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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 cam 1.14 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-disk.xml,v 1.13 2004/12/31 02:42:21 vapier Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.10
11 vapier 1.13 <version>1.10</version>
12     <date>2004-12-30</date>
13 swift 1.10
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16     <subsection>
17     <title>Block Devices</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21     We'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
22     and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices.
23     Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and filesystems,
24     you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
25     for your Gentoo Linux installation.
26     </p>
27    
28     <p>
29     To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most famous block device is
30     probably the one that represents the first SCSI HD in a Linux system, namely
31     <path>/dev/sda</path>.
32     </p>
33    
34     <p>
35     The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
36     programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying
37     about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The program can
38     simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
39     randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
40     </p>
41    
42     </body>
43     </subsection>
44     <subsection>
45     <title>Slices</title>
46     <body>
47    
48     <p>
49     Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
50     system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
51     are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On Alpha systems,
52     these are called <e>slices</e>.
53     </p>
54    
55     </body>
56     </subsection>
57     </section>
58     <section>
59     <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
60     <subsection>
61     <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
62     <body>
63    
64     <p>
65     As an example we use the following slice layout:
66     </p>
67    
68     <table>
69     <tr>
70     <th>Slice</th>
71     <th>Description</th>
72     </tr>
73     <tr>
74 swift 1.5 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
75 swift 1.1 <ti>Swap slice</ti>
76     </tr>
77     <tr>
78 swift 1.5 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
79 swift 1.1 <ti>Root slice</ti>
80     </tr>
81     <tr>
82 swift 1.5 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
83 swift 1.1 <ti>Full disk (required)</ti>
84     </tr>
85     </table>
86    
87    
88     <p>
89     If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how
90     many partitions (or volumes) you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
91     <uri link="#fdisk">Using fdisk to Partition your Disk</uri>.
92     </p>
93    
94     </body>
95     </subsection>
96     <subsection>
97     <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
98     <body>
99    
100     <p>
101     The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
102     if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
103     <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
104     If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your
105     <path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside
106     <path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your
107     performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming
108     servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>:
109     security and backups.
110     </p>
111    
112     <p>
113     As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
114     partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
115     </p>
116    
117     <ul>
118     <li>
119 neysx 1.3 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
120 swift 1.1 </li>
121     <li>
122     Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
123     continuously writing files to a partition or volume
124     </li>
125     <li>
126     If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
127     be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
128     it is with multiple partitions)
129     </li>
130     <li>
131     Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
132     nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
133     </li>
134     </ul>
135    
136     <p>
137     However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
138     properly, you might result in having a system with lots
139     of free space on one partition and none on another.
140     </p>
141    
142     </body>
143     </subsection>
144     </section>
145 neysx 1.2 <section id="fdisk">
146 vapier 1.13 <title>Using fdisk to Partition your Disk (SRM only)</title>
147 swift 1.1 <subsection>
148     <body>
149    
150     <p>
151     The following parts explain how to create the example slice layout described
152     previously, namely:
153     </p>
154    
155     <table>
156     <tr>
157     <th>Slice</th>
158     <th>Description</th>
159     </tr>
160     <tr>
161 swift 1.5 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
162 swift 1.1 <ti>Swap slice</ti>
163     </tr>
164     <tr>
165 swift 1.5 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
166 swift 1.1 <ti>Root slice</ti>
167     </tr>
168     <tr>
169 swift 1.5 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
170 swift 1.1 <ti>Full disk (required)</ti>
171     </tr>
172     </table>
173    
174     <p>
175 neysx 1.9 Change your slice layout according to your own preference.
176 swift 1.1 </p>
177    
178    
179     </body>
180     </subsection>
181     <subsection>
182     <title>Identifying Available Disks</title>
183     <body>
184    
185     <p>
186     To figure out what disks you have running, use the following commands:
187     </p>
188    
189     <pre caption="Identifying available disks">
190 vapier 1.7 # <i>dmesg | grep 'drive$'</i> <comment>(For IDE disks)</comment>
191     # <i>dmesg | grep 'scsi'</i> <comment>(For SCSI disks)</comment>
192 swift 1.1 </pre>
193    
194     <p>
195     From this output you should be able to see what disks were detected and their
196     respective <path>/dev</path> entry. In the following parts we assume that the
197     disk is a SCSI disk on <path>/dev/sda</path>.
198     </p>
199    
200     <p>
201     Now fire up <c>fdisk</c>:
202     </p>
203    
204     <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
205     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
206     </pre>
207    
208     </body>
209     </subsection>
210     <subsection>
211     <title>Deleting All Slices</title>
212     <body>
213    
214     <p>
215 vapier 1.7 If your hard drive is completely blank, then you'll have to first create
216     a BSD disklabel.
217     </p>
218    
219 vapier 1.13 <pre caption="Creating a BSD disklabel">
220 vapier 1.7 Command (m for help): <i>b</i>
221     /dev/sda contains no disklabel.
222     Do you want to create a disklabel? (y/n) <i>y</i>
223     <comment>A bunch of drive-specific info will show here</comment>
224     3 partitions:
225     # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
226     c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
227     </pre>
228    
229     <p>
230 vapier 1.13 We start with deleting all slices <e>except</e> the 'c'-slice (a requirement
231     for using BSD disklabels). The following shows how to delete a slice (in
232     the example we use 'a'). Repeat the process to delete all other slices
233     (again, except the 'c'-slice).
234 swift 1.1 </p>
235    
236     <p>
237     Use <c>p</c> to view all existing slices. <c>d</c> is used to delete a slice.
238     </p>
239    
240     <pre caption="Deleting a slice">
241     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>p</i>
242    
243     8 partitions:
244     # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
245     a: 1 235* 234* 4.2BSD 1024 8192 16
246     b: 235* 469* 234* swap
247     c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
248     d: 469* 2076* 1607* unused 0 0
249     e: 2076* 3683* 1607* unused 0 0
250     f: 3683* 5290* 1607* unused 0 0
251     g: 469* 1749* 1280 4.2BSD 1024 8192 16
252     h: 1749* 5290* 3541* unused 0 0
253    
254     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>d</i>
255     Partition (a-h): <i>a</i>
256     </pre>
257    
258     <p>
259     After repeating this process for all slices, a listing should show you something
260     similar to this:
261     </p>
262    
263     <pre caption="Viewing an empty scheme">
264     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>p</i>
265    
266     3 partitions:
267     # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
268     c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
269     </pre>
270    
271     </body>
272     </subsection>
273     <subsection>
274     <title>Creating the Swap Slice</title>
275     <body>
276    
277     <p>
278     On Alpha based systems you don't need a separate boot partition. However, the
279     first cylinder cannot be used as the <c>aboot</c> image will be placed there.
280     </p>
281    
282     <p>
283     We will create a swap slice starting at the third cylinder, with a total
284     size of 1 Gbyte. Use <c>n</c> to create a new slice. After creating the slice,
285 vapier 1.8 we will change its type to <c>1</c> (one), meaning <e>swap</e>.
286 swift 1.1 </p>
287    
288     <pre caption="Creating the swap slice">
289     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>n</i>
290     Partition (a-p): <i>a</i>
291     First cylinder (1-5290, default 1): <i>3</i>
292     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (3-5290, default 5290): <i>+1024M</i>
293    
294     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>t</i>
295     Partition (a-c): <i>a</i>
296     Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>1</i>
297     </pre>
298    
299     <p>
300     After these steps you should see a layout similar to the following:
301     </p>
302    
303     <pre caption="Slice layout after creating the swap slice">
304     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>p</i>
305    
306     3 partitions:
307     # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
308     a: 3 1003 1001 swap
309     c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
310     </pre>
311    
312     </body>
313     </subsection>
314     <subsection>
315     <title>Create the Root Slice</title>
316     <body>
317    
318     <p>
319     We will now create the root slice, starting from the first cylinder <e>after</e>
320     the swap slice. Use the <c>p</c> command to view where the swap slice ends. In
321     our example, this is at 1003, making the root partition start at 1004.
322     </p>
323    
324     <p>
325     Another problem is that there is currently a bug in <c>fdisk</c> making it think
326     the number of available cylinders is one above the real number of cylinders. In
327     other words, when you are asked for the last cylinder, decrease the cylinder
328     number (in this example: 5290) with one.
329     </p>
330    
331     <p>
332     When the partition is created, we change the type to <c>8</c>, for <e>ext2</e>.
333     </p>
334    
335     <pre caption="Creating the root slice">
336     D disklabel command (m for help): <i>n</i>
337     Partition (a-p): <i>b</i>
338     First cylinder (1-5290, default 1): <i>1004</i>
339     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1004-5290, default 5290): <i>5289</i>
340    
341     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>t</i>
342     Partition (a-c): <i>b</i>
343     Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>8</i>
344     </pre>
345    
346     <p>
347     Your slice layout should now be similar to this:
348     </p>
349    
350     <pre caption="Viewing the slice layout">
351     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>p</i>
352    
353     3 partitions:
354     # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
355     a: 3 1003 1001 swap
356     b: 1004 5289 4286 ext2
357     c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
358     </pre>
359    
360     </body>
361     </subsection>
362     <subsection>
363     <title>Save the Slice Layout and Exit</title>
364     <body>
365    
366     <p>
367     Save <c>fdisk</c> by typing <c>w</c>. This will also save your slice layout.
368     </p>
369    
370     <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
371     Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
372     </pre>
373    
374     <p>
375     Now that your slices are created, you can now continue with <uri
376     link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
377     </p>
378    
379     </body>
380     </subsection>
381     </section>
382 vapier 1.13 <section id="fdisk">
383     <title>Using fdisk to Partition your Disk (ARC/AlphaBIOS only)</title>
384     <subsection>
385     <body>
386    
387     <p>
388     The following parts explain how to partition the disk with a layout
389     similar to the one described previously, namely:
390     </p>
391    
392     <table>
393     <tr>
394     <th>Partition</th>
395     <th>Description</th>
396     </tr>
397     <tr>
398     <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
399     <ti>Boot partition</ti>
400     </tr>
401     <tr>
402     <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
403     <ti>Swap partition</ti>
404     </tr>
405     <tr>
406     <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
407     <ti>Root partition</ti>
408     </tr>
409     </table>
410    
411     <p>
412     Change your partition layout according to your own preference.
413     </p>
414    
415     </body>
416     </subsection>
417     <subsection>
418     <title>Identifying Available Disks</title>
419     <body>
420    
421     <p>
422     To figure out what disks you have running, use the following commands:
423     </p>
424    
425     <pre caption="Identifying available disks">
426     # <i>dmesg | grep 'drive$'</i> <comment>(For IDE disks)</comment>
427     # <i>dmesg | grep 'scsi'</i> <comment>(For SCSI disks)</comment>
428     </pre>
429    
430     <p>
431     From this output you should be able to see what disks were detected and their
432     respective <path>/dev</path> entry. In the following parts we assume that the
433     disk is a SCSI disk on <path>/dev/sda</path>.
434     </p>
435    
436     <p>
437     Now fire up <c>fdisk</c>:
438     </p>
439    
440     <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
441     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
442     </pre>
443    
444     </body>
445     </subsection>
446     <subsection>
447     <title>Deleting All Partitions</title>
448     <body>
449    
450     <p>
451     If your hard drive is completely blank, then you'll have to first create
452     a DOS disklabel.
453     </p>
454    
455     <pre caption="Creating a DOS disklabel">
456     Command (m for help): <i>o</i>
457     Building a new DOS disklabel.
458     </pre>
459    
460     <p>
461     We start with deleting all partitions. The following shows how to delete
462     a partition (in the example we use '1'). Repeat the process to delete all
463     other partitions.
464     </p>
465    
466     <p>
467 cam 1.14 Use <c>p</c> to view all existing partitions. <c>d</c> is used to delete a
468     partition.
469 vapier 1.13 </p>
470    
471     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
472     command (m for help): <i>p</i>
473    
474     Disk /dev/sda: 9150 MB, 9150996480 bytes
475     64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 8727 cylinders
476     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
477    
478     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
479     /dev/sda1 1 478 489456 83 Linux
480     /dev/sda2 479 8727 8446976 5 Extended
481     /dev/sda5 479 1433 977904 83 Linux Swap
482     /dev/sda6 1434 8727 7469040 83 Linux
483    
484     command (m for help): <i>d</i>
485     Partition number (1-6): <i>1</i>
486     </pre>
487    
488    
489     </body>
490     </subsection>
491     <subsection>
492     <title>Creating the Boot Partition</title>
493     <body>
494    
495     <p>
496     On Alpha systems which use MILO to boot, we have to create a small vfat
497     boot partition.
498     </p>
499    
500     <pre caption="Creating the boot partition">
501     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
502     Command action
503     e extended
504     p primary partition (1-4)
505     <i>p</i>
506     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
507     First cylinder (1-8727, default 1): <i>1</i>
508     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-8727, default 8727): <i>+16M</i>
509    
510     Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
511     Selected partition 1
512     Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>6</i>
513     Changed system type of partition 1 to 6 (FAT16)
514     </pre>
515    
516     </body>
517     </subsection>
518     <subsection>
519     <title>Creating the Swap Partition</title>
520     <body>
521    
522     <p>
523     We will create a swap partition starting at the third cylinder, with a total
524     size of 1 Gbyte. Use <c>n</c> to create a new partition.
525     </p>
526    
527     <pre caption="Creating the swap partition">
528     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
529     Command action
530     e extended
531     p primary partition (1-4)
532     <i>p</i>
533     Partition number (1-4): <i>2</i>
534     First cylinder (17-8727, default 17): <i>17</i>
535     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (17-8727, default 8727): <i>+1000M</i>
536    
537     Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
538     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
539     Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>82</i>
540     Changed system type of partition 2 to 82 (Linux swap)
541     </pre>
542    
543     <p>
544     After these steps you should see a layout similar to the following:
545     </p>
546    
547     <pre caption="Partition listing after creating a swap partition">
548     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
549    
550     Disk /dev/sda: 9150 MB, 9150996480 bytes
551     64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 8727 cylinders
552     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
553    
554     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
555     /dev/sda1 1 16 16368 6 FAT16
556     /dev/sda2 17 971 977920 82 Linux swap
557     </pre>
558    
559     </body>
560     </subsection>
561     <subsection>
562     <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
563     <body>
564    
565     <p>
566     We will now create the root partition. Again, just use the <c>n</c> command.
567     </p>
568    
569     <pre caption="Creating the root partition">
570     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
571     Command action
572     e extended
573     p primary partition (1-4)
574     <i>p</i>
575     Partition number (1-4): <i>3</i>
576     First cylinder (972-8727, default 972): <i>972</i>
577     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (972-8727, default 8727): <i>8727</i>
578     </pre>
579    
580     <p>
581     After these steps you should see a layout similar to the following:
582     </p>
583    
584     <pre caption="Partition listing after creating the root partition">
585     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
586    
587     Disk /dev/sda: 9150 MB, 9150996480 bytes
588     64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 8727 cylinders
589     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
590    
591     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
592     /dev/sda1 1 16 16368 6 FAT16
593     /dev/sda2 17 971 977920 82 Linux swap
594     /dev/sda3 972 8727 7942144 83 Linux
595     </pre>
596    
597     </body>
598     </subsection>
599     <subsection>
600     <title>Save the Partition Layout and Exit</title>
601     <body>
602    
603     <p>
604     Save <c>fdisk</c> by typing <c>w</c>. This will also save your partition layout.
605     </p>
606    
607     <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
608     Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
609     </pre>
610    
611     <p>
612     Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
613     link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
614     </p>
615    
616     </body>
617     </subsection>
618     </section>
619 swift 1.1 <section id="filesystems">
620     <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
621     <subsection>
622     <title>Introduction</title>
623     <body>
624    
625     <p>
626     Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
627     If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
628     as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
629     link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
630     Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
631     </p>
632    
633     </body>
634     </subsection>
635     <subsection>
636     <title>Filesystems?</title>
637     <body>
638    
639     <p>
640     Several filesystems are available. Most of them are found stable on the
641     Alpha architecture.
642     </p>
643    
644     <p>
645     <b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
646     journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
647     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
648     journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are
649     thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled
650     filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
651     happens to be in an inconsistent state.
652     </p>
653    
654     <p>
655     <b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
656     journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like
657     full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
658     filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables
659     high performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is an excellent
660     filesystem.
661     </p>
662    
663     <p>
664     <b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
665     performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
666     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
667     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
668     solid and usable as both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such
669     as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large
670     files and directories containing tens of thousands of files.
671     </p>
672    
673     <p>
674 neysx 1.4 <b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling which comes with a robust
675     feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
676     filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
677     an uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
678     in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
679     when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
680     deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
681 swift 1.1 </p>
682    
683     <p>
684     <b>JFS</b> is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
685     become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
686     comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this point.
687     </p>
688    
689     </body>
690     </subsection>
691     <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
692     <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
693     <body>
694    
695     <p>
696     To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
697     each possible filesystem:
698     </p>
699    
700     <table>
701     <tr>
702     <th>Filesystem</th>
703     <th>Creation Command</th>
704     </tr>
705     <tr>
706     <ti>ext2</ti>
707     <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
708     </tr>
709     <tr>
710     <ti>ext3</ti>
711     <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
712     </tr>
713     <tr>
714     <ti>reiserfs</ti>
715     <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
716     </tr>
717     <tr>
718     <ti>xfs</ti>
719     <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
720     </tr>
721     <tr>
722     <ti>jfs</ti>
723     <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
724     </tr>
725     </table>
726    
727     <p>
728 swift 1.5 For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/sda2</path> in our example)
729 swift 1.1 in ext3, you would use:
730     </p>
731    
732     <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
733 swift 1.5 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda2</i>
734 swift 1.1 </pre>
735    
736     <p>
737     Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
738     volumes).
739     </p>
740    
741     </body>
742     </subsection>
743     <subsection>
744     <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
745     <body>
746    
747     <p>
748     <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
749     </p>
750    
751     <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
752 swift 1.5 # <i>mkswap /dev/sda1</i>
753 swift 1.1 </pre>
754    
755     <p>
756     To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
757     </p>
758    
759     <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
760 swift 1.5 # <i>swapon /dev/sda1</i>
761 swift 1.1 </pre>
762    
763     <p>
764     Create and activate the swap now.
765     </p>
766    
767     </body>
768     </subsection>
769     </section>
770     <section>
771     <title>Mounting</title>
772     <body>
773    
774     <p>
775     Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
776     time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
777     create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
778     example we mount the root and boot partition:
779     </p>
780    
781     <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
782 swift 1.5 # <i>mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/gentoo</i>
783 swift 1.1 </pre>
784    
785     <note>
786     If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
787     change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
788     also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
789     </note>
790    
791     <p>
792 swift 1.6 We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
793     kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
794 swift 1.1 </p>
795    
796     <p>
797 swift 1.6 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
798 swift 1.1 Installation Files</uri>.
799     </p>
800    
801     </body>
802     </section>
803     </sections>

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