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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-disk.xml,v 1.17 2005/03/28 11:30:52 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-disk.xml,v 1.30 2009/02/15 06:48:11 rane Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<version>2.00</version> 11<version>9.1</version>
12<date>2005-03-28</date> 12<date>2009-02-15</date>
13 13
14<section> 14<section>
15<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title> 15<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16<subsection>
17<title>Block Devices</title>
18<body>
19 16
20<p>
21We'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
22and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices.
23Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and filesystems,
24you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
25for your Gentoo Linux installation.
26</p>
27
28<p>
29To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most famous block device is
30probably the one that represents the first SCSI HD in a Linux system, namely
31<path>/dev/sda</path>.
32</p>
33
34<p>
35The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
36programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying
37about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The program can
38simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
39randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
40</p>
41
42</body>
43</subsection> 17<subsection>
18<include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
19</subsection>
20
44<subsection> 21<subsection>
45<title>Slices</title> 22<title>Slices</title>
46<body> 23<body>
47 24
48<p> 25<p>
106If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your 83If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your
107<path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside 84<path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside
108<path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your 85<path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your
109performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming 86performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming
110servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: 87servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>:
111security and backups. 88security and backups. You will definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big:
89not only will it contain the majority of applications, the Portage tree alone
90takes around 500 Mbyte excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
112</p> 91</p>
113 92
114<p> 93<p>
115As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate 94As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
116partitions or volumes have the following advantages: 95partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
275<subsection> 254<subsection>
276<title>Creating the Swap Slice</title> 255<title>Creating the Swap Slice</title>
277<body> 256<body>
278 257
279<p> 258<p>
280On Alpha based systems you don't need a separate boot partition. However, the 259On Alpha based systems you don't need a separate boot slice. However, the
281first cylinder cannot be used as the <c>aboot</c> image will be placed there. 260first cylinder cannot be used as the <c>aboot</c> image will be placed there.
282</p> 261</p>
283 262
284<p> 263<p>
285We will create a swap slice starting at the third cylinder, with a total 264We will create a swap slice starting at the third cylinder, with a total
318<body> 297<body>
319 298
320<p> 299<p>
321We will now create the root slice, starting from the first cylinder <e>after</e> 300We will now create the root slice, starting from the first cylinder <e>after</e>
322the swap slice. Use the <c>p</c> command to view where the swap slice ends. In 301the swap slice. Use the <c>p</c> command to view where the swap slice ends. In
323our example, this is at 1003, making the root partition start at 1004. 302our example, this is at 1003, making the root slice start at 1004.
324</p> 303</p>
325 304
326<p> 305<p>
327Another problem is that there is currently a bug in <c>fdisk</c> making it think 306Another problem is that there is currently a bug in <c>fdisk</c> making it think
328the number of available cylinders is one above the real number of cylinders. In 307the number of available cylinders is one above the real number of cylinders. In
329other words, when you are asked for the last cylinder, decrease the cylinder 308other words, when you are asked for the last cylinder, decrease the cylinder
330number (in this example: 5290) with one. 309number (in this example: 5290) with one.
331</p> 310</p>
332 311
333<p> 312<p>
334When the partition is created, we change the type to <c>8</c>, for <e>ext2</e>. 313When the slice is created, we change the type to <c>8</c>, for <e>ext2</e>.
335</p> 314</p>
336 315
337<pre caption="Creating the root slice"> 316<pre caption="Creating the root slice">
338D disklabel command (m for help): <i>n</i> 317D disklabel command (m for help): <i>n</i>
339Partition (a-p): <i>b</i> 318Partition (a-p): <i>b</i>
372<pre caption="Save and exit fdisk"> 351<pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
373Command (m for help): <i>w</i> 352Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
374</pre> 353</pre>
375 354
376<p> 355<p>
377Now that your slices are created, you can now continue with <uri 356Now that your slices are created, you can continue with <uri
378link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>. 357link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
379</p> 358</p>
380 359
381</body> 360</body>
382</subsection> 361</subsection>
520<subsection> 499<subsection>
521<title>Creating the Swap Partition</title> 500<title>Creating the Swap Partition</title>
522<body> 501<body>
523 502
524<p> 503<p>
525We will create a swap partition starting at the third cylinder, with a total 504We will create a swap partition with a total size of 1 GB. Use <c>n</c> to
526size of 1 GB. Use <c>n</c> to create a new partition. 505create a new partition.
527</p> 506</p>
528 507
529<pre caption="Creating the swap partition"> 508<pre caption="Creating the swap partition">
530Command (m for help): <i>n</i> 509Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
531Command action 510Command action
535Partition number (1-4): <i>2</i> 514Partition number (1-4): <i>2</i>
536First cylinder (17-8727, default 17): <i>17</i> 515First cylinder (17-8727, default 17): <i>17</i>
537Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (17-8727, default 8727): <i>+1000M</i> 516Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (17-8727, default 8727): <i>+1000M</i>
538 517
539Command (m for help): <i>t</i> 518Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
540Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i> 519Partition number (1-4): <i>2</i>
541Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>82</i> 520Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>82</i>
542Changed system type of partition 2 to 82 (Linux swap) 521Changed system type of partition 2 to 82 (Linux swap)
543</pre> 522</pre>
544 523
545<p> 524<p>
609<pre caption="Save and exit fdisk"> 588<pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
610Command (m for help): <i>w</i> 589Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
611</pre> 590</pre>
612 591
613<p> 592<p>
614Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri 593Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
615link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>. 594link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
616</p> 595</p>
617 596
618</body> 597</body>
619</subsection> 598</subsection>
632Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems... 611Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
633</p> 612</p>
634 613
635</body> 614</body>
636</subsection> 615</subsection>
637<subsection>
638<title>Filesystems?</title>
639<body>
640 616
641<p>
642Several filesystems are available. Most of them are found stable on the
643Alpha architecture.
644</p>
645
646<p>
647<b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
648journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
649be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
650journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are
651thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled
652filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
653happens to be in an inconsistent state.
654</p>
655
656<p>
657<b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
658journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like
659full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
660filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables
661high performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is an excellent
662filesystem.
663</p>
664
665<p>
666<b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
667performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
668files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
669extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
670solid and usable as both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such
671as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large
672files and directories containing tens of thousands of files.
673</p>
674
675<p>
676<b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling which comes with a robust
677feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
678filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
679an uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
680in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
681when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
682deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
683</p>
684
685<p>
686<b>JFS</b> is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
687become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
688comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this point.
689</p>
690
691</body>
692</subsection> 617<subsection>
618<include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
619</subsection>
620
693<subsection id="filesystems-apply"> 621<subsection id="filesystems-apply">
694<title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title> 622<title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
695<body> 623<body>
696 624
697<p> 625<p>
775 703
776<p> 704<p>
777Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is 705Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
778time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to 706time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
779create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an 707create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
780example we mount the root and boot partition: 708example we mount the root partition:
781</p> 709</p>
782
783<warn>
784Due to a bug in the e2fsprogs package, you need to explicitly use
785the <c>mount -t ext3</c> option if you are using an ext3 filesystem.
786</warn>
787 710
788<pre caption="Mounting partitions"> 711<pre caption="Mounting partitions">
789# <i>mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/gentoo</i> 712# <i>mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/gentoo</i>
790<comment>(For ext3 partitions:)</comment>
791# <i>mount -t ext3 /dev/sda2 /mnt/gentoo</i>
792</pre> 713</pre>
793 714
794<note> 715<note>
795If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to 716If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
796change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This 717change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This

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