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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.17 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/2005.0/hb-install-alpha-disk.xml,v 1.2 2005/03/28 08:20:02 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.10
11 swift 1.17 <version>2.00</version>
12     <date>2005-03-28</date>
13 swift 1.10
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16     <subsection>
17     <title>Block Devices</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21     We'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
22     and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices.
23     Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and filesystems,
24     you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
25     for your Gentoo Linux installation.
26     </p>
27    
28     <p>
29     To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most famous block device is
30     probably the one that represents the first SCSI HD in a Linux system, namely
31     <path>/dev/sda</path>.
32     </p>
33    
34     <p>
35     The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
36     programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying
37     about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The program can
38     simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
39     randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
40     </p>
41    
42     </body>
43     </subsection>
44     <subsection>
45     <title>Slices</title>
46     <body>
47    
48     <p>
49     Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
50     system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
51     are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On Alpha systems,
52     these are called <e>slices</e>.
53     </p>
54    
55     </body>
56     </subsection>
57     </section>
58     <section>
59     <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
60     <subsection>
61     <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
62     <body>
63    
64     <p>
65     As an example we use the following slice layout:
66     </p>
67    
68     <table>
69     <tr>
70     <th>Slice</th>
71     <th>Description</th>
72     </tr>
73     <tr>
74 swift 1.5 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
75 swift 1.1 <ti>Swap slice</ti>
76     </tr>
77     <tr>
78 swift 1.5 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
79 swift 1.1 <ti>Root slice</ti>
80     </tr>
81     <tr>
82 swift 1.5 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
83 swift 1.1 <ti>Full disk (required)</ti>
84     </tr>
85     </table>
86    
87    
88     <p>
89     If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how
90     many partitions (or volumes) you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
91 swift 1.17 <uri link="#fdisk_SRM">Using fdisk to Partition your Disk (SRM only)</uri>
92     or <uri link="#fdisk_ARC">Using fdisk to Partition your Disk (ARC/AlphaBIOS
93     only)</uri>.
94 swift 1.1 </p>
95    
96     </body>
97     </subsection>
98     <subsection>
99     <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
100     <body>
101    
102     <p>
103     The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
104     if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
105     <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
106     If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your
107     <path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside
108     <path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your
109     performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming
110     servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>:
111     security and backups.
112     </p>
113    
114     <p>
115     As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
116     partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
117     </p>
118    
119     <ul>
120     <li>
121 neysx 1.3 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
122 swift 1.1 </li>
123     <li>
124     Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
125     continuously writing files to a partition or volume
126     </li>
127     <li>
128     If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
129     be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
130     it is with multiple partitions)
131     </li>
132     <li>
133     Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
134     nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
135     </li>
136     </ul>
137    
138     <p>
139     However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
140     properly, you might result in having a system with lots
141     of free space on one partition and none on another.
142     </p>
143    
144     </body>
145     </subsection>
146     </section>
147 swift 1.17 <section id="fdisk_SRM">
148 vapier 1.13 <title>Using fdisk to Partition your Disk (SRM only)</title>
149 swift 1.1 <subsection>
150     <body>
151    
152     <p>
153     The following parts explain how to create the example slice layout described
154     previously, namely:
155     </p>
156    
157     <table>
158     <tr>
159     <th>Slice</th>
160     <th>Description</th>
161     </tr>
162     <tr>
163 swift 1.5 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
164 swift 1.1 <ti>Swap slice</ti>
165     </tr>
166     <tr>
167 swift 1.5 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
168 swift 1.1 <ti>Root slice</ti>
169     </tr>
170     <tr>
171 swift 1.5 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
172 swift 1.1 <ti>Full disk (required)</ti>
173     </tr>
174     </table>
175    
176     <p>
177 neysx 1.9 Change your slice layout according to your own preference.
178 swift 1.1 </p>
179    
180    
181     </body>
182     </subsection>
183     <subsection>
184     <title>Identifying Available Disks</title>
185     <body>
186    
187     <p>
188     To figure out what disks you have running, use the following commands:
189     </p>
190    
191     <pre caption="Identifying available disks">
192 vapier 1.7 # <i>dmesg | grep 'drive$'</i> <comment>(For IDE disks)</comment>
193     # <i>dmesg | grep 'scsi'</i> <comment>(For SCSI disks)</comment>
194 swift 1.1 </pre>
195    
196     <p>
197     From this output you should be able to see what disks were detected and their
198     respective <path>/dev</path> entry. In the following parts we assume that the
199     disk is a SCSI disk on <path>/dev/sda</path>.
200     </p>
201    
202     <p>
203     Now fire up <c>fdisk</c>:
204     </p>
205    
206     <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
207     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
208     </pre>
209    
210     </body>
211     </subsection>
212     <subsection>
213     <title>Deleting All Slices</title>
214     <body>
215    
216     <p>
217 vapier 1.7 If your hard drive is completely blank, then you'll have to first create
218     a BSD disklabel.
219     </p>
220    
221 vapier 1.13 <pre caption="Creating a BSD disklabel">
222 vapier 1.7 Command (m for help): <i>b</i>
223     /dev/sda contains no disklabel.
224     Do you want to create a disklabel? (y/n) <i>y</i>
225     <comment>A bunch of drive-specific info will show here</comment>
226     3 partitions:
227     # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
228     c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
229     </pre>
230    
231     <p>
232 vapier 1.13 We start with deleting all slices <e>except</e> the 'c'-slice (a requirement
233     for using BSD disklabels). The following shows how to delete a slice (in
234     the example we use 'a'). Repeat the process to delete all other slices
235     (again, except the 'c'-slice).
236 swift 1.1 </p>
237    
238     <p>
239     Use <c>p</c> to view all existing slices. <c>d</c> is used to delete a slice.
240     </p>
241    
242     <pre caption="Deleting a slice">
243     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>p</i>
244    
245     8 partitions:
246     # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
247     a: 1 235* 234* 4.2BSD 1024 8192 16
248     b: 235* 469* 234* swap
249     c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
250     d: 469* 2076* 1607* unused 0 0
251     e: 2076* 3683* 1607* unused 0 0
252     f: 3683* 5290* 1607* unused 0 0
253     g: 469* 1749* 1280 4.2BSD 1024 8192 16
254     h: 1749* 5290* 3541* unused 0 0
255    
256     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>d</i>
257     Partition (a-h): <i>a</i>
258     </pre>
259    
260     <p>
261     After repeating this process for all slices, a listing should show you something
262     similar to this:
263     </p>
264    
265     <pre caption="Viewing an empty scheme">
266     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>p</i>
267    
268     3 partitions:
269     # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
270     c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
271     </pre>
272    
273     </body>
274     </subsection>
275     <subsection>
276     <title>Creating the Swap Slice</title>
277     <body>
278    
279     <p>
280     On Alpha based systems you don't need a separate boot partition. However, the
281     first cylinder cannot be used as the <c>aboot</c> image will be placed there.
282     </p>
283    
284     <p>
285     We will create a swap slice starting at the third cylinder, with a total
286 swift 1.15 size of 1 GB. Use <c>n</c> to create a new slice. After creating the slice,
287 vapier 1.8 we will change its type to <c>1</c> (one), meaning <e>swap</e>.
288 swift 1.1 </p>
289    
290     <pre caption="Creating the swap slice">
291     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>n</i>
292     Partition (a-p): <i>a</i>
293     First cylinder (1-5290, default 1): <i>3</i>
294     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (3-5290, default 5290): <i>+1024M</i>
295    
296     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>t</i>
297     Partition (a-c): <i>a</i>
298     Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>1</i>
299     </pre>
300    
301     <p>
302     After these steps you should see a layout similar to the following:
303     </p>
304    
305     <pre caption="Slice layout after creating the swap slice">
306     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>p</i>
307    
308     3 partitions:
309     # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
310     a: 3 1003 1001 swap
311     c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
312     </pre>
313    
314     </body>
315     </subsection>
316     <subsection>
317     <title>Create the Root Slice</title>
318     <body>
319    
320     <p>
321     We will now create the root slice, starting from the first cylinder <e>after</e>
322     the swap slice. Use the <c>p</c> command to view where the swap slice ends. In
323     our example, this is at 1003, making the root partition start at 1004.
324     </p>
325    
326     <p>
327     Another problem is that there is currently a bug in <c>fdisk</c> making it think
328     the number of available cylinders is one above the real number of cylinders. In
329     other words, when you are asked for the last cylinder, decrease the cylinder
330     number (in this example: 5290) with one.
331     </p>
332    
333     <p>
334     When the partition is created, we change the type to <c>8</c>, for <e>ext2</e>.
335     </p>
336    
337     <pre caption="Creating the root slice">
338     D disklabel command (m for help): <i>n</i>
339     Partition (a-p): <i>b</i>
340     First cylinder (1-5290, default 1): <i>1004</i>
341     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1004-5290, default 5290): <i>5289</i>
342    
343     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>t</i>
344     Partition (a-c): <i>b</i>
345     Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>8</i>
346     </pre>
347    
348     <p>
349     Your slice layout should now be similar to this:
350     </p>
351    
352     <pre caption="Viewing the slice layout">
353     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>p</i>
354    
355     3 partitions:
356     # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
357     a: 3 1003 1001 swap
358     b: 1004 5289 4286 ext2
359     c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
360     </pre>
361    
362     </body>
363     </subsection>
364     <subsection>
365     <title>Save the Slice Layout and Exit</title>
366     <body>
367    
368     <p>
369     Save <c>fdisk</c> by typing <c>w</c>. This will also save your slice layout.
370     </p>
371    
372     <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
373     Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
374     </pre>
375    
376     <p>
377     Now that your slices are created, you can now continue with <uri
378     link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
379     </p>
380    
381     </body>
382     </subsection>
383     </section>
384 swift 1.17 <section id="fdisk_ARC">
385 vapier 1.13 <title>Using fdisk to Partition your Disk (ARC/AlphaBIOS only)</title>
386     <subsection>
387     <body>
388    
389     <p>
390     The following parts explain how to partition the disk with a layout
391     similar to the one described previously, namely:
392     </p>
393    
394     <table>
395     <tr>
396     <th>Partition</th>
397     <th>Description</th>
398     </tr>
399     <tr>
400     <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
401     <ti>Boot partition</ti>
402     </tr>
403     <tr>
404     <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
405     <ti>Swap partition</ti>
406     </tr>
407     <tr>
408     <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
409     <ti>Root partition</ti>
410     </tr>
411     </table>
412    
413     <p>
414     Change your partition layout according to your own preference.
415     </p>
416    
417     </body>
418     </subsection>
419     <subsection>
420     <title>Identifying Available Disks</title>
421     <body>
422    
423     <p>
424     To figure out what disks you have running, use the following commands:
425     </p>
426    
427     <pre caption="Identifying available disks">
428     # <i>dmesg | grep 'drive$'</i> <comment>(For IDE disks)</comment>
429     # <i>dmesg | grep 'scsi'</i> <comment>(For SCSI disks)</comment>
430     </pre>
431    
432     <p>
433     From this output you should be able to see what disks were detected and their
434     respective <path>/dev</path> entry. In the following parts we assume that the
435     disk is a SCSI disk on <path>/dev/sda</path>.
436     </p>
437    
438     <p>
439     Now fire up <c>fdisk</c>:
440     </p>
441    
442     <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
443     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
444     </pre>
445    
446     </body>
447     </subsection>
448     <subsection>
449     <title>Deleting All Partitions</title>
450     <body>
451    
452     <p>
453     If your hard drive is completely blank, then you'll have to first create
454     a DOS disklabel.
455     </p>
456    
457     <pre caption="Creating a DOS disklabel">
458     Command (m for help): <i>o</i>
459     Building a new DOS disklabel.
460     </pre>
461    
462     <p>
463     We start with deleting all partitions. The following shows how to delete
464     a partition (in the example we use '1'). Repeat the process to delete all
465     other partitions.
466     </p>
467    
468     <p>
469 cam 1.14 Use <c>p</c> to view all existing partitions. <c>d</c> is used to delete a
470     partition.
471 vapier 1.13 </p>
472    
473     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
474     command (m for help): <i>p</i>
475    
476     Disk /dev/sda: 9150 MB, 9150996480 bytes
477     64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 8727 cylinders
478     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
479    
480     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
481     /dev/sda1 1 478 489456 83 Linux
482     /dev/sda2 479 8727 8446976 5 Extended
483     /dev/sda5 479 1433 977904 83 Linux Swap
484     /dev/sda6 1434 8727 7469040 83 Linux
485    
486     command (m for help): <i>d</i>
487     Partition number (1-6): <i>1</i>
488     </pre>
489    
490    
491     </body>
492     </subsection>
493     <subsection>
494     <title>Creating the Boot Partition</title>
495     <body>
496    
497     <p>
498     On Alpha systems which use MILO to boot, we have to create a small vfat
499     boot partition.
500     </p>
501    
502     <pre caption="Creating the boot partition">
503     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
504     Command action
505     e extended
506     p primary partition (1-4)
507     <i>p</i>
508     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
509     First cylinder (1-8727, default 1): <i>1</i>
510     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-8727, default 8727): <i>+16M</i>
511    
512     Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
513     Selected partition 1
514     Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>6</i>
515     Changed system type of partition 1 to 6 (FAT16)
516     </pre>
517    
518     </body>
519     </subsection>
520     <subsection>
521     <title>Creating the Swap Partition</title>
522     <body>
523    
524     <p>
525     We will create a swap partition starting at the third cylinder, with a total
526 swift 1.15 size of 1 GB. Use <c>n</c> to create a new partition.
527 vapier 1.13 </p>
528    
529     <pre caption="Creating the swap partition">
530     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
531     Command action
532     e extended
533     p primary partition (1-4)
534     <i>p</i>
535     Partition number (1-4): <i>2</i>
536     First cylinder (17-8727, default 17): <i>17</i>
537     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (17-8727, default 8727): <i>+1000M</i>
538    
539     Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
540     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
541     Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>82</i>
542     Changed system type of partition 2 to 82 (Linux swap)
543     </pre>
544    
545     <p>
546     After these steps you should see a layout similar to the following:
547     </p>
548    
549     <pre caption="Partition listing after creating a swap partition">
550     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
551    
552     Disk /dev/sda: 9150 MB, 9150996480 bytes
553     64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 8727 cylinders
554     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
555    
556     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
557     /dev/sda1 1 16 16368 6 FAT16
558     /dev/sda2 17 971 977920 82 Linux swap
559     </pre>
560    
561     </body>
562     </subsection>
563     <subsection>
564     <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
565     <body>
566    
567     <p>
568     We will now create the root partition. Again, just use the <c>n</c> command.
569     </p>
570    
571     <pre caption="Creating the root partition">
572     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
573     Command action
574     e extended
575     p primary partition (1-4)
576     <i>p</i>
577     Partition number (1-4): <i>3</i>
578     First cylinder (972-8727, default 972): <i>972</i>
579     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (972-8727, default 8727): <i>8727</i>
580     </pre>
581    
582     <p>
583     After these steps you should see a layout similar to the following:
584     </p>
585    
586     <pre caption="Partition listing after creating the root partition">
587     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
588    
589     Disk /dev/sda: 9150 MB, 9150996480 bytes
590     64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 8727 cylinders
591     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
592    
593     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
594     /dev/sda1 1 16 16368 6 FAT16
595     /dev/sda2 17 971 977920 82 Linux swap
596     /dev/sda3 972 8727 7942144 83 Linux
597     </pre>
598    
599     </body>
600     </subsection>
601     <subsection>
602     <title>Save the Partition Layout and Exit</title>
603     <body>
604    
605     <p>
606     Save <c>fdisk</c> by typing <c>w</c>. This will also save your partition layout.
607     </p>
608    
609     <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
610     Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
611     </pre>
612    
613     <p>
614     Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
615     link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
616     </p>
617    
618     </body>
619     </subsection>
620     </section>
621 swift 1.1 <section id="filesystems">
622     <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
623     <subsection>
624     <title>Introduction</title>
625     <body>
626    
627     <p>
628     Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
629     If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
630     as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
631     link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
632     Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
633     </p>
634    
635     </body>
636     </subsection>
637     <subsection>
638     <title>Filesystems?</title>
639     <body>
640    
641     <p>
642     Several filesystems are available. Most of them are found stable on the
643     Alpha architecture.
644     </p>
645    
646     <p>
647     <b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
648     journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
649     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
650     journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are
651     thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled
652     filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
653     happens to be in an inconsistent state.
654     </p>
655    
656     <p>
657     <b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
658     journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like
659     full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
660     filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables
661     high performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is an excellent
662     filesystem.
663     </p>
664    
665     <p>
666     <b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
667     performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
668     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
669     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
670     solid and usable as both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such
671     as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large
672     files and directories containing tens of thousands of files.
673     </p>
674    
675     <p>
676 neysx 1.4 <b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling which comes with a robust
677     feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
678     filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
679     an uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
680     in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
681     when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
682     deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
683 swift 1.1 </p>
684    
685     <p>
686     <b>JFS</b> is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
687     become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
688     comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this point.
689     </p>
690    
691     </body>
692     </subsection>
693     <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
694     <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
695     <body>
696    
697     <p>
698     To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
699     each possible filesystem:
700     </p>
701    
702     <table>
703     <tr>
704     <th>Filesystem</th>
705     <th>Creation Command</th>
706     </tr>
707     <tr>
708     <ti>ext2</ti>
709     <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
710     </tr>
711     <tr>
712     <ti>ext3</ti>
713     <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
714     </tr>
715     <tr>
716     <ti>reiserfs</ti>
717     <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
718     </tr>
719     <tr>
720     <ti>xfs</ti>
721     <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
722     </tr>
723     <tr>
724     <ti>jfs</ti>
725     <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
726     </tr>
727     </table>
728    
729     <p>
730 swift 1.5 For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/sda2</path> in our example)
731 swift 1.1 in ext3, you would use:
732     </p>
733    
734     <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
735 swift 1.5 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda2</i>
736 swift 1.1 </pre>
737    
738     <p>
739     Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
740     volumes).
741     </p>
742    
743     </body>
744     </subsection>
745     <subsection>
746     <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
747     <body>
748    
749     <p>
750     <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
751     </p>
752    
753     <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
754 swift 1.5 # <i>mkswap /dev/sda1</i>
755 swift 1.1 </pre>
756    
757     <p>
758     To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
759     </p>
760    
761     <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
762 swift 1.5 # <i>swapon /dev/sda1</i>
763 swift 1.1 </pre>
764    
765     <p>
766 swift 1.16 Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
767 swift 1.1 </p>
768    
769     </body>
770     </subsection>
771     </section>
772     <section>
773     <title>Mounting</title>
774     <body>
775    
776     <p>
777     Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
778     time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
779     create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
780     example we mount the root and boot partition:
781     </p>
782    
783 swift 1.17 <warn>
784     Due to a bug in the e2fsprogs package, you need to explicitly use
785     the <c>mount -t ext3</c> option if you are using an ext3 filesystem.
786     </warn>
787    
788 swift 1.1 <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
789 swift 1.5 # <i>mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/gentoo</i>
790 swift 1.17 <comment>(For ext3 partitions:)</comment>
791     # <i>mount -t ext3 /dev/sda2 /mnt/gentoo</i>
792 swift 1.1 </pre>
793    
794     <note>
795     If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
796     change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
797     also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
798     </note>
799    
800     <p>
801 swift 1.6 We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
802     kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
803 swift 1.1 </p>
804    
805     <p>
806 swift 1.6 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
807 swift 1.1 Installation Files</uri>.
808     </p>
809    
810     </body>
811     </section>
812     </sections>

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