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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.28 2005/06/24 18:04:15 fox2mike Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.46 2007/05/07 18:11:40 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
7<author title="Author"> 7<author title="Author">
27This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any 27This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
28European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from 28European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
29the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the euro currency symbol. 29the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the euro currency symbol.
30</abstract> 30</abstract>
31 31
32<version>1.19</version> 32<version>1.34</version>
33<date>2005-06-24</date> 33<date>2007-05-07</date>
34 34
35<chapter> 35<chapter>
36<title>Time zone</title> 36<title>Time zone</title>
37<section> 37<section>
38<body> 38<body>
39 39
40<p> 40<p>
41In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to 41In order to keep time properly, you need to select your timezone so that your
42the correct time zone data file. Look around in 42system knows where it is located. Look for your timezone in
43<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path> and pick your timezone or a near-by big city. 43<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. You then set your timezone in
44<path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>. Please avoid the
45<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
46indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact GMT+8.
44</p> 47</p>
45 48
46<pre caption="setting the timezone"> 49<pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
47# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i> 50# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
51<comment>(Suppose you want to use Brussels)</comment>
52# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
53TIMEZONE="Europe/Brussels"
54
48# <i>date</i> 55# <i>date</i>
49Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003 56Wed Mar 8 00:46:05 CET 2006
50</pre> 57</pre>
51 58
52<note> 59<note>
53Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET") 60Make sure that the timezone indicator (in this case "CET")
54is correct for your area. 61is correct for your area.
55</note> 62</note>
56 63
57<note> 64<note>
58You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the 65You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the
101country and language specific settings. The locales and their data 108country and language specific settings. The locales and their data
102are part of the system library and can be found 109are part of the system library and can be found
103at <path>/usr/share/locale</path> on most systems. A locale name is generally 110at <path>/usr/share/locale</path> on most systems. A locale name is generally
104named <c>ab_CD</c> where <c>ab</c> is your two (or three) letter 111named <c>ab_CD</c> where <c>ab</c> is your two (or three) letter
105language code (as specified in ISO-639) and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country 112language code (as specified in ISO-639) and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country
106code (as specified in ISO-3199). 113code (as specified in ISO-3166).
107</p> 114</p>
108 115
109</body> 116</body>
110</section>
111<section> 117</section>
118<section id="variables">
112<title>Environment variables for locales</title> 119<title>Environment variables for locales</title>
113<body> 120<body>
114 121
115<p> 122<p>
116Locale settings are stored in environment variables. These are typically 123Locale settings are stored in environment variables. These are typically
117set in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> (for system-wide 124set in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> (for system-wide
118settings) and <path>~/.bashrc</path> (for user-specific settings) file. 125settings) and <path>~/.bashrc</path> (for user-specific settings) file.
119The variables controlling different aspects of locale settings 126The variables controlling different aspects of locale settings
120are given in the table below, those with highest precedence (ie. those 127are given in the table below, those with highest precedence (i.e. those
121that override settings below them) are at the top of the table. All variables 128that override settings below them) are at the top of the table. All variables
122take one name of a locale in <c>ab_CD</c> format given above. 129take one name of a locale in <c>ab_CD</c> format given above.
123</p> 130</p>
124 131
125<table> 132<table>
135 </ti> 142 </ti>
136</tr> 143</tr>
137<tr> 144<tr>
138 <ti>LC_COLLATE</ti> 145 <ti>LC_COLLATE</ti>
139 <ti> 146 <ti>
140 Define alphabetical ordering of strings. This affects eg. output of sorted 147 Define alphabetical ordering of strings. This affects e.g. output of sorted
141 directory listing. 148 directory listing.
142 </ti> 149 </ti>
143</tr> 150</tr>
144<tr> 151<tr>
145 <ti>LC_CTYPE</ti> 152 <ti>LC_CTYPE</ti>
194Most typically users only set the LANG variable and perhaps LC_CTYPE variable 201Most typically users only set the LANG variable and perhaps LC_CTYPE variable
195on user level by adding definitions to shells startup files defining 202on user level by adding definitions to shells startup files defining
196the environment variable manually from command line: 203the environment variable manually from command line:
197</p> 204</p>
198 205
199<pre caption="setting the German locale"> 206<pre caption="Setting the user locale in ~/.bashrc">
200export LANG="de_DE@euro" 207export LANG="de_DE@euro"
201</pre> 208</pre>
202 209
203<note> 210<note>
204Append <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the Euro 211Append <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the Euro
205currency symbol (&#8364;) 212currency symbol ()
206</note> 213</note>
214
215<p>
216It is also possible to set a system-wide locale for all users and programs:
217</p>
218
219<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
220LC_ALL="de_DE@euro"
221LANG="de_DE@euro"
222</pre>
223
224<p>
225A common practice is to use only per user locale settings and leave the
226default system locale unset. In this case system locale defaults to a
227special value <c>"C"</c>, which for historical reasons maps to the English
228locale.
229</p>
207 230
208<p> 231<p>
209For message based localization to work in programs that support it, you will 232For message based localization to work in programs that support it, you will
210probably need to have programs compiled with the <c>nls</c> (Native language 233probably need to have programs compiled with the <c>nls</c> (Native language
211support) USE flag set. Most of the programs using nls also need the gettext 234support) USE flag set. Most of the programs using nls also need the gettext
212library to extract and use localized messages. Of course, Gentoo's Portage will 235library to extract and use localized messages. Of course, Portage will
213automatically install it when needed. 236automatically install it when needed.
214</p> 237</p>
238
239<p>
240Once you have set the right locale, be sure to update your environment
241variables to make your system aware of the change:
242</p>
243
244<pre caption="Update the environment">
245<comment>(For system-wide default locale:)</comment>
246# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
247
248<comment>(For user-specific locale:)</comment>
249$ <i>source ~/.bashrc</i>
250</pre>
251
252<p>
253After this, you will need to kill your X server by pressing
254<c>Ctrl-Alt-Backspace</c>, log out, then log in as user.
255</p>
256
257<p>
258Now, verify that the changes have taken effect:
259</p>
260
261<pre caption="Verify env changes">
262$ <i>env | grep -i LC_</i>
263</pre>
264
265<p>
266There is also additional localisation variable called LINGUAS, which affects
267to localisation files that get installed in gettext-based programs, and decides
268used localisation for some specific software packages, such as
269<c>kde-base/kde-i18n</c> and <c>app-office/openoffice</c>. The variable
270takes in <e>space</e>-separated list of language codes, and suggested
271place to set it is <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
272</p>
273
274<pre caption="Setting LINGUAS in make.conf">
275# <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
276<comment>(Add in the LINGUAS variable. For instance,
277for German, Finnish and English:)</comment>
278LINGUAS="de fi en"
279</pre>
280
215 281
216</body> 282</body>
217</section> 283</section>
218<section> 284<section>
219<title>Generating Specific Locales</title> 285<title>Generating Specific Locales</title>
235 301
236<pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable"> 302<pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable">
237# <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i> 303# <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i>
238</pre> 304</pre>
239 305
306<p>
307Be sure to update the environment after the change:
308</p>
309
310<pre caption="Update the environment">
311# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
312</pre>
313
314<p>
315After this, you will need to kill your X server by pressing
316<c>Ctrl-Alt-Backspace</c>, log out, then log in as user.
317</p>
318
240</body> 319</body>
241</section>
242<section> 320</section>
243<title>The userlocales USE flag</title> 321<section>
322<title>Generating locales for glibc</title>
244<body> 323<body>
245 324
246<p> 325<p>
247You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now 326You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
248after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales has been
249created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
250only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. 327specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
251</p>
252
253<pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
254echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use
255</pre>
256
257<p> 328</p>
258Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
259</p>
260 329
261<pre caption="Adding locales to /etc/locales.build"> 330<pre caption="Adding locales to /etc/locale.gen">
262en_US/ISO-8859-1 331en_GB ISO-8859-1
263en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8 332en_GB.UTF-8 UTF-8
264de_DE/ISO-8859-1 333de_DE ISO-8859-1
265de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15 334de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
266</pre> 335</pre>
267 336
337<p>
338The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
339have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
268<p> 340</p>
269The next step is to re-compile <c>glibc</c>. Of course you can defer this until 341
270the next <c>glibc</c> upgrade is available. 342<note>
343<c>locale-gen</c> is available in <c>glibc-2.3.6-r4</c> and newer. If you have
344an older version of glibc, you should update it now.
345</note>
346
347<p>
348You can verify that your selected locales are available by running <c>locale
349-a</c>.
271</p> 350</p>
272 351
273</body> 352</body>
274</section> 353</section>
275</chapter> 354</chapter>
288(<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some 367(<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
289languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment 368languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
290to decide which one fits your needs best. 369to decide which one fits your needs best.
291</p> 370</p>
292 371
293<pre caption="setting the console keymap"> 372<pre caption="Setting the console keymap">
294KEYMAP="de" 373KEYMAP="de"
295KEYMAP="de-latin1" 374KEYMAP="de-latin1"
296KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys" 375KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys"
297</pre> 376</pre>
298 377
309The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified 388The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
310in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c> 389in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c>
311option. 390option.
312</p> 391</p>
313 392
314<pre caption="setting the X keymap"> 393<pre caption="Setting the X keymap">
315 Section "InputDevice" 394 Section "InputDevice"
316 Identifier "Keyboard1" 395 Identifier "Keyboard1"
317 ... 396 ...
318 Option "XkbLayout" "de" 397 Option "XkbLayout" "de"
319 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys" 398 #Option "XkbModel" "pc105" <comment>## this is for international keyboards.</comment>
399 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys" <comment>## this would be used for xterm input</comment>
320 ... 400 ...
321</pre> 401</pre>
322 402
403<p>
404If you have an international keyboard layout, you should set the option
405<c>XkbModel</c> to <c>pc102</c> or <c>pc105</c>, as this will allow mapping of the
406additional keys specific to your keyboard.
407</p>
408
409<p>
410Deadkeys allow you to press keys that will not show immediately but will be
411combined with another letter to produce a single character such as é,è,á,à,
412etc. Setting <c>XkbVariant</c> to <c>nodeadkeys</c> allows input these special
413characters into X terminals.
414</p>
415
416<p>
417If you would like to switch between more than one keyboard layout (for example
418English and Russian), all you have to do is add a few lines to
419<path>xorg.conf</path> that specify the desired layouts and the shortcut
420command.
421</p>
422
423<pre caption="Switching between two keyboard layouts">
424 Section "InputDevice"
425 Identifier "Keyboard1"
426 ...
427 Option "XkbLayout" "us,ru"
428 Option "XkbOptions" "grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp_led:scroll"
429</pre>
430
431<p>
432Here, <c>XkbOptions</c> allows you to toggle between keyboard layouts by simply
433pressing <c>Alt-Shift</c>. This will also toggle the Scroll Lock light on or
434off, thanks to the <c>grp_led:scroll</c> option. This is a handy visual
435indicator of which keyboard layout you are using at the moment.
436</p>
437
323</body> 438</body>
324</section> 439</section>
325</chapter> 440</chapter>
326 441
327<chapter> 442<chapter>
328<title>KDE</title> 443<title>KDE</title>
329<section> 444<section>
330<body> 445<body>
331 446
332<p> 447<p>
333For KDE you have to install the kde-i18n package with the appropriate 448For KDE you have to install the <c>kde-base/kde-i18n</c> package. Kde-i18n
334LINGUAS variable set: 449respects <uri link="#variables">LINGUAS variable</uri> described earlier.
335</p>
336
337<pre caption="Install localized KDE">
338# <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
339<comment>(Add in the LINGUAS variable. For instance, for the German language:)</comment>
340LINGUAS="de"
341
342<comment>(Now install kde-i18n)</comment>
343# <i>emerge kde-i18n</i>
344</pre> 450</p>
345 451
346</body> 452</body>
347</section> 453</section>
348</chapter> 454</chapter>
349 455
353<body> 459<body>
354 460
355<p> 461<p>
356In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you 462In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you
357will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in 463will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in
358<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in 464<path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> to a file found in
359<path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the 465<path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the
360<c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol. 466<c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol.
361</p> 467</p>
362 468
363<pre caption="setting the console font"> 469<pre caption="Setting the console font">
364CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16" 470CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16"
365</pre> 471</pre>
366 472
473<p>
474You should verify that <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> is in the boot runlevel:
475</p>
476
477<pre caption="Verify the proper runlevel">
478# <i>rc-update show | grep -i consolefont</i>
479</pre>
480
481<p>
482If no runlevel is displayed for <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>, then add it to the proper level:
483</p>
484
485<pre caption="Add consolefont to boot">
486# <i>rc-update add consolefont boot</i>
487</pre>
488
367</body> 489</body>
368</section> 490</section>
369</chapter> 491</chapter>
370 492
371<chapter> 493<chapter>
373<section> 495<section>
374<title>Most Applications</title> 496<title>Most Applications</title>
375<body> 497<body>
376 498
377<p> 499<p>
378Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little 500Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little bit tougher. The
379bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <c>fixed</c> 501first thing you should do is change the <c>fixed</c> and <c>variable</c>
380and <c>variable</c> definitions in 502definitions in <path>/usr/share/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end in
381<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end
382in <c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>. 503<c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>.
383</p> 504</p>
384 505
385<pre caption="setting default X fonts"> 506<pre caption="Setting default X fonts">
386fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15 507fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15
387variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15 508variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
388</pre> 509</pre>
389 510
390<p> 511<p>
391Some applications use their own font, and you will have to 512Some applications use their own font, and you will have to tell them separately
392tell them separately to use a font with the Euro symbol. You 513to use a font with the Euro symbol. You can do this at a user-specific level in
393can do this at a user-specific level in
394<path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to 514<path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to <path>/etc/skel/</path> for
395<path>/etc/skel/</path> for use by new users), or at a global 515use by new users), or at a global level for any application with a resource file
396level for any application with a resource file in
397<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In 516in <path>/usr/share/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In these files you
398these files you generally have to change an existing line, 517generally have to change an existing line, rather than adding a new one. To
399rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for 518change our xterm font, for instance:
400instance:
401</p> 519</p>
402 520
403<pre caption="setting fonts for xterm"> 521<pre caption="Setting fonts for xterm">
404<comment>(in your home directory)</comment> 522<comment>(in your home directory)</comment>
405# <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i> 523$ <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
406# <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i> 524$ <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
407</pre> 525</pre>
408 526
409</body> 527</body>
410</section> 528</section>
411<section> 529<section>
425For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little 543For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little
426more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add: 544more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add:
427</p> 545</p>
428 546
429<pre caption="setting the font for xemacs"> 547<pre caption="setting the font for xemacs">
430(define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[&#8364;]) 548(define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[])
431</pre> 549</pre>
432 550
433<note> 551<note>
434The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol. 552The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol.
435</note> 553</note>
436 554
437</body> 555</body>
438</section> 556</section>
439<section> 557<section>
440<title>Language for OpenOffice.org</title> 558<title>OpenOffice.Org</title>
441<body> 559<body>
442 560
443<note>
444Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The
445default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS.
446</note>
447
448<p>
449Please note that this package now uses the LINGUAS variable to
450provide localization. The old LANGUAGE=ENUS|PORT system does <e>not</e> work
451anymore. The default language for OpenOffice.org is set as "US English". If you
452wish to change the default language for OpenOffice.org, check the ebuild for the
453default language code.
454</p> 561<p>
455 562The current stable <c>app-office/openoffice</c> and
456<pre caption="Example: emerge openoffice for german environment"> 563<c>app-office/openoffice-bin</c> ebuilds support the <uri
457# <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i> 564link="#variables">LINGUAS variable</uri> for selecting installed GUI language
458<comment>(Add in the LINGUAS variable. For instance, for the German language:)</comment> 565packs. To see the status of GUI translation, hyphenation, spell checking and
459LINGUAS="de" 566other localisations on your language, please refer to <uri
460 567link="http://l10n.openoffice.org/languages.html">OpenOffice.Org localisation
461<comment>(Now install openoffice)</comment> 568web site</uri>.
462# <i>emerge openoffice</i>
463</pre> 569</p>
464 570
465</body> 571</body>
466</section> 572</section>
467</chapter> 573</chapter>
468 574

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