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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/2005.0/hb-install-alpha-disk.xml,v 1.2 2005/03/28 08:20:02 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.00</version>
12 <date>2005-03-28</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Block Devices</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 We'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
22 and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices.
23 Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and filesystems,
24 you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
25 for your Gentoo Linux installation.
26 </p>
27
28 <p>
29 To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most famous block device is
30 probably the one that represents the first SCSI HD in a Linux system, namely
31 <path>/dev/sda</path>.
32 </p>
33
34 <p>
35 The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
36 programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying
37 about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The program can
38 simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
39 randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
40 </p>
41
42 </body>
43 </subsection>
44 <subsection>
45 <title>Slices</title>
46 <body>
47
48 <p>
49 Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
50 system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
51 are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On Alpha systems,
52 these are called <e>slices</e>.
53 </p>
54
55 </body>
56 </subsection>
57 </section>
58 <section>
59 <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
60 <subsection>
61 <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
62 <body>
63
64 <p>
65 As an example we use the following slice layout:
66 </p>
67
68 <table>
69 <tr>
70 <th>Slice</th>
71 <th>Description</th>
72 </tr>
73 <tr>
74 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
75 <ti>Swap slice</ti>
76 </tr>
77 <tr>
78 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
79 <ti>Root slice</ti>
80 </tr>
81 <tr>
82 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
83 <ti>Full disk (required)</ti>
84 </tr>
85 </table>
86
87
88 <p>
89 If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how
90 many partitions (or volumes) you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
91 <uri link="#fdisk_SRM">Using fdisk to Partition your Disk (SRM only)</uri>
92 or <uri link="#fdisk_ARC">Using fdisk to Partition your Disk (ARC/AlphaBIOS
93 only)</uri>.
94 </p>
95
96 </body>
97 </subsection>
98 <subsection>
99 <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
100 <body>
101
102 <p>
103 The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
104 if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
105 <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
106 If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your
107 <path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside
108 <path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your
109 performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming
110 servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>:
111 security and backups.
112 </p>
113
114 <p>
115 As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
116 partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
117 </p>
118
119 <ul>
120 <li>
121 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
122 </li>
123 <li>
124 Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
125 continuously writing files to a partition or volume
126 </li>
127 <li>
128 If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
129 be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
130 it is with multiple partitions)
131 </li>
132 <li>
133 Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
134 nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
135 </li>
136 </ul>
137
138 <p>
139 However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
140 properly, you might result in having a system with lots
141 of free space on one partition and none on another.
142 </p>
143
144 </body>
145 </subsection>
146 </section>
147 <section id="fdisk_SRM">
148 <title>Using fdisk to Partition your Disk (SRM only)</title>
149 <subsection>
150 <body>
151
152 <p>
153 The following parts explain how to create the example slice layout described
154 previously, namely:
155 </p>
156
157 <table>
158 <tr>
159 <th>Slice</th>
160 <th>Description</th>
161 </tr>
162 <tr>
163 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
164 <ti>Swap slice</ti>
165 </tr>
166 <tr>
167 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
168 <ti>Root slice</ti>
169 </tr>
170 <tr>
171 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
172 <ti>Full disk (required)</ti>
173 </tr>
174 </table>
175
176 <p>
177 Change your slice layout according to your own preference.
178 </p>
179
180
181 </body>
182 </subsection>
183 <subsection>
184 <title>Identifying Available Disks</title>
185 <body>
186
187 <p>
188 To figure out what disks you have running, use the following commands:
189 </p>
190
191 <pre caption="Identifying available disks">
192 # <i>dmesg | grep 'drive$'</i> <comment>(For IDE disks)</comment>
193 # <i>dmesg | grep 'scsi'</i> <comment>(For SCSI disks)</comment>
194 </pre>
195
196 <p>
197 From this output you should be able to see what disks were detected and their
198 respective <path>/dev</path> entry. In the following parts we assume that the
199 disk is a SCSI disk on <path>/dev/sda</path>.
200 </p>
201
202 <p>
203 Now fire up <c>fdisk</c>:
204 </p>
205
206 <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
207 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
208 </pre>
209
210 </body>
211 </subsection>
212 <subsection>
213 <title>Deleting All Slices</title>
214 <body>
215
216 <p>
217 If your hard drive is completely blank, then you'll have to first create
218 a BSD disklabel.
219 </p>
220
221 <pre caption="Creating a BSD disklabel">
222 Command (m for help): <i>b</i>
223 /dev/sda contains no disklabel.
224 Do you want to create a disklabel? (y/n) <i>y</i>
225 <comment>A bunch of drive-specific info will show here</comment>
226 3 partitions:
227 # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
228 c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
229 </pre>
230
231 <p>
232 We start with deleting all slices <e>except</e> the 'c'-slice (a requirement
233 for using BSD disklabels). The following shows how to delete a slice (in
234 the example we use 'a'). Repeat the process to delete all other slices
235 (again, except the 'c'-slice).
236 </p>
237
238 <p>
239 Use <c>p</c> to view all existing slices. <c>d</c> is used to delete a slice.
240 </p>
241
242 <pre caption="Deleting a slice">
243 BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>p</i>
244
245 8 partitions:
246 # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
247 a: 1 235* 234* 4.2BSD 1024 8192 16
248 b: 235* 469* 234* swap
249 c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
250 d: 469* 2076* 1607* unused 0 0
251 e: 2076* 3683* 1607* unused 0 0
252 f: 3683* 5290* 1607* unused 0 0
253 g: 469* 1749* 1280 4.2BSD 1024 8192 16
254 h: 1749* 5290* 3541* unused 0 0
255
256 BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>d</i>
257 Partition (a-h): <i>a</i>
258 </pre>
259
260 <p>
261 After repeating this process for all slices, a listing should show you something
262 similar to this:
263 </p>
264
265 <pre caption="Viewing an empty scheme">
266 BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>p</i>
267
268 3 partitions:
269 # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
270 c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
271 </pre>
272
273 </body>
274 </subsection>
275 <subsection>
276 <title>Creating the Swap Slice</title>
277 <body>
278
279 <p>
280 On Alpha based systems you don't need a separate boot partition. However, the
281 first cylinder cannot be used as the <c>aboot</c> image will be placed there.
282 </p>
283
284 <p>
285 We will create a swap slice starting at the third cylinder, with a total
286 size of 1 GB. Use <c>n</c> to create a new slice. After creating the slice,
287 we will change its type to <c>1</c> (one), meaning <e>swap</e>.
288 </p>
289
290 <pre caption="Creating the swap slice">
291 BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>n</i>
292 Partition (a-p): <i>a</i>
293 First cylinder (1-5290, default 1): <i>3</i>
294 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (3-5290, default 5290): <i>+1024M</i>
295
296 BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>t</i>
297 Partition (a-c): <i>a</i>
298 Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>1</i>
299 </pre>
300
301 <p>
302 After these steps you should see a layout similar to the following:
303 </p>
304
305 <pre caption="Slice layout after creating the swap slice">
306 BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>p</i>
307
308 3 partitions:
309 # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
310 a: 3 1003 1001 swap
311 c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
312 </pre>
313
314 </body>
315 </subsection>
316 <subsection>
317 <title>Create the Root Slice</title>
318 <body>
319
320 <p>
321 We will now create the root slice, starting from the first cylinder <e>after</e>
322 the swap slice. Use the <c>p</c> command to view where the swap slice ends. In
323 our example, this is at 1003, making the root partition start at 1004.
324 </p>
325
326 <p>
327 Another problem is that there is currently a bug in <c>fdisk</c> making it think
328 the number of available cylinders is one above the real number of cylinders. In
329 other words, when you are asked for the last cylinder, decrease the cylinder
330 number (in this example: 5290) with one.
331 </p>
332
333 <p>
334 When the partition is created, we change the type to <c>8</c>, for <e>ext2</e>.
335 </p>
336
337 <pre caption="Creating the root slice">
338 D disklabel command (m for help): <i>n</i>
339 Partition (a-p): <i>b</i>
340 First cylinder (1-5290, default 1): <i>1004</i>
341 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1004-5290, default 5290): <i>5289</i>
342
343 BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>t</i>
344 Partition (a-c): <i>b</i>
345 Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>8</i>
346 </pre>
347
348 <p>
349 Your slice layout should now be similar to this:
350 </p>
351
352 <pre caption="Viewing the slice layout">
353 BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>p</i>
354
355 3 partitions:
356 # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
357 a: 3 1003 1001 swap
358 b: 1004 5289 4286 ext2
359 c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
360 </pre>
361
362 </body>
363 </subsection>
364 <subsection>
365 <title>Save the Slice Layout and Exit</title>
366 <body>
367
368 <p>
369 Save <c>fdisk</c> by typing <c>w</c>. This will also save your slice layout.
370 </p>
371
372 <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
373 Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
374 </pre>
375
376 <p>
377 Now that your slices are created, you can now continue with <uri
378 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
379 </p>
380
381 </body>
382 </subsection>
383 </section>
384 <section id="fdisk_ARC">
385 <title>Using fdisk to Partition your Disk (ARC/AlphaBIOS only)</title>
386 <subsection>
387 <body>
388
389 <p>
390 The following parts explain how to partition the disk with a layout
391 similar to the one described previously, namely:
392 </p>
393
394 <table>
395 <tr>
396 <th>Partition</th>
397 <th>Description</th>
398 </tr>
399 <tr>
400 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
401 <ti>Boot partition</ti>
402 </tr>
403 <tr>
404 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
405 <ti>Swap partition</ti>
406 </tr>
407 <tr>
408 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
409 <ti>Root partition</ti>
410 </tr>
411 </table>
412
413 <p>
414 Change your partition layout according to your own preference.
415 </p>
416
417 </body>
418 </subsection>
419 <subsection>
420 <title>Identifying Available Disks</title>
421 <body>
422
423 <p>
424 To figure out what disks you have running, use the following commands:
425 </p>
426
427 <pre caption="Identifying available disks">
428 # <i>dmesg | grep 'drive$'</i> <comment>(For IDE disks)</comment>
429 # <i>dmesg | grep 'scsi'</i> <comment>(For SCSI disks)</comment>
430 </pre>
431
432 <p>
433 From this output you should be able to see what disks were detected and their
434 respective <path>/dev</path> entry. In the following parts we assume that the
435 disk is a SCSI disk on <path>/dev/sda</path>.
436 </p>
437
438 <p>
439 Now fire up <c>fdisk</c>:
440 </p>
441
442 <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
443 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
444 </pre>
445
446 </body>
447 </subsection>
448 <subsection>
449 <title>Deleting All Partitions</title>
450 <body>
451
452 <p>
453 If your hard drive is completely blank, then you'll have to first create
454 a DOS disklabel.
455 </p>
456
457 <pre caption="Creating a DOS disklabel">
458 Command (m for help): <i>o</i>
459 Building a new DOS disklabel.
460 </pre>
461
462 <p>
463 We start with deleting all partitions. The following shows how to delete
464 a partition (in the example we use '1'). Repeat the process to delete all
465 other partitions.
466 </p>
467
468 <p>
469 Use <c>p</c> to view all existing partitions. <c>d</c> is used to delete a
470 partition.
471 </p>
472
473 <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
474 command (m for help): <i>p</i>
475
476 Disk /dev/sda: 9150 MB, 9150996480 bytes
477 64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 8727 cylinders
478 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
479
480 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
481 /dev/sda1 1 478 489456 83 Linux
482 /dev/sda2 479 8727 8446976 5 Extended
483 /dev/sda5 479 1433 977904 83 Linux Swap
484 /dev/sda6 1434 8727 7469040 83 Linux
485
486 command (m for help): <i>d</i>
487 Partition number (1-6): <i>1</i>
488 </pre>
489
490
491 </body>
492 </subsection>
493 <subsection>
494 <title>Creating the Boot Partition</title>
495 <body>
496
497 <p>
498 On Alpha systems which use MILO to boot, we have to create a small vfat
499 boot partition.
500 </p>
501
502 <pre caption="Creating the boot partition">
503 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
504 Command action
505 e extended
506 p primary partition (1-4)
507 <i>p</i>
508 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
509 First cylinder (1-8727, default 1): <i>1</i>
510 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-8727, default 8727): <i>+16M</i>
511
512 Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
513 Selected partition 1
514 Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>6</i>
515 Changed system type of partition 1 to 6 (FAT16)
516 </pre>
517
518 </body>
519 </subsection>
520 <subsection>
521 <title>Creating the Swap Partition</title>
522 <body>
523
524 <p>
525 We will create a swap partition starting at the third cylinder, with a total
526 size of 1 GB. Use <c>n</c> to create a new partition.
527 </p>
528
529 <pre caption="Creating the swap partition">
530 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
531 Command action
532 e extended
533 p primary partition (1-4)
534 <i>p</i>
535 Partition number (1-4): <i>2</i>
536 First cylinder (17-8727, default 17): <i>17</i>
537 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (17-8727, default 8727): <i>+1000M</i>
538
539 Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
540 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
541 Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>82</i>
542 Changed system type of partition 2 to 82 (Linux swap)
543 </pre>
544
545 <p>
546 After these steps you should see a layout similar to the following:
547 </p>
548
549 <pre caption="Partition listing after creating a swap partition">
550 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
551
552 Disk /dev/sda: 9150 MB, 9150996480 bytes
553 64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 8727 cylinders
554 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
555
556 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
557 /dev/sda1 1 16 16368 6 FAT16
558 /dev/sda2 17 971 977920 82 Linux swap
559 </pre>
560
561 </body>
562 </subsection>
563 <subsection>
564 <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
565 <body>
566
567 <p>
568 We will now create the root partition. Again, just use the <c>n</c> command.
569 </p>
570
571 <pre caption="Creating the root partition">
572 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
573 Command action
574 e extended
575 p primary partition (1-4)
576 <i>p</i>
577 Partition number (1-4): <i>3</i>
578 First cylinder (972-8727, default 972): <i>972</i>
579 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (972-8727, default 8727): <i>8727</i>
580 </pre>
581
582 <p>
583 After these steps you should see a layout similar to the following:
584 </p>
585
586 <pre caption="Partition listing after creating the root partition">
587 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
588
589 Disk /dev/sda: 9150 MB, 9150996480 bytes
590 64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 8727 cylinders
591 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
592
593 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
594 /dev/sda1 1 16 16368 6 FAT16
595 /dev/sda2 17 971 977920 82 Linux swap
596 /dev/sda3 972 8727 7942144 83 Linux
597 </pre>
598
599 </body>
600 </subsection>
601 <subsection>
602 <title>Save the Partition Layout and Exit</title>
603 <body>
604
605 <p>
606 Save <c>fdisk</c> by typing <c>w</c>. This will also save your partition layout.
607 </p>
608
609 <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
610 Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
611 </pre>
612
613 <p>
614 Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
615 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
616 </p>
617
618 </body>
619 </subsection>
620 </section>
621 <section id="filesystems">
622 <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
623 <subsection>
624 <title>Introduction</title>
625 <body>
626
627 <p>
628 Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
629 If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
630 as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
631 link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
632 Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
633 </p>
634
635 </body>
636 </subsection>
637 <subsection>
638 <title>Filesystems?</title>
639 <body>
640
641 <p>
642 Several filesystems are available. Most of them are found stable on the
643 Alpha architecture.
644 </p>
645
646 <p>
647 <b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
648 journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
649 be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
650 journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are
651 thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled
652 filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
653 happens to be in an inconsistent state.
654 </p>
655
656 <p>
657 <b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
658 journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like
659 full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
660 filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables
661 high performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is an excellent
662 filesystem.
663 </p>
664
665 <p>
666 <b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
667 performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
668 files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
669 extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
670 solid and usable as both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such
671 as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large
672 files and directories containing tens of thousands of files.
673 </p>
674
675 <p>
676 <b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling which comes with a robust
677 feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
678 filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
679 an uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
680 in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
681 when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
682 deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
683 </p>
684
685 <p>
686 <b>JFS</b> is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
687 become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
688 comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this point.
689 </p>
690
691 </body>
692 </subsection>
693 <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
694 <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
695 <body>
696
697 <p>
698 To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
699 each possible filesystem:
700 </p>
701
702 <table>
703 <tr>
704 <th>Filesystem</th>
705 <th>Creation Command</th>
706 </tr>
707 <tr>
708 <ti>ext2</ti>
709 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
710 </tr>
711 <tr>
712 <ti>ext3</ti>
713 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
714 </tr>
715 <tr>
716 <ti>reiserfs</ti>
717 <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
718 </tr>
719 <tr>
720 <ti>xfs</ti>
721 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
722 </tr>
723 <tr>
724 <ti>jfs</ti>
725 <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
726 </tr>
727 </table>
728
729 <p>
730 For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/sda2</path> in our example)
731 in ext3, you would use:
732 </p>
733
734 <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
735 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda2</i>
736 </pre>
737
738 <p>
739 Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
740 volumes).
741 </p>
742
743 </body>
744 </subsection>
745 <subsection>
746 <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
747 <body>
748
749 <p>
750 <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
751 </p>
752
753 <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
754 # <i>mkswap /dev/sda1</i>
755 </pre>
756
757 <p>
758 To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
759 </p>
760
761 <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
762 # <i>swapon /dev/sda1</i>
763 </pre>
764
765 <p>
766 Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
767 </p>
768
769 </body>
770 </subsection>
771 </section>
772 <section>
773 <title>Mounting</title>
774 <body>
775
776 <p>
777 Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
778 time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
779 create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
780 example we mount the root and boot partition:
781 </p>
782
783 <warn>
784 Due to a bug in the e2fsprogs package, you need to explicitly use
785 the <c>mount -t ext3</c> option if you are using an ext3 filesystem.
786 </warn>
787
788 <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
789 # <i>mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/gentoo</i>
790 <comment>(For ext3 partitions:)</comment>
791 # <i>mount -t ext3 /dev/sda2 /mnt/gentoo</i>
792 </pre>
793
794 <note>
795 If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
796 change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
797 also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
798 </note>
799
800 <p>
801 We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
802 kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
803 </p>
804
805 <p>
806 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
807 Installation Files</uri>.
808 </p>
809
810 </body>
811 </section>
812 </sections>

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