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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.28 2005/06/24 18:04:15 fox2mike Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.48 2007/10/04 20:19:59 neysx Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
7<author title="Author"> 7<author title="Author">
27This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any 27This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
28European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from 28European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
29the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the euro currency symbol. 29the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the euro currency symbol.
30</abstract> 30</abstract>
31 31
32<version>1.19</version> 32<version>1.36</version>
33<date>2005-06-24</date> 33<date>2007-10-04</date>
34 34
35<chapter> 35<chapter>
36<title>Time zone</title> 36<title>Time zone</title>
37<section> 37<section>
38<body> 38<body>
39 39
40<p> 40<p>
41In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to 41In order to keep time properly, you need to select your timezone so that your
42the correct time zone data file. Look around in 42system knows where it is located. Look for your timezone in
43<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path> and pick your timezone or a near-by big city. 43<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. You then set your timezone in
44<path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>. Please avoid the
45<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
46indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact GMT+8.
44</p> 47</p>
45 48
46<pre caption="setting the timezone"> 49<pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
47# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i> 50# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
51<comment>(Suppose you want to use Brussels)</comment>
52# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
53TIMEZONE="Europe/Brussels"
54
48# <i>date</i> 55# <i>date</i>
49Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003 56Wed Mar 8 00:46:05 CET 2006
50</pre> 57</pre>
51 58
52<note> 59<note>
53Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET") 60Make sure that the timezone indicator (in this case "CET")
54is correct for your area. 61is correct for your area.
55</note> 62</note>
56 63
57<note> 64<note>
58You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the 65You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the
95<section> 102<section>
96<title>What are locales?</title> 103<title>What are locales?</title>
97<body> 104<body>
98 105
99<p> 106<p>
100A Locale is a set of information that most programs use for determining 107A Locale is a set of information that most programs use for determining country
101country and language specific settings. The locales and their data 108and language specific settings. The locales and their data are part of the
102are part of the system library and can be found 109system library and can be found at <path>/usr/share/locale</path> on most
103at <path>/usr/share/locale</path> on most systems. A locale name is generally 110systems. A locale name is generally named <c>ab_CD</c> where <c>ab</c> is your
104named <c>ab_CD</c> where <c>ab</c> is your two (or three) letter 111two (or three) letter language code (as specified in ISO-639) and <c>CD</c> is
105language code (as specified in ISO-639) and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country 112your two letter country code (as specified in ISO-3166). Variants are often
106code (as specified in ISO-3199). 113appended to locale names, e.g. <c>en_GB.utf8</c> or <c>de_DE@euro</c>. Please
114explore <uri link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Locale">Wikipedia</uri> to read
115more about locales and related articles.
107</p> 116</p>
108 117
109</body> 118</body>
110</section>
111<section> 119</section>
120<section id="variables">
112<title>Environment variables for locales</title> 121<title>Environment variables for locales</title>
113<body> 122<body>
114 123
115<p> 124<p>
116Locale settings are stored in environment variables. These are typically 125Locale settings are stored in environment variables. These are typically
117set in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> (for system-wide 126set in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> (for system-wide
118settings) and <path>~/.bashrc</path> (for user-specific settings) file. 127settings) and <path>~/.bashrc</path> (for user-specific settings) file.
119The variables controlling different aspects of locale settings 128The variables controlling different aspects of locale settings
120are given in the table below, those with highest precedence (ie. those 129are given in the table below, those with highest precedence (i.e. those
121that override settings below them) are at the top of the table. All variables 130that override settings below them) are at the top of the table. All variables
122take one name of a locale in <c>ab_CD</c> format given above. 131take one name of a locale in <c>ab_CD</c> format given above.
123</p> 132</p>
124 133
125<table> 134<table>
135 </ti> 144 </ti>
136</tr> 145</tr>
137<tr> 146<tr>
138 <ti>LC_COLLATE</ti> 147 <ti>LC_COLLATE</ti>
139 <ti> 148 <ti>
140 Define alphabetical ordering of strings. This affects eg. output of sorted 149 Define alphabetical ordering of strings. This affects e.g. output of sorted
141 directory listing. 150 directory listing.
142 </ti> 151 </ti>
143</tr> 152</tr>
144<tr> 153<tr>
145 <ti>LC_CTYPE</ti> 154 <ti>LC_CTYPE</ti>
194Most typically users only set the LANG variable and perhaps LC_CTYPE variable 203Most typically users only set the LANG variable and perhaps LC_CTYPE variable
195on user level by adding definitions to shells startup files defining 204on user level by adding definitions to shells startup files defining
196the environment variable manually from command line: 205the environment variable manually from command line:
197</p> 206</p>
198 207
199<pre caption="setting the German locale"> 208<pre caption="Setting the user locale in ~/.bashrc">
200export LANG="de_DE@euro" 209export LANG="de_DE@euro"
201</pre> 210</pre>
202 211
203<note> 212<note>
204Append <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the Euro 213Append <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the Euro
205currency symbol (&#8364;) 214currency symbol ()
206</note> 215</note>
216
217<p>
218It is also possible to set a system-wide locale for all users and programs:
219</p>
220
221<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
222LC_ALL="de_DE@euro"
223LANG="de_DE@euro"
224</pre>
225
226<p>
227A common practice is to use only per user locale settings and leave the
228default system locale unset. In this case system locale defaults to a
229special value <c>"C"</c>, which for historical reasons maps to the English
230locale.
231</p>
207 232
208<p> 233<p>
209For message based localization to work in programs that support it, you will 234For message based localization to work in programs that support it, you will
210probably need to have programs compiled with the <c>nls</c> (Native language 235probably need to have programs compiled with the <c>nls</c> (Native language
211support) USE flag set. Most of the programs using nls also need the gettext 236support) USE flag set. Most of the programs using nls also need the gettext
212library to extract and use localized messages. Of course, Gentoo's Portage will 237library to extract and use localized messages. Of course, Portage will
213automatically install it when needed. 238automatically install it when needed.
214</p> 239</p>
240
241<p>
242Once you have set the right locale, be sure to update your environment
243variables to make your system aware of the change:
244</p>
245
246<pre caption="Update the environment">
247<comment>(For system-wide default locale:)</comment>
248# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
249
250<comment>(For user-specific locale:)</comment>
251$ <i>source ~/.bashrc</i>
252</pre>
253
254<p>
255After this, you will need to kill your X server by pressing
256<c>Ctrl-Alt-Backspace</c>, log out, then log in as user.
257</p>
258
259<p>
260Now, verify that the changes have taken effect:
261</p>
262
263<pre caption="Verify env changes">
264$ <i>env | grep -i LC_</i>
265</pre>
266
267<p>
268There is also additional localisation variable called LINGUAS, which affects
269to localisation files that get installed in gettext-based programs, and decides
270used localisation for some specific software packages, such as
271<c>kde-base/kde-i18n</c> and <c>app-office/openoffice</c>. The variable
272takes in <e>space</e>-separated list of language codes, and suggested
273place to set it is <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
274</p>
275
276<pre caption="Setting LINGUAS in make.conf">
277# <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
278<comment>(Add in the LINGUAS variable. For instance,
279for German, Finnish and English:)</comment>
280LINGUAS="de fi en"
281</pre>
282
215 283
216</body> 284</body>
217</section> 285</section>
218<section> 286<section>
219<title>Generating Specific Locales</title> 287<title>Generating Specific Locales</title>
235 303
236<pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable"> 304<pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable">
237# <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i> 305# <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i>
238</pre> 306</pre>
239 307
308<p>
309Be sure to update the environment after the change:
310</p>
311
312<pre caption="Update the environment">
313# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
314</pre>
315
316<p>
317After this, you will need to kill your X server by pressing
318<c>Ctrl-Alt-Backspace</c>, log out, then log in as user.
319</p>
320
240</body> 321</body>
241</section>
242<section> 322</section>
243<title>The userlocales USE flag</title> 323<section>
324<title>Generating locales for glibc</title>
244<body> 325<body>
245 326
246<p> 327<p>
247You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now 328You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
248after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales has been
249created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
250only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. 329specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
251</p>
252
253<pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
254echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use
255</pre>
256
257<p> 330</p>
258Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
259</p>
260 331
261<pre caption="Adding locales to /etc/locales.build"> 332<pre caption="Adding locales to /etc/locale.gen">
262en_US/ISO-8859-1 333en_GB ISO-8859-1
263en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8 334en_GB.UTF-8 UTF-8
264de_DE/ISO-8859-1 335de_DE ISO-8859-1
265de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15 336de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
266</pre> 337</pre>
267 338
339<p>
340The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
341have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
268<p> 342</p>
269The next step is to re-compile <c>glibc</c>. Of course you can defer this until 343
270the next <c>glibc</c> upgrade is available. 344<note>
345<c>locale-gen</c> is available in <c>glibc-2.3.6-r4</c> and newer. If you have
346an older version of glibc, you should update it now.
347</note>
348
349<p>
350You can verify that your selected locales are available by running <c>locale
351-a</c>.
271</p> 352</p>
272 353
273</body> 354</body>
274</section> 355</section>
275</chapter> 356</chapter>
288(<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some 369(<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
289languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment 370languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
290to decide which one fits your needs best. 371to decide which one fits your needs best.
291</p> 372</p>
292 373
293<pre caption="setting the console keymap"> 374<pre caption="Setting the console keymap">
294KEYMAP="de" 375KEYMAP="de"
295KEYMAP="de-latin1" 376KEYMAP="de-latin1"
296KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys" 377KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys"
297</pre> 378</pre>
298 379
309The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified 390The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
310in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c> 391in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c>
311option. 392option.
312</p> 393</p>
313 394
314<pre caption="setting the X keymap"> 395<pre caption="Setting the X keymap">
315 Section "InputDevice" 396 Section "InputDevice"
316 Identifier "Keyboard1" 397 Identifier "Keyboard1"
317 ... 398 ...
318 Option "XkbLayout" "de" 399 Option "XkbLayout" "de"
319 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys" 400 #Option "XkbModel" "pc105" <comment>## this is for international keyboards.</comment>
401 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys" <comment>## this would be used for xterm input</comment>
320 ... 402 ...
321</pre> 403</pre>
322 404
405<p>
406If you have an international keyboard layout, you should set the option
407<c>XkbModel</c> to <c>pc102</c> or <c>pc105</c>, as this will allow mapping of the
408additional keys specific to your keyboard.
409</p>
410
411<p>
412Deadkeys allow you to press keys that will not show immediately but will be
413combined with another letter to produce a single character such as é,è,á,à,
414etc. Setting <c>XkbVariant</c> to <c>nodeadkeys</c> allows input these special
415characters into X terminals.
416</p>
417
418<p>
419If you would like to switch between more than one keyboard layout (for example
420English and Russian), all you have to do is add a few lines to
421<path>xorg.conf</path> that specify the desired layouts and the shortcut
422command.
423</p>
424
425<pre caption="Switching between two keyboard layouts">
426 Section "InputDevice"
427 Identifier "Keyboard1"
428 ...
429 Option "XkbLayout" "us,ru"
430 Option "XkbOptions" "grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp_led:scroll"
431</pre>
432
433<p>
434Here, <c>XkbOptions</c> allows you to toggle between keyboard layouts by simply
435pressing <c>Alt-Shift</c>. This will also toggle the Scroll Lock light on or
436off, thanks to the <c>grp_led:scroll</c> option. This is a handy visual
437indicator of which keyboard layout you are using at the moment.
438</p>
439
323</body> 440</body>
324</section> 441</section>
325</chapter> 442</chapter>
326 443
327<chapter> 444<chapter>
328<title>KDE</title> 445<title>KDE</title>
329<section> 446<section>
330<body> 447<body>
331 448
332<p> 449<p>
333For KDE you have to install the kde-i18n package with the appropriate 450For KDE you have to install the <c>kde-base/kde-i18n</c> package. Kde-i18n
334LINGUAS variable set: 451respects <uri link="#variables">LINGUAS variable</uri> described earlier.
335</p>
336
337<pre caption="Install localized KDE">
338# <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
339<comment>(Add in the LINGUAS variable. For instance, for the German language:)</comment>
340LINGUAS="de"
341
342<comment>(Now install kde-i18n)</comment>
343# <i>emerge kde-i18n</i>
344</pre> 452</p>
345 453
346</body> 454</body>
347</section> 455</section>
348</chapter> 456</chapter>
349 457
353<body> 461<body>
354 462
355<p> 463<p>
356In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you 464In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you
357will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in 465will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in
358<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in 466<path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> to a file found in
359<path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the 467<path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the
360<c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol. 468<c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol.
361</p> 469</p>
362 470
363<pre caption="setting the console font"> 471<pre caption="Setting the console font">
364CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16" 472CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16"
365</pre> 473</pre>
366 474
475<p>
476You should verify that <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> is in the boot runlevel:
477</p>
478
479<pre caption="Verify the proper runlevel">
480# <i>rc-update -v show | grep -i consolefont</i>
481</pre>
482
483<p>
484If no runlevel is displayed for <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>, then add it to the proper level:
485</p>
486
487<pre caption="Add consolefont to boot">
488# <i>rc-update add consolefont boot</i>
489</pre>
490
367</body> 491</body>
368</section> 492</section>
369</chapter> 493</chapter>
370 494
371<chapter> 495<chapter>
373<section> 497<section>
374<title>Most Applications</title> 498<title>Most Applications</title>
375<body> 499<body>
376 500
377<p> 501<p>
378Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little 502Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little bit tougher. The
379bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <c>fixed</c> 503first thing you should do is change the <c>fixed</c> and <c>variable</c>
380and <c>variable</c> definitions in 504definitions in <path>/usr/share/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end in
381<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end
382in <c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>. 505<c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>.
383</p> 506</p>
384 507
385<pre caption="setting default X fonts"> 508<pre caption="Setting default X fonts">
386fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15 509fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15
387variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15 510variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
388</pre> 511</pre>
389 512
390<p> 513<p>
391Some applications use their own font, and you will have to 514Some applications use their own font, and you will have to tell them separately
392tell them separately to use a font with the Euro symbol. You 515to use a font with the Euro symbol. You can do this at a user-specific level in
393can do this at a user-specific level in
394<path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to 516<path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to <path>/etc/skel/</path> for
395<path>/etc/skel/</path> for use by new users), or at a global 517use by new users), or at a global level for any application with a resource file
396level for any application with a resource file in
397<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In 518in <path>/usr/share/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In these files you
398these files you generally have to change an existing line, 519generally have to change an existing line, rather than adding a new one. To
399rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for 520change our xterm font, for instance:
400instance:
401</p> 521</p>
402 522
403<pre caption="setting fonts for xterm"> 523<pre caption="Setting fonts for xterm">
404<comment>(in your home directory)</comment> 524<comment>(in your home directory)</comment>
405# <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i> 525$ <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
406# <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i> 526$ <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
407</pre> 527</pre>
408 528
409</body> 529</body>
410</section> 530</section>
411<section> 531<section>
425For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little 545For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little
426more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add: 546more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add:
427</p> 547</p>
428 548
429<pre caption="setting the font for xemacs"> 549<pre caption="setting the font for xemacs">
430(define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[&#8364;]) 550(define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[])
431</pre> 551</pre>
432 552
433<note> 553<note>
434The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol. 554The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol.
435</note> 555</note>
436 556
437</body> 557</body>
438</section> 558</section>
439<section> 559<section>
440<title>Language for OpenOffice.org</title> 560<title>OpenOffice.Org</title>
441<body> 561<body>
442 562
443<note>
444Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The
445default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS.
446</note>
447
448<p>
449Please note that this package now uses the LINGUAS variable to
450provide localization. The old LANGUAGE=ENUS|PORT system does <e>not</e> work
451anymore. The default language for OpenOffice.org is set as "US English". If you
452wish to change the default language for OpenOffice.org, check the ebuild for the
453default language code.
454</p> 563<p>
455 564The current stable <c>app-office/openoffice</c> and
456<pre caption="Example: emerge openoffice for german environment"> 565<c>app-office/openoffice-bin</c> ebuilds support the <uri
457# <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i> 566link="#variables">LINGUAS variable</uri> for selecting installed GUI language
458<comment>(Add in the LINGUAS variable. For instance, for the German language:)</comment> 567packs. To see the status of GUI translation, hyphenation, spell checking and
459LINGUAS="de" 568other localisations on your language, please refer to <uri
460 569link="http://l10n.openoffice.org/languages.html">OpenOffice.Org localisation
461<comment>(Now install openoffice)</comment> 570web site</uri>.
462# <i>emerge openoffice</i>
463</pre> 571</p>
464 572
465</body> 573</body>
466</section> 574</section>
467</chapter> 575</chapter>
468 576

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