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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 swift 1.18 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 swift 1.33 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-disk.xml,v 1.32 2011/10/17 19:51:45 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.10
11 swift 1.33 <version>12</version>
12     <date>2012-10-06</date>
13 swift 1.10
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16 nightmorph 1.28
17 swift 1.1 <subsection>
18 nightmorph 1.28 <include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
19     </subsection>
20 swift 1.1
21     <subsection>
22     <title>Slices</title>
23     <body>
24    
25     <p>
26     Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
27     system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
28     are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On Alpha systems,
29     these are called <e>slices</e>.
30     </p>
31    
32     </body>
33     </subsection>
34     </section>
35     <section>
36     <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
37     <subsection>
38     <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
39     <body>
40    
41     <p>
42     As an example we use the following slice layout:
43     </p>
44    
45     <table>
46     <tr>
47     <th>Slice</th>
48     <th>Description</th>
49     </tr>
50     <tr>
51 swift 1.5 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
52 swift 1.1 <ti>Swap slice</ti>
53     </tr>
54     <tr>
55 swift 1.5 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
56 swift 1.1 <ti>Root slice</ti>
57     </tr>
58     <tr>
59 swift 1.5 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
60 swift 1.1 <ti>Full disk (required)</ti>
61     </tr>
62     </table>
63    
64    
65     <p>
66     If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how
67     many partitions (or volumes) you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
68 swift 1.17 <uri link="#fdisk_SRM">Using fdisk to Partition your Disk (SRM only)</uri>
69     or <uri link="#fdisk_ARC">Using fdisk to Partition your Disk (ARC/AlphaBIOS
70     only)</uri>.
71 swift 1.1 </p>
72    
73     </body>
74     </subsection>
75     <subsection>
76     <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
77     <body>
78    
79     <p>
80     The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
81     if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
82     <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
83     If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your
84     <path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside
85     <path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your
86     performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming
87     servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>:
88 swift 1.18 security and backups. You will definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big:
89     not only will it contain the majority of applications, the Portage tree alone
90     takes around 500 Mbyte excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
91 swift 1.1 </p>
92    
93     <p>
94     As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
95     partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
96     </p>
97    
98     <ul>
99     <li>
100 neysx 1.3 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
101 swift 1.1 </li>
102     <li>
103     Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
104     continuously writing files to a partition or volume
105     </li>
106     <li>
107     If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
108     be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
109     it is with multiple partitions)
110     </li>
111     <li>
112     Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
113     nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
114     </li>
115     </ul>
116    
117     <p>
118 swift 1.32 However, multiple partitions have disadvantages as well. If not configured
119     properly, you will have a system with lots of free space on one partition and
120     none on another. Another nuisance is that separate partitions - especially
121     for important mountpoints like <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> - often
122     require the administrator to boot with an initramfs to mount the partition
123 swift 1.33 before other boot scripts start. This isn't always the case though, so your
124     results may vary.
125 swift 1.1 </p>
126    
127     </body>
128     </subsection>
129     </section>
130 swift 1.17 <section id="fdisk_SRM">
131 vapier 1.13 <title>Using fdisk to Partition your Disk (SRM only)</title>
132 swift 1.1 <subsection>
133     <body>
134    
135     <p>
136     The following parts explain how to create the example slice layout described
137     previously, namely:
138     </p>
139    
140     <table>
141     <tr>
142     <th>Slice</th>
143     <th>Description</th>
144     </tr>
145     <tr>
146 swift 1.5 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
147 swift 1.1 <ti>Swap slice</ti>
148     </tr>
149     <tr>
150 swift 1.5 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
151 swift 1.1 <ti>Root slice</ti>
152     </tr>
153     <tr>
154 swift 1.5 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
155 swift 1.1 <ti>Full disk (required)</ti>
156     </tr>
157     </table>
158    
159     <p>
160 neysx 1.9 Change your slice layout according to your own preference.
161 swift 1.1 </p>
162    
163    
164     </body>
165     </subsection>
166     <subsection>
167     <title>Identifying Available Disks</title>
168     <body>
169    
170     <p>
171     To figure out what disks you have running, use the following commands:
172     </p>
173    
174     <pre caption="Identifying available disks">
175 vapier 1.7 # <i>dmesg | grep 'drive$'</i> <comment>(For IDE disks)</comment>
176     # <i>dmesg | grep 'scsi'</i> <comment>(For SCSI disks)</comment>
177 swift 1.1 </pre>
178    
179     <p>
180     From this output you should be able to see what disks were detected and their
181     respective <path>/dev</path> entry. In the following parts we assume that the
182     disk is a SCSI disk on <path>/dev/sda</path>.
183     </p>
184    
185     <p>
186     Now fire up <c>fdisk</c>:
187     </p>
188    
189     <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
190     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
191     </pre>
192    
193     </body>
194     </subsection>
195     <subsection>
196     <title>Deleting All Slices</title>
197     <body>
198    
199     <p>
200 vapier 1.7 If your hard drive is completely blank, then you'll have to first create
201     a BSD disklabel.
202     </p>
203    
204 vapier 1.13 <pre caption="Creating a BSD disklabel">
205 vapier 1.7 Command (m for help): <i>b</i>
206     /dev/sda contains no disklabel.
207     Do you want to create a disklabel? (y/n) <i>y</i>
208     <comment>A bunch of drive-specific info will show here</comment>
209     3 partitions:
210     # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
211     c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
212     </pre>
213    
214     <p>
215 vapier 1.13 We start with deleting all slices <e>except</e> the 'c'-slice (a requirement
216     for using BSD disklabels). The following shows how to delete a slice (in
217     the example we use 'a'). Repeat the process to delete all other slices
218     (again, except the 'c'-slice).
219 swift 1.1 </p>
220    
221     <p>
222     Use <c>p</c> to view all existing slices. <c>d</c> is used to delete a slice.
223     </p>
224    
225     <pre caption="Deleting a slice">
226     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>p</i>
227    
228     8 partitions:
229     # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
230     a: 1 235* 234* 4.2BSD 1024 8192 16
231     b: 235* 469* 234* swap
232     c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
233     d: 469* 2076* 1607* unused 0 0
234     e: 2076* 3683* 1607* unused 0 0
235     f: 3683* 5290* 1607* unused 0 0
236     g: 469* 1749* 1280 4.2BSD 1024 8192 16
237     h: 1749* 5290* 3541* unused 0 0
238    
239     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>d</i>
240     Partition (a-h): <i>a</i>
241     </pre>
242    
243     <p>
244     After repeating this process for all slices, a listing should show you something
245     similar to this:
246     </p>
247    
248     <pre caption="Viewing an empty scheme">
249     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>p</i>
250    
251     3 partitions:
252     # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
253     c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
254     </pre>
255    
256     </body>
257     </subsection>
258     <subsection>
259     <title>Creating the Swap Slice</title>
260     <body>
261    
262     <p>
263 rane 1.30 On Alpha based systems you don't need a separate boot slice. However, the
264 swift 1.1 first cylinder cannot be used as the <c>aboot</c> image will be placed there.
265     </p>
266    
267     <p>
268     We will create a swap slice starting at the third cylinder, with a total
269 swift 1.15 size of 1 GB. Use <c>n</c> to create a new slice. After creating the slice,
270 vapier 1.8 we will change its type to <c>1</c> (one), meaning <e>swap</e>.
271 swift 1.1 </p>
272    
273     <pre caption="Creating the swap slice">
274     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>n</i>
275     Partition (a-p): <i>a</i>
276     First cylinder (1-5290, default 1): <i>3</i>
277     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (3-5290, default 5290): <i>+1024M</i>
278    
279     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>t</i>
280     Partition (a-c): <i>a</i>
281     Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>1</i>
282     </pre>
283    
284     <p>
285     After these steps you should see a layout similar to the following:
286     </p>
287    
288     <pre caption="Slice layout after creating the swap slice">
289     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>p</i>
290    
291     3 partitions:
292     # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
293     a: 3 1003 1001 swap
294     c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
295     </pre>
296    
297     </body>
298     </subsection>
299     <subsection>
300     <title>Create the Root Slice</title>
301     <body>
302    
303     <p>
304     We will now create the root slice, starting from the first cylinder <e>after</e>
305     the swap slice. Use the <c>p</c> command to view where the swap slice ends. In
306 rane 1.30 our example, this is at 1003, making the root slice start at 1004.
307 swift 1.1 </p>
308    
309     <p>
310     Another problem is that there is currently a bug in <c>fdisk</c> making it think
311     the number of available cylinders is one above the real number of cylinders. In
312     other words, when you are asked for the last cylinder, decrease the cylinder
313     number (in this example: 5290) with one.
314     </p>
315    
316     <p>
317 rane 1.30 When the slice is created, we change the type to <c>8</c>, for <e>ext2</e>.
318 swift 1.1 </p>
319    
320     <pre caption="Creating the root slice">
321     D disklabel command (m for help): <i>n</i>
322     Partition (a-p): <i>b</i>
323     First cylinder (1-5290, default 1): <i>1004</i>
324     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1004-5290, default 5290): <i>5289</i>
325    
326     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>t</i>
327     Partition (a-c): <i>b</i>
328     Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>8</i>
329     </pre>
330    
331     <p>
332     Your slice layout should now be similar to this:
333     </p>
334    
335     <pre caption="Viewing the slice layout">
336     BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>p</i>
337    
338     3 partitions:
339     # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
340     a: 3 1003 1001 swap
341     b: 1004 5289 4286 ext2
342     c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
343     </pre>
344    
345     </body>
346     </subsection>
347     <subsection>
348     <title>Save the Slice Layout and Exit</title>
349     <body>
350    
351     <p>
352     Save <c>fdisk</c> by typing <c>w</c>. This will also save your slice layout.
353     </p>
354    
355     <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
356     Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
357     </pre>
358    
359     <p>
360 nightmorph 1.29 Now that your slices are created, you can continue with <uri
361 swift 1.1 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
362     </p>
363    
364     </body>
365     </subsection>
366     </section>
367 swift 1.17 <section id="fdisk_ARC">
368 vapier 1.13 <title>Using fdisk to Partition your Disk (ARC/AlphaBIOS only)</title>
369     <subsection>
370     <body>
371    
372     <p>
373     The following parts explain how to partition the disk with a layout
374     similar to the one described previously, namely:
375     </p>
376    
377     <table>
378     <tr>
379     <th>Partition</th>
380     <th>Description</th>
381     </tr>
382     <tr>
383     <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
384     <ti>Boot partition</ti>
385     </tr>
386     <tr>
387     <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
388     <ti>Swap partition</ti>
389     </tr>
390     <tr>
391     <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
392     <ti>Root partition</ti>
393     </tr>
394     </table>
395    
396     <p>
397     Change your partition layout according to your own preference.
398     </p>
399    
400     </body>
401     </subsection>
402     <subsection>
403     <title>Identifying Available Disks</title>
404     <body>
405    
406     <p>
407     To figure out what disks you have running, use the following commands:
408     </p>
409    
410     <pre caption="Identifying available disks">
411     # <i>dmesg | grep 'drive$'</i> <comment>(For IDE disks)</comment>
412     # <i>dmesg | grep 'scsi'</i> <comment>(For SCSI disks)</comment>
413     </pre>
414    
415     <p>
416     From this output you should be able to see what disks were detected and their
417     respective <path>/dev</path> entry. In the following parts we assume that the
418     disk is a SCSI disk on <path>/dev/sda</path>.
419     </p>
420    
421     <p>
422     Now fire up <c>fdisk</c>:
423     </p>
424    
425     <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
426     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
427     </pre>
428    
429     </body>
430     </subsection>
431     <subsection>
432     <title>Deleting All Partitions</title>
433     <body>
434    
435     <p>
436     If your hard drive is completely blank, then you'll have to first create
437     a DOS disklabel.
438     </p>
439    
440     <pre caption="Creating a DOS disklabel">
441     Command (m for help): <i>o</i>
442     Building a new DOS disklabel.
443     </pre>
444    
445     <p>
446     We start with deleting all partitions. The following shows how to delete
447     a partition (in the example we use '1'). Repeat the process to delete all
448     other partitions.
449     </p>
450    
451     <p>
452 cam 1.14 Use <c>p</c> to view all existing partitions. <c>d</c> is used to delete a
453     partition.
454 vapier 1.13 </p>
455    
456     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
457     command (m for help): <i>p</i>
458    
459     Disk /dev/sda: 9150 MB, 9150996480 bytes
460     64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 8727 cylinders
461     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
462    
463     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
464     /dev/sda1 1 478 489456 83 Linux
465     /dev/sda2 479 8727 8446976 5 Extended
466     /dev/sda5 479 1433 977904 83 Linux Swap
467     /dev/sda6 1434 8727 7469040 83 Linux
468    
469     command (m for help): <i>d</i>
470     Partition number (1-6): <i>1</i>
471     </pre>
472    
473    
474     </body>
475     </subsection>
476     <subsection>
477     <title>Creating the Boot Partition</title>
478     <body>
479    
480     <p>
481     On Alpha systems which use MILO to boot, we have to create a small vfat
482     boot partition.
483     </p>
484    
485     <pre caption="Creating the boot partition">
486     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
487     Command action
488     e extended
489     p primary partition (1-4)
490     <i>p</i>
491     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
492     First cylinder (1-8727, default 1): <i>1</i>
493     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-8727, default 8727): <i>+16M</i>
494    
495     Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
496     Selected partition 1
497     Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>6</i>
498     Changed system type of partition 1 to 6 (FAT16)
499     </pre>
500    
501     </body>
502     </subsection>
503     <subsection>
504     <title>Creating the Swap Partition</title>
505     <body>
506    
507     <p>
508 rane 1.30 We will create a swap partition with a total size of 1 GB. Use <c>n</c> to
509     create a new partition.
510 vapier 1.13 </p>
511    
512     <pre caption="Creating the swap partition">
513     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
514     Command action
515     e extended
516     p primary partition (1-4)
517     <i>p</i>
518     Partition number (1-4): <i>2</i>
519     First cylinder (17-8727, default 17): <i>17</i>
520     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (17-8727, default 8727): <i>+1000M</i>
521    
522     Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
523 neysx 1.27 Partition number (1-4): <i>2</i>
524 vapier 1.13 Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>82</i>
525     Changed system type of partition 2 to 82 (Linux swap)
526     </pre>
527    
528     <p>
529     After these steps you should see a layout similar to the following:
530     </p>
531    
532     <pre caption="Partition listing after creating a swap partition">
533     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
534    
535     Disk /dev/sda: 9150 MB, 9150996480 bytes
536     64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 8727 cylinders
537     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
538    
539     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
540     /dev/sda1 1 16 16368 6 FAT16
541     /dev/sda2 17 971 977920 82 Linux swap
542     </pre>
543    
544     </body>
545     </subsection>
546     <subsection>
547     <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
548     <body>
549    
550     <p>
551     We will now create the root partition. Again, just use the <c>n</c> command.
552     </p>
553    
554     <pre caption="Creating the root partition">
555     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
556     Command action
557     e extended
558     p primary partition (1-4)
559     <i>p</i>
560     Partition number (1-4): <i>3</i>
561     First cylinder (972-8727, default 972): <i>972</i>
562     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (972-8727, default 8727): <i>8727</i>
563     </pre>
564    
565     <p>
566     After these steps you should see a layout similar to the following:
567     </p>
568    
569     <pre caption="Partition listing after creating the root partition">
570     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
571    
572     Disk /dev/sda: 9150 MB, 9150996480 bytes
573     64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 8727 cylinders
574     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
575    
576     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
577     /dev/sda1 1 16 16368 6 FAT16
578     /dev/sda2 17 971 977920 82 Linux swap
579     /dev/sda3 972 8727 7942144 83 Linux
580     </pre>
581    
582     </body>
583     </subsection>
584     <subsection>
585     <title>Save the Partition Layout and Exit</title>
586     <body>
587    
588     <p>
589     Save <c>fdisk</c> by typing <c>w</c>. This will also save your partition layout.
590     </p>
591    
592     <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
593     Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
594     </pre>
595    
596     <p>
597 nightmorph 1.29 Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
598 vapier 1.13 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
599     </p>
600    
601     </body>
602     </subsection>
603     </section>
604 swift 1.1 <section id="filesystems">
605     <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
606     <subsection>
607     <title>Introduction</title>
608     <body>
609    
610     <p>
611     Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
612     If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
613     as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
614     link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
615     Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
616     </p>
617    
618     </body>
619     </subsection>
620 nightmorph 1.28
621 swift 1.1 <subsection>
622 nightmorph 1.28 <include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
623     </subsection>
624 swift 1.1
625     <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
626     <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
627     <body>
628    
629     <p>
630     To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
631     each possible filesystem:
632     </p>
633    
634     <table>
635     <tr>
636     <th>Filesystem</th>
637     <th>Creation Command</th>
638     </tr>
639     <tr>
640     <ti>ext2</ti>
641 swift 1.31 <ti><c>mkfs.ext2</c></ti>
642 swift 1.1 </tr>
643     <tr>
644     <ti>ext3</ti>
645 swift 1.31 <ti><c>mkfs.ext3</c></ti>
646     </tr>
647     <tr>
648     <ti>ext4</ti>
649     <ti><c>mkfs.ext4</c></ti>
650 swift 1.1 </tr>
651     <tr>
652     <ti>reiserfs</ti>
653 swift 1.31 <ti><c>mkfs.reiserfs</c></ti>
654 swift 1.1 </tr>
655     <tr>
656     <ti>xfs</ti>
657     <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
658     </tr>
659     <tr>
660     <ti>jfs</ti>
661     <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
662     </tr>
663     </table>
664    
665     <p>
666 swift 1.5 For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/sda2</path> in our example)
667 swift 1.1 in ext3, you would use:
668     </p>
669    
670     <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
671 swift 1.31 # <i>mkfs.ext3 /dev/sda2</i>
672 swift 1.1 </pre>
673    
674     <p>
675     Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
676     volumes).
677     </p>
678    
679     </body>
680     </subsection>
681     <subsection>
682     <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
683     <body>
684    
685     <p>
686     <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
687     </p>
688    
689     <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
690 swift 1.5 # <i>mkswap /dev/sda1</i>
691 swift 1.1 </pre>
692    
693     <p>
694     To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
695     </p>
696    
697     <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
698 swift 1.5 # <i>swapon /dev/sda1</i>
699 swift 1.1 </pre>
700    
701     <p>
702 swift 1.16 Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
703 swift 1.1 </p>
704    
705     </body>
706     </subsection>
707     </section>
708     <section>
709     <title>Mounting</title>
710     <body>
711    
712     <p>
713     Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
714     time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
715     create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
716 rane 1.30 example we mount the root partition:
717 swift 1.1 </p>
718    
719     <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
720 swift 1.5 # <i>mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/gentoo</i>
721 swift 1.1 </pre>
722    
723     <note>
724     If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
725     change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
726     also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
727     </note>
728    
729     <p>
730 swift 1.6 We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
731     kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
732 swift 1.1 </p>
733    
734     <p>
735 swift 1.6 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
736 swift 1.1 Installation Files</uri>.
737     </p>
738    
739     </body>
740     </section>
741     </sections>

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