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Mon Aug 22 17:18:23 2011 UTC (2 years, 11 months ago) by swift
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Fix bug #334167 - Mention ext4 in the handbook. Done for alpha, mips, amd64 and x86. Other arches: please verify and comment on the bug. Thanks to Maciej Grela for reporting.

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 swift 1.18 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 swift 1.31 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-disk.xml,v 1.30 2009/02/15 06:48:11 rane Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.10
11 swift 1.31 <version>10</version>
12     <date>2011-08-22</date>
13 swift 1.10
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16 nightmorph 1.28
17 swift 1.1 <subsection>
18 nightmorph 1.28 <include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
19     </subsection>
20 swift 1.1
21     <subsection>
22     <title>Slices</title>
23     <body>
24    
25     <p>
26     Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
27     system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
28     are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On Alpha systems,
29     these are called <e>slices</e>.
30     </p>
31    
32     </body>
33     </subsection>
34     </section>
35     <section>
36     <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
37     <subsection>
38     <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
39     <body>
40    
41     <p>
42     As an example we use the following slice layout:
43     </p>
44    
45     <table>
46     <tr>
47     <th>Slice</th>
48     <th>Description</th>
49     </tr>
50     <tr>
51 swift 1.5 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
52 swift 1.1 <ti>Swap slice</ti>
53     </tr>
54     <tr>
55 swift 1.5 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
56 swift 1.1 <ti>Root slice</ti>
57     </tr>
58     <tr>
59 swift 1.5 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
60 swift 1.1 <ti>Full disk (required)</ti>
61     </tr>
62     </table>
63    
64    
65     <p>
66     If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how
67     many partitions (or volumes) you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
68 swift 1.17 <uri link="#fdisk_SRM">Using fdisk to Partition your Disk (SRM only)</uri>
69     or <uri link="#fdisk_ARC">Using fdisk to Partition your Disk (ARC/AlphaBIOS
70     only)</uri>.
71 swift 1.1 </p>
72    
73     </body>
74     </subsection>
75     <subsection>
76     <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
77     <body>
78    
79     <p>
80     The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
81     if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
82     <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
83     If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your
84     <path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside
85     <path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your
86     performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming
87     servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>:
88 swift 1.18 security and backups. You will definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big:
89     not only will it contain the majority of applications, the Portage tree alone
90     takes around 500 Mbyte excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
91 swift 1.1 </p>
92    
93     <p>
94     As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
95     partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
96     </p>
97    
98     <ul>
99     <li>
100 neysx 1.3 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
101 swift 1.1 </li>
102     <li>
103     Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
104     continuously writing files to a partition or volume
105     </li>
106     <li>
107     If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
108     be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
109     it is with multiple partitions)
110     </li>
111     <li>
112     Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
113     nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
114     </li>
115     </ul>
116    
117     <p>
118     However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
119     properly, you might result in having a system with lots
120     of free space on one partition and none on another.
121     </p>
122    
123     </body>
124     </subsection>
125     </section>
126 swift 1.17 <section id="fdisk_SRM">
127 vapier 1.13 <title>Using fdisk to Partition your Disk (SRM only)</title>
128 swift 1.1 <subsection>
129     <body>
130    
131     <p>
132     The following parts explain how to create the example slice layout described
133     previously, namely:
134     </p>
135    
136     <table>
137     <tr>
138     <th>Slice</th>
139     <th>Description</th>
140     </tr>
141     <tr>
142 swift 1.5 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
143 swift 1.1 <ti>Swap slice</ti>
144     </tr>
145     <tr>
146 swift 1.5 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
147 swift 1.1 <ti>Root slice</ti>
148     </tr>
149     <tr>
150 swift 1.5 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
151 swift 1.1 <ti>Full disk (required)</ti>
152     </tr>
153     </table>
154    
155     <p>
156 neysx 1.9 Change your slice layout according to your own preference.
157 swift 1.1 </p>
158    
159    
160     </body>
161     </subsection>
162     <subsection>
163     <title>Identifying Available Disks</title>
164     <body>
165    
166     <p>
167     To figure out what disks you have running, use the following commands:
168     </p>
169    
170     <pre caption="Identifying available disks">
171 vapier 1.7 # <i>dmesg | grep 'drive$'</i> <comment>(For IDE disks)</comment>
172     # <i>dmesg | grep 'scsi'</i> <comment>(For SCSI disks)</comment>
173 swift 1.1 </pre>
174    
175     <p>
176     From this output you should be able to see what disks were detected and their
177     respective <path>/dev</path> entry. In the following parts we assume that the
178     disk is a SCSI disk on <path>/dev/sda</path>.
179     </p>
180    
181     <p>
182     Now fire up <c>fdisk</c>:
183     </p>
184    
185     <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
186     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
187     </pre>
188    
189     </body>
190     </subsection>
191     <subsection>
192     <title>Deleting All Slices</title>
193     <body>
194    
195     <p>
196 vapier 1.7 If your hard drive is completely blank, then you'll have to first create
197     a BSD disklabel.
198     </p>
199    
200 vapier 1.13 <pre caption="Creating a BSD disklabel">
201 vapier 1.7 Command (m for help): <i>b</i>
202     /dev/sda contains no disklabel.
203     Do you want to create a disklabel? (y/n) <i>y</i>
204     <comment>A bunch of drive-specific info will show here</comment>
205     3 partitions:
206     # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
207     c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
208     </pre>
209    
210     <p>
211 vapier 1.13 We start with deleting all slices <e>except</e> the 'c'-slice (a requirement
212     for using BSD disklabels). The following shows how to delete a slice (in
213     the example we use 'a'). Repeat the process to delete all other slices
214     (again, except the 'c'-slice).
215 swift 1.1 </p>
216    
217     <p>
218     Use <c>p</c> to view all existing slices. <c>d</c> is used to delete a slice.
219     </p>
220    
221     <pre caption="Deleting a slice">
222     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>p</i>
223    
224     8 partitions:
225     # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
226     a: 1 235* 234* 4.2BSD 1024 8192 16
227     b: 235* 469* 234* swap
228     c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
229     d: 469* 2076* 1607* unused 0 0
230     e: 2076* 3683* 1607* unused 0 0
231     f: 3683* 5290* 1607* unused 0 0
232     g: 469* 1749* 1280 4.2BSD 1024 8192 16
233     h: 1749* 5290* 3541* unused 0 0
234    
235     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>d</i>
236     Partition (a-h): <i>a</i>
237     </pre>
238    
239     <p>
240     After repeating this process for all slices, a listing should show you something
241     similar to this:
242     </p>
243    
244     <pre caption="Viewing an empty scheme">
245     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>p</i>
246    
247     3 partitions:
248     # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
249     c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
250     </pre>
251    
252     </body>
253     </subsection>
254     <subsection>
255     <title>Creating the Swap Slice</title>
256     <body>
257    
258     <p>
259 rane 1.30 On Alpha based systems you don't need a separate boot slice. However, the
260 swift 1.1 first cylinder cannot be used as the <c>aboot</c> image will be placed there.
261     </p>
262    
263     <p>
264     We will create a swap slice starting at the third cylinder, with a total
265 swift 1.15 size of 1 GB. Use <c>n</c> to create a new slice. After creating the slice,
266 vapier 1.8 we will change its type to <c>1</c> (one), meaning <e>swap</e>.
267 swift 1.1 </p>
268    
269     <pre caption="Creating the swap slice">
270     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>n</i>
271     Partition (a-p): <i>a</i>
272     First cylinder (1-5290, default 1): <i>3</i>
273     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (3-5290, default 5290): <i>+1024M</i>
274    
275     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>t</i>
276     Partition (a-c): <i>a</i>
277     Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>1</i>
278     </pre>
279    
280     <p>
281     After these steps you should see a layout similar to the following:
282     </p>
283    
284     <pre caption="Slice layout after creating the swap slice">
285     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>p</i>
286    
287     3 partitions:
288     # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
289     a: 3 1003 1001 swap
290     c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
291     </pre>
292    
293     </body>
294     </subsection>
295     <subsection>
296     <title>Create the Root Slice</title>
297     <body>
298    
299     <p>
300     We will now create the root slice, starting from the first cylinder <e>after</e>
301     the swap slice. Use the <c>p</c> command to view where the swap slice ends. In
302 rane 1.30 our example, this is at 1003, making the root slice start at 1004.
303 swift 1.1 </p>
304    
305     <p>
306     Another problem is that there is currently a bug in <c>fdisk</c> making it think
307     the number of available cylinders is one above the real number of cylinders. In
308     other words, when you are asked for the last cylinder, decrease the cylinder
309     number (in this example: 5290) with one.
310     </p>
311    
312     <p>
313 rane 1.30 When the slice is created, we change the type to <c>8</c>, for <e>ext2</e>.
314 swift 1.1 </p>
315    
316     <pre caption="Creating the root slice">
317     D disklabel command (m for help): <i>n</i>
318     Partition (a-p): <i>b</i>
319     First cylinder (1-5290, default 1): <i>1004</i>
320     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1004-5290, default 5290): <i>5289</i>
321    
322     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>t</i>
323     Partition (a-c): <i>b</i>
324     Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>8</i>
325     </pre>
326    
327     <p>
328     Your slice layout should now be similar to this:
329     </p>
330    
331     <pre caption="Viewing the slice layout">
332     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>p</i>
333    
334     3 partitions:
335     # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
336     a: 3 1003 1001 swap
337     b: 1004 5289 4286 ext2
338     c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
339     </pre>
340    
341     </body>
342     </subsection>
343     <subsection>
344     <title>Save the Slice Layout and Exit</title>
345     <body>
346    
347     <p>
348     Save <c>fdisk</c> by typing <c>w</c>. This will also save your slice layout.
349     </p>
350    
351     <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
352     Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
353     </pre>
354    
355     <p>
356 nightmorph 1.29 Now that your slices are created, you can continue with <uri
357 swift 1.1 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
358     </p>
359    
360     </body>
361     </subsection>
362     </section>
363 swift 1.17 <section id="fdisk_ARC">
364 vapier 1.13 <title>Using fdisk to Partition your Disk (ARC/AlphaBIOS only)</title>
365     <subsection>
366     <body>
367    
368     <p>
369     The following parts explain how to partition the disk with a layout
370     similar to the one described previously, namely:
371     </p>
372    
373     <table>
374     <tr>
375     <th>Partition</th>
376     <th>Description</th>
377     </tr>
378     <tr>
379     <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
380     <ti>Boot partition</ti>
381     </tr>
382     <tr>
383     <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
384     <ti>Swap partition</ti>
385     </tr>
386     <tr>
387     <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
388     <ti>Root partition</ti>
389     </tr>
390     </table>
391    
392     <p>
393     Change your partition layout according to your own preference.
394     </p>
395    
396     </body>
397     </subsection>
398     <subsection>
399     <title>Identifying Available Disks</title>
400     <body>
401    
402     <p>
403     To figure out what disks you have running, use the following commands:
404     </p>
405    
406     <pre caption="Identifying available disks">
407     # <i>dmesg | grep 'drive$'</i> <comment>(For IDE disks)</comment>
408     # <i>dmesg | grep 'scsi'</i> <comment>(For SCSI disks)</comment>
409     </pre>
410    
411     <p>
412     From this output you should be able to see what disks were detected and their
413     respective <path>/dev</path> entry. In the following parts we assume that the
414     disk is a SCSI disk on <path>/dev/sda</path>.
415     </p>
416    
417     <p>
418     Now fire up <c>fdisk</c>:
419     </p>
420    
421     <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
422     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
423     </pre>
424    
425     </body>
426     </subsection>
427     <subsection>
428     <title>Deleting All Partitions</title>
429     <body>
430    
431     <p>
432     If your hard drive is completely blank, then you'll have to first create
433     a DOS disklabel.
434     </p>
435    
436     <pre caption="Creating a DOS disklabel">
437     Command (m for help): <i>o</i>
438     Building a new DOS disklabel.
439     </pre>
440    
441     <p>
442     We start with deleting all partitions. The following shows how to delete
443     a partition (in the example we use '1'). Repeat the process to delete all
444     other partitions.
445     </p>
446    
447     <p>
448 cam 1.14 Use <c>p</c> to view all existing partitions. <c>d</c> is used to delete a
449     partition.
450 vapier 1.13 </p>
451    
452     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
453     command (m for help): <i>p</i>
454    
455     Disk /dev/sda: 9150 MB, 9150996480 bytes
456     64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 8727 cylinders
457     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
458    
459     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
460     /dev/sda1 1 478 489456 83 Linux
461     /dev/sda2 479 8727 8446976 5 Extended
462     /dev/sda5 479 1433 977904 83 Linux Swap
463     /dev/sda6 1434 8727 7469040 83 Linux
464    
465     command (m for help): <i>d</i>
466     Partition number (1-6): <i>1</i>
467     </pre>
468    
469    
470     </body>
471     </subsection>
472     <subsection>
473     <title>Creating the Boot Partition</title>
474     <body>
475    
476     <p>
477     On Alpha systems which use MILO to boot, we have to create a small vfat
478     boot partition.
479     </p>
480    
481     <pre caption="Creating the boot partition">
482     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
483     Command action
484     e extended
485     p primary partition (1-4)
486     <i>p</i>
487     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
488     First cylinder (1-8727, default 1): <i>1</i>
489     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-8727, default 8727): <i>+16M</i>
490    
491     Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
492     Selected partition 1
493     Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>6</i>
494     Changed system type of partition 1 to 6 (FAT16)
495     </pre>
496    
497     </body>
498     </subsection>
499     <subsection>
500     <title>Creating the Swap Partition</title>
501     <body>
502    
503     <p>
504 rane 1.30 We will create a swap partition with a total size of 1 GB. Use <c>n</c> to
505     create a new partition.
506 vapier 1.13 </p>
507    
508     <pre caption="Creating the swap partition">
509     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
510     Command action
511     e extended
512     p primary partition (1-4)
513     <i>p</i>
514     Partition number (1-4): <i>2</i>
515     First cylinder (17-8727, default 17): <i>17</i>
516     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (17-8727, default 8727): <i>+1000M</i>
517    
518     Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
519 neysx 1.27 Partition number (1-4): <i>2</i>
520 vapier 1.13 Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>82</i>
521     Changed system type of partition 2 to 82 (Linux swap)
522     </pre>
523    
524     <p>
525     After these steps you should see a layout similar to the following:
526     </p>
527    
528     <pre caption="Partition listing after creating a swap partition">
529     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
530    
531     Disk /dev/sda: 9150 MB, 9150996480 bytes
532     64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 8727 cylinders
533     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
534    
535     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
536     /dev/sda1 1 16 16368 6 FAT16
537     /dev/sda2 17 971 977920 82 Linux swap
538     </pre>
539    
540     </body>
541     </subsection>
542     <subsection>
543     <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
544     <body>
545    
546     <p>
547     We will now create the root partition. Again, just use the <c>n</c> command.
548     </p>
549    
550     <pre caption="Creating the root partition">
551     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
552     Command action
553     e extended
554     p primary partition (1-4)
555     <i>p</i>
556     Partition number (1-4): <i>3</i>
557     First cylinder (972-8727, default 972): <i>972</i>
558     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (972-8727, default 8727): <i>8727</i>
559     </pre>
560    
561     <p>
562     After these steps you should see a layout similar to the following:
563     </p>
564    
565     <pre caption="Partition listing after creating the root partition">
566     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
567    
568     Disk /dev/sda: 9150 MB, 9150996480 bytes
569     64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 8727 cylinders
570     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
571    
572     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
573     /dev/sda1 1 16 16368 6 FAT16
574     /dev/sda2 17 971 977920 82 Linux swap
575     /dev/sda3 972 8727 7942144 83 Linux
576     </pre>
577    
578     </body>
579     </subsection>
580     <subsection>
581     <title>Save the Partition Layout and Exit</title>
582     <body>
583    
584     <p>
585     Save <c>fdisk</c> by typing <c>w</c>. This will also save your partition layout.
586     </p>
587    
588     <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
589     Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
590     </pre>
591    
592     <p>
593 nightmorph 1.29 Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
594 vapier 1.13 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
595     </p>
596    
597     </body>
598     </subsection>
599     </section>
600 swift 1.1 <section id="filesystems">
601     <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
602     <subsection>
603     <title>Introduction</title>
604     <body>
605    
606     <p>
607     Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
608     If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
609     as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
610     link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
611     Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
612     </p>
613    
614     </body>
615     </subsection>
616 nightmorph 1.28
617 swift 1.1 <subsection>
618 nightmorph 1.28 <include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
619     </subsection>
620 swift 1.1
621     <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
622     <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
623     <body>
624    
625     <p>
626     To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
627     each possible filesystem:
628     </p>
629    
630     <table>
631     <tr>
632     <th>Filesystem</th>
633     <th>Creation Command</th>
634     </tr>
635     <tr>
636     <ti>ext2</ti>
637 swift 1.31 <ti><c>mkfs.ext2</c></ti>
638 swift 1.1 </tr>
639     <tr>
640     <ti>ext3</ti>
641 swift 1.31 <ti><c>mkfs.ext3</c></ti>
642     </tr>
643     <tr>
644     <ti>ext4</ti>
645     <ti><c>mkfs.ext4</c></ti>
646 swift 1.1 </tr>
647     <tr>
648     <ti>reiserfs</ti>
649 swift 1.31 <ti><c>mkfs.reiserfs</c></ti>
650 swift 1.1 </tr>
651     <tr>
652     <ti>xfs</ti>
653     <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
654     </tr>
655     <tr>
656     <ti>jfs</ti>
657     <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
658     </tr>
659     </table>
660    
661     <p>
662 swift 1.5 For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/sda2</path> in our example)
663 swift 1.1 in ext3, you would use:
664     </p>
665    
666     <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
667 swift 1.31 # <i>mkfs.ext3 /dev/sda2</i>
668 swift 1.1 </pre>
669    
670     <p>
671     Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
672     volumes).
673     </p>
674    
675     </body>
676     </subsection>
677     <subsection>
678     <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
679     <body>
680    
681     <p>
682     <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
683     </p>
684    
685     <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
686 swift 1.5 # <i>mkswap /dev/sda1</i>
687 swift 1.1 </pre>
688    
689     <p>
690     To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
691     </p>
692    
693     <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
694 swift 1.5 # <i>swapon /dev/sda1</i>
695 swift 1.1 </pre>
696    
697     <p>
698 swift 1.16 Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
699 swift 1.1 </p>
700    
701     </body>
702     </subsection>
703     </section>
704     <section>
705     <title>Mounting</title>
706     <body>
707    
708     <p>
709     Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
710     time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
711     create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
712 rane 1.30 example we mount the root partition:
713 swift 1.1 </p>
714    
715     <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
716 swift 1.5 # <i>mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/gentoo</i>
717 swift 1.1 </pre>
718    
719     <note>
720     If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
721     change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
722     also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
723     </note>
724    
725     <p>
726 swift 1.6 We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
727     kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
728 swift 1.1 </p>
729    
730     <p>
731 swift 1.6 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
732 swift 1.1 Installation Files</uri>.
733     </p>
734    
735     </body>
736     </section>
737     </sections>

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