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Revision 1.26 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Tue Jun 26 07:07:27 2007 UTC (7 years, 5 months ago) by nightmorph
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.25: +8 -8 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
fixing tree type confusion. spank whoever told me to add that ext3 stuff in the first place, and me for blindly adding it. all fixed now; also fixed reiserfs, since it's actually B+, not B*

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-disk.xml,v 1.25 2007/05/07 18:11:40 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>8.1</version>
12 <date>2007-06-26</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Block Devices</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 We'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
22 and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices.
23 Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and filesystems,
24 you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
25 for your Gentoo Linux installation.
26 </p>
27
28 <p>
29 To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most famous block device is
30 probably the one that represents the first SCSI HD in a Linux system, namely
31 <path>/dev/sda</path>.
32 </p>
33
34 <p>
35 The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
36 programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying
37 about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The program can
38 simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
39 randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
40 </p>
41
42 </body>
43 </subsection>
44 <subsection>
45 <title>Slices</title>
46 <body>
47
48 <p>
49 Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
50 system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
51 are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On Alpha systems,
52 these are called <e>slices</e>.
53 </p>
54
55 </body>
56 </subsection>
57 </section>
58 <section>
59 <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
60 <subsection>
61 <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
62 <body>
63
64 <p>
65 As an example we use the following slice layout:
66 </p>
67
68 <table>
69 <tr>
70 <th>Slice</th>
71 <th>Description</th>
72 </tr>
73 <tr>
74 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
75 <ti>Swap slice</ti>
76 </tr>
77 <tr>
78 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
79 <ti>Root slice</ti>
80 </tr>
81 <tr>
82 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
83 <ti>Full disk (required)</ti>
84 </tr>
85 </table>
86
87
88 <p>
89 If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how
90 many partitions (or volumes) you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
91 <uri link="#fdisk_SRM">Using fdisk to Partition your Disk (SRM only)</uri>
92 or <uri link="#fdisk_ARC">Using fdisk to Partition your Disk (ARC/AlphaBIOS
93 only)</uri>.
94 </p>
95
96 </body>
97 </subsection>
98 <subsection>
99 <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
100 <body>
101
102 <p>
103 The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
104 if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
105 <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
106 If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your
107 <path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside
108 <path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your
109 performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming
110 servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>:
111 security and backups. You will definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big:
112 not only will it contain the majority of applications, the Portage tree alone
113 takes around 500 Mbyte excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
114 </p>
115
116 <p>
117 As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
118 partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
119 </p>
120
121 <ul>
122 <li>
123 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
124 </li>
125 <li>
126 Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
127 continuously writing files to a partition or volume
128 </li>
129 <li>
130 If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
131 be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
132 it is with multiple partitions)
133 </li>
134 <li>
135 Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
136 nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
137 </li>
138 </ul>
139
140 <p>
141 However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
142 properly, you might result in having a system with lots
143 of free space on one partition and none on another.
144 </p>
145
146 </body>
147 </subsection>
148 </section>
149 <section id="fdisk_SRM">
150 <title>Using fdisk to Partition your Disk (SRM only)</title>
151 <subsection>
152 <body>
153
154 <p>
155 The following parts explain how to create the example slice layout described
156 previously, namely:
157 </p>
158
159 <table>
160 <tr>
161 <th>Slice</th>
162 <th>Description</th>
163 </tr>
164 <tr>
165 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
166 <ti>Swap slice</ti>
167 </tr>
168 <tr>
169 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
170 <ti>Root slice</ti>
171 </tr>
172 <tr>
173 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
174 <ti>Full disk (required)</ti>
175 </tr>
176 </table>
177
178 <p>
179 Change your slice layout according to your own preference.
180 </p>
181
182
183 </body>
184 </subsection>
185 <subsection>
186 <title>Identifying Available Disks</title>
187 <body>
188
189 <p>
190 To figure out what disks you have running, use the following commands:
191 </p>
192
193 <pre caption="Identifying available disks">
194 # <i>dmesg | grep 'drive$'</i> <comment>(For IDE disks)</comment>
195 # <i>dmesg | grep 'scsi'</i> <comment>(For SCSI disks)</comment>
196 </pre>
197
198 <p>
199 From this output you should be able to see what disks were detected and their
200 respective <path>/dev</path> entry. In the following parts we assume that the
201 disk is a SCSI disk on <path>/dev/sda</path>.
202 </p>
203
204 <p>
205 Now fire up <c>fdisk</c>:
206 </p>
207
208 <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
209 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
210 </pre>
211
212 </body>
213 </subsection>
214 <subsection>
215 <title>Deleting All Slices</title>
216 <body>
217
218 <p>
219 If your hard drive is completely blank, then you'll have to first create
220 a BSD disklabel.
221 </p>
222
223 <pre caption="Creating a BSD disklabel">
224 Command (m for help): <i>b</i>
225 /dev/sda contains no disklabel.
226 Do you want to create a disklabel? (y/n) <i>y</i>
227 <comment>A bunch of drive-specific info will show here</comment>
228 3 partitions:
229 # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
230 c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
231 </pre>
232
233 <p>
234 We start with deleting all slices <e>except</e> the 'c'-slice (a requirement
235 for using BSD disklabels). The following shows how to delete a slice (in
236 the example we use 'a'). Repeat the process to delete all other slices
237 (again, except the 'c'-slice).
238 </p>
239
240 <p>
241 Use <c>p</c> to view all existing slices. <c>d</c> is used to delete a slice.
242 </p>
243
244 <pre caption="Deleting a slice">
245 BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>p</i>
246
247 8 partitions:
248 # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
249 a: 1 235* 234* 4.2BSD 1024 8192 16
250 b: 235* 469* 234* swap
251 c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
252 d: 469* 2076* 1607* unused 0 0
253 e: 2076* 3683* 1607* unused 0 0
254 f: 3683* 5290* 1607* unused 0 0
255 g: 469* 1749* 1280 4.2BSD 1024 8192 16
256 h: 1749* 5290* 3541* unused 0 0
257
258 BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>d</i>
259 Partition (a-h): <i>a</i>
260 </pre>
261
262 <p>
263 After repeating this process for all slices, a listing should show you something
264 similar to this:
265 </p>
266
267 <pre caption="Viewing an empty scheme">
268 BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>p</i>
269
270 3 partitions:
271 # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
272 c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
273 </pre>
274
275 </body>
276 </subsection>
277 <subsection>
278 <title>Creating the Swap Slice</title>
279 <body>
280
281 <p>
282 On Alpha based systems you don't need a separate boot partition. However, the
283 first cylinder cannot be used as the <c>aboot</c> image will be placed there.
284 </p>
285
286 <p>
287 We will create a swap slice starting at the third cylinder, with a total
288 size of 1 GB. Use <c>n</c> to create a new slice. After creating the slice,
289 we will change its type to <c>1</c> (one), meaning <e>swap</e>.
290 </p>
291
292 <pre caption="Creating the swap slice">
293 BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>n</i>
294 Partition (a-p): <i>a</i>
295 First cylinder (1-5290, default 1): <i>3</i>
296 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (3-5290, default 5290): <i>+1024M</i>
297
298 BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>t</i>
299 Partition (a-c): <i>a</i>
300 Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>1</i>
301 </pre>
302
303 <p>
304 After these steps you should see a layout similar to the following:
305 </p>
306
307 <pre caption="Slice layout after creating the swap slice">
308 BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>p</i>
309
310 3 partitions:
311 # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
312 a: 3 1003 1001 swap
313 c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
314 </pre>
315
316 </body>
317 </subsection>
318 <subsection>
319 <title>Create the Root Slice</title>
320 <body>
321
322 <p>
323 We will now create the root slice, starting from the first cylinder <e>after</e>
324 the swap slice. Use the <c>p</c> command to view where the swap slice ends. In
325 our example, this is at 1003, making the root partition start at 1004.
326 </p>
327
328 <p>
329 Another problem is that there is currently a bug in <c>fdisk</c> making it think
330 the number of available cylinders is one above the real number of cylinders. In
331 other words, when you are asked for the last cylinder, decrease the cylinder
332 number (in this example: 5290) with one.
333 </p>
334
335 <p>
336 When the partition is created, we change the type to <c>8</c>, for <e>ext2</e>.
337 </p>
338
339 <pre caption="Creating the root slice">
340 D disklabel command (m for help): <i>n</i>
341 Partition (a-p): <i>b</i>
342 First cylinder (1-5290, default 1): <i>1004</i>
343 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1004-5290, default 5290): <i>5289</i>
344
345 BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>t</i>
346 Partition (a-c): <i>b</i>
347 Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>8</i>
348 </pre>
349
350 <p>
351 Your slice layout should now be similar to this:
352 </p>
353
354 <pre caption="Viewing the slice layout">
355 BSD disklabel command (m for help): <i>p</i>
356
357 3 partitions:
358 # start end size fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
359 a: 3 1003 1001 swap
360 b: 1004 5289 4286 ext2
361 c: 1 5290* 5289* unused 0 0
362 </pre>
363
364 </body>
365 </subsection>
366 <subsection>
367 <title>Save the Slice Layout and Exit</title>
368 <body>
369
370 <p>
371 Save <c>fdisk</c> by typing <c>w</c>. This will also save your slice layout.
372 </p>
373
374 <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
375 Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
376 </pre>
377
378 <p>
379 Now that your slices are created, you can now continue with <uri
380 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
381 </p>
382
383 </body>
384 </subsection>
385 </section>
386 <section id="fdisk_ARC">
387 <title>Using fdisk to Partition your Disk (ARC/AlphaBIOS only)</title>
388 <subsection>
389 <body>
390
391 <p>
392 The following parts explain how to partition the disk with a layout
393 similar to the one described previously, namely:
394 </p>
395
396 <table>
397 <tr>
398 <th>Partition</th>
399 <th>Description</th>
400 </tr>
401 <tr>
402 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
403 <ti>Boot partition</ti>
404 </tr>
405 <tr>
406 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
407 <ti>Swap partition</ti>
408 </tr>
409 <tr>
410 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
411 <ti>Root partition</ti>
412 </tr>
413 </table>
414
415 <p>
416 Change your partition layout according to your own preference.
417 </p>
418
419 </body>
420 </subsection>
421 <subsection>
422 <title>Identifying Available Disks</title>
423 <body>
424
425 <p>
426 To figure out what disks you have running, use the following commands:
427 </p>
428
429 <pre caption="Identifying available disks">
430 # <i>dmesg | grep 'drive$'</i> <comment>(For IDE disks)</comment>
431 # <i>dmesg | grep 'scsi'</i> <comment>(For SCSI disks)</comment>
432 </pre>
433
434 <p>
435 From this output you should be able to see what disks were detected and their
436 respective <path>/dev</path> entry. In the following parts we assume that the
437 disk is a SCSI disk on <path>/dev/sda</path>.
438 </p>
439
440 <p>
441 Now fire up <c>fdisk</c>:
442 </p>
443
444 <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
445 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
446 </pre>
447
448 </body>
449 </subsection>
450 <subsection>
451 <title>Deleting All Partitions</title>
452 <body>
453
454 <p>
455 If your hard drive is completely blank, then you'll have to first create
456 a DOS disklabel.
457 </p>
458
459 <pre caption="Creating a DOS disklabel">
460 Command (m for help): <i>o</i>
461 Building a new DOS disklabel.
462 </pre>
463
464 <p>
465 We start with deleting all partitions. The following shows how to delete
466 a partition (in the example we use '1'). Repeat the process to delete all
467 other partitions.
468 </p>
469
470 <p>
471 Use <c>p</c> to view all existing partitions. <c>d</c> is used to delete a
472 partition.
473 </p>
474
475 <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
476 command (m for help): <i>p</i>
477
478 Disk /dev/sda: 9150 MB, 9150996480 bytes
479 64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 8727 cylinders
480 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
481
482 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
483 /dev/sda1 1 478 489456 83 Linux
484 /dev/sda2 479 8727 8446976 5 Extended
485 /dev/sda5 479 1433 977904 83 Linux Swap
486 /dev/sda6 1434 8727 7469040 83 Linux
487
488 command (m for help): <i>d</i>
489 Partition number (1-6): <i>1</i>
490 </pre>
491
492
493 </body>
494 </subsection>
495 <subsection>
496 <title>Creating the Boot Partition</title>
497 <body>
498
499 <p>
500 On Alpha systems which use MILO to boot, we have to create a small vfat
501 boot partition.
502 </p>
503
504 <pre caption="Creating the boot partition">
505 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
506 Command action
507 e extended
508 p primary partition (1-4)
509 <i>p</i>
510 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
511 First cylinder (1-8727, default 1): <i>1</i>
512 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-8727, default 8727): <i>+16M</i>
513
514 Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
515 Selected partition 1
516 Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>6</i>
517 Changed system type of partition 1 to 6 (FAT16)
518 </pre>
519
520 </body>
521 </subsection>
522 <subsection>
523 <title>Creating the Swap Partition</title>
524 <body>
525
526 <p>
527 We will create a swap partition starting at the third cylinder, with a total
528 size of 1 GB. Use <c>n</c> to create a new partition.
529 </p>
530
531 <pre caption="Creating the swap partition">
532 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
533 Command action
534 e extended
535 p primary partition (1-4)
536 <i>p</i>
537 Partition number (1-4): <i>2</i>
538 First cylinder (17-8727, default 17): <i>17</i>
539 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (17-8727, default 8727): <i>+1000M</i>
540
541 Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
542 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
543 Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>82</i>
544 Changed system type of partition 2 to 82 (Linux swap)
545 </pre>
546
547 <p>
548 After these steps you should see a layout similar to the following:
549 </p>
550
551 <pre caption="Partition listing after creating a swap partition">
552 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
553
554 Disk /dev/sda: 9150 MB, 9150996480 bytes
555 64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 8727 cylinders
556 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
557
558 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
559 /dev/sda1 1 16 16368 6 FAT16
560 /dev/sda2 17 971 977920 82 Linux swap
561 </pre>
562
563 </body>
564 </subsection>
565 <subsection>
566 <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
567 <body>
568
569 <p>
570 We will now create the root partition. Again, just use the <c>n</c> command.
571 </p>
572
573 <pre caption="Creating the root partition">
574 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
575 Command action
576 e extended
577 p primary partition (1-4)
578 <i>p</i>
579 Partition number (1-4): <i>3</i>
580 First cylinder (972-8727, default 972): <i>972</i>
581 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (972-8727, default 8727): <i>8727</i>
582 </pre>
583
584 <p>
585 After these steps you should see a layout similar to the following:
586 </p>
587
588 <pre caption="Partition listing after creating the root partition">
589 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
590
591 Disk /dev/sda: 9150 MB, 9150996480 bytes
592 64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 8727 cylinders
593 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
594
595 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
596 /dev/sda1 1 16 16368 6 FAT16
597 /dev/sda2 17 971 977920 82 Linux swap
598 /dev/sda3 972 8727 7942144 83 Linux
599 </pre>
600
601 </body>
602 </subsection>
603 <subsection>
604 <title>Save the Partition Layout and Exit</title>
605 <body>
606
607 <p>
608 Save <c>fdisk</c> by typing <c>w</c>. This will also save your partition layout.
609 </p>
610
611 <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
612 Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
613 </pre>
614
615 <p>
616 Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
617 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
618 </p>
619
620 </body>
621 </subsection>
622 </section>
623 <section id="filesystems">
624 <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
625 <subsection>
626 <title>Introduction</title>
627 <body>
628
629 <p>
630 Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
631 If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
632 as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
633 link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
634 Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
635 </p>
636
637 </body>
638 </subsection>
639 <subsection>
640 <title>Filesystems?</title>
641 <body>
642
643 <p>
644 Several filesystems are available. Most of them are found stable on the
645 Alpha architecture.
646 </p>
647
648 <note>
649 <c>aboot</c> only supports booting from <b>ext2</b> and <b>ext3</b>
650 partitions.
651 </note>
652
653 <p>
654 <b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
655 journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
656 be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
657 journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are
658 thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled
659 filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
660 happens to be in an inconsistent state.
661 </p>
662
663 <p>
664 <b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
665 journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like
666 full data and ordered data journaling. It uses an HTree index that enables high
667 performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is a very good and reliable
668 filesystem.
669 </p>
670
671 <p>
672 <b>ReiserFS</b> is a B+tree-based filesystem that has very good overall
673 performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
674 files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
675 extremely well and has metadata journaling. ReiserFS is solid and usable as
676 both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of
677 large filesystems, very large files and directories containing tens of
678 thousands of small files.
679 </p>
680
681 <p>
682 <b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling which comes with a robust
683 feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
684 filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
685 an uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
686 in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
687 when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
688 deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
689 </p>
690
691 <p>
692 <b>JFS</b> is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
693 become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
694 comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this point.
695 </p>
696
697 </body>
698 </subsection>
699 <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
700 <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
701 <body>
702
703 <p>
704 To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
705 each possible filesystem:
706 </p>
707
708 <table>
709 <tr>
710 <th>Filesystem</th>
711 <th>Creation Command</th>
712 </tr>
713 <tr>
714 <ti>ext2</ti>
715 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
716 </tr>
717 <tr>
718 <ti>ext3</ti>
719 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
720 </tr>
721 <tr>
722 <ti>reiserfs</ti>
723 <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
724 </tr>
725 <tr>
726 <ti>xfs</ti>
727 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
728 </tr>
729 <tr>
730 <ti>jfs</ti>
731 <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
732 </tr>
733 </table>
734
735 <p>
736 For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/sda2</path> in our example)
737 in ext3, you would use:
738 </p>
739
740 <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
741 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda2</i>
742 </pre>
743
744 <p>
745 Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
746 volumes).
747 </p>
748
749 </body>
750 </subsection>
751 <subsection>
752 <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
753 <body>
754
755 <p>
756 <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
757 </p>
758
759 <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
760 # <i>mkswap /dev/sda1</i>
761 </pre>
762
763 <p>
764 To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
765 </p>
766
767 <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
768 # <i>swapon /dev/sda1</i>
769 </pre>
770
771 <p>
772 Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
773 </p>
774
775 </body>
776 </subsection>
777 </section>
778 <section>
779 <title>Mounting</title>
780 <body>
781
782 <p>
783 Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
784 time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
785 create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
786 example we mount the root and boot partition:
787 </p>
788
789 <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
790 # <i>mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/gentoo</i>
791 </pre>
792
793 <note>
794 If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
795 change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
796 also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
797 </note>
798
799 <p>
800 We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
801 kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
802 </p>
803
804 <p>
805 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
806 Installation Files</uri>.
807 </p>
808
809 </body>
810 </section>
811 </sections>

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