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys" <comment>## this would be used for xterm input</comment>
320 ... 375 ...
321</pre> 376</pre>
322 377
378<p>
379If you have an international keyboard layout, you should set the option
380<c>XkbModel</c> to <c>pc102</c> or <c>pc105</c>, as this will allow mapping of the
381additional keys specific to your keyboard.
382</p>
383
384<p>
385Deadkeys allow you to press keys that will not show immediately but will be
386combined with another letter to produce a single character such as é,è,á,à,
387etc. Setting <c>XkbVariant</c> to <c>nodeadkeys</c> allows input these special
388characters into X terminals.
389</p>
390
391<p>
392If you would like to switch between more than one keyboard layout (for example
393English and Russian), all you have to do is add a few lines to
394<path>xorg.conf</path> that specify the desired layouts and the shortcut
395command.
396</p>
397
398<pre caption="Switching between two keyboard layouts">
399 Section "InputDevice"
400 Identifier "Keyboard1"
401 ...
402 Option "XkbLayout" "us,ru"
403 Option "XkbOptions" "grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp_led:scroll"
404</pre>
405
406<p>
407Here, <c>XkbOptions</c> allows you to toggle between keyboard layouts by simply
408pressing <c>Alt-Shift</c>. This will also toggle the Scroll Lock light on or
409off, thanks to the <c>grp_led:scroll</c> option. This is a handy visual
410indicator of which keyboard layout you are using at the moment.
411</p>
412
323</body> 413</body>
324</section> 414</section>
325</chapter> 415</chapter>
326 416
327<chapter> 417<chapter>
328<title>KDE</title> 418<title>KDE</title>
329<section> 419<section>
330<body> 420<body>
331 421
332<p> 422<p>
333For KDE you have to install the kde-i18n package with the appropriate 423For KDE you have to install the <c>kde-base/kde-i18n</c> package. Kde-i18n
334LINGUAS variable set: 424respects <uri link="#variables">LINGUAS variable</uri> described earlier.
335</p>
336
337<pre caption="Install localized KDE">
338# <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
339<comment>(Add in the LINGUAS variable. For instance, for the German language:)</comment>
340LINGUAS="de"
341
342<comment>(Now install kde-i18n)</comment>
343# <i>emerge kde-i18n</i>
344</pre> 425</p>
345 426
346</body> 427</body>
347</section> 428</section>
348</chapter> 429</chapter>
349 430
353<body> 434<body>
354 435
355<p> 436<p>
356In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you 437In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you
357will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in 438will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in
358<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in 439<path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> to a file found in
359<path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the 440<path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the
360<c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol. 441<c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol.
361</p> 442</p>
362 443
363<pre caption="setting the console font"> 444<pre caption="setting the console font">
364CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16" 445CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16"
446</pre>
447
448<p>
449You should verify that <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> is in the boot runlevel:
450</p>
451
452<pre caption="Verify the proper runlevel">
453# <i>rc-update show | grep -i consolefont</i>
454</pre>
455
456<p>
457If no runlevel is displayed for <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>, then add it to the proper level:
458</p>
459
460<pre caption="Add consolefont to boot">
461# <i>rc-update add consolefont boot</i>
365</pre> 462</pre>
366 463
367</body> 464</body>
368</section> 465</section>
369</chapter> 466</chapter>
435</note> 532</note>
436 533
437</body> 534</body>
438</section> 535</section>
439<section> 536<section>
440<title>Language for OpenOffice.org</title> 537<title>OpenOffice.Org</title>
441<body> 538<body>
442 539
443<note>
444Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The
445default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS.
446</note>
447
448<p>
449Please note that this package now uses the LINGUAS variable to
450provide localization. The old LANGUAGE=ENUS|PORT system does <e>not</e> work
451anymore. The default language for OpenOffice.org is set as "US English". If you
452wish to change the default language for OpenOffice.org, check the ebuild for the
453default language code.
454</p> 540<p>
455 541The current stable <c>app-office/openoffice</c> and
456<pre caption="Example: emerge openoffice for german environment"> 542<c>app-office/openoffice-bin</c> ebuilds support the <uri
457# <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i> 543link="#variables">LINGUAS variable</uri> for selecting installed GUI language
458<comment>(Add in the LINGUAS variable. For instance, for the German language:)</comment> 544packs. To see the status of GUI translation, hyphenation, spell checking and
459LINGUAS="de" 545other localisations on your language, please refer to <uri
460 546link="http://l10n.openoffice.org/languages.html">OpenOffice.Org localisation
461<comment>(Now install openoffice)</comment> 547web site</uri>.
462# <i>emerge openoffice</i>
463</pre> 548</p>
464 549
465</body> 550</body>
466</section> 551</section>
467</chapter> 552</chapter>
468 553

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