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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.14 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-kernel.xml,v 1.13 2004/11/20 22:23:30 neysx Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.11
11 swift 1.14 <version>1.11</version>
12     <date>2004-11-26</date>
13 swift 1.11
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Timezone</title>
16     <body>
17    
18     <p>
19     You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20     located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
21     symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
22     </p>
23    
24     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
25     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
26     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
27     # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
28     </pre>
29    
30     </body>
31     </section>
32     <section>
33     <title>Installing the Sources</title>
34     <subsection>
35     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
36     <body>
37    
38     <p>
39     The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
40     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
41     users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
42     available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
43     Guide</uri>.
44     </p>
45    
46     <p>
47     For alpha-based systems we have <c>vanilla-sources</c> (the default kernel
48     source as developed by the linux-kernel developers), <c>alpha-sources</c>
49     (kernel source optimized for alpha users) and <c>compaq-sources</c> (kernel
50     source as used by RedHat for Alpha, maintained by Compaq).
51     </p>
52    
53     <p>
54     Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
55     </p>
56    
57     <p>
58     In the next example we install the <c>vanilla-sources</c>.
59     Of course substitute with your choice of sources, this is merely an example:
60     </p>
61    
62     <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
63     # <i>emerge vanilla-sources</i>
64     </pre>
65    
66     <p>
67     When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
68     <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source:
69     </p>
70    
71     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
72     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
73     lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.4.24
74     </pre>
75    
76     <p>
77     If this isn't the case (i.e. the symlink points to a different kernel source)
78     change the symlink before you continue:
79     </p>
80    
81     <pre caption="Changing the kernel source symlink">
82 swift 1.3 # <i>rm /usr/src/linux</i>
83     # <i>cd /usr/src</i>
84     # <i>ln -s linux-2.4.24 linux</i>
85 swift 1.1 </pre>
86    
87     <p>
88     Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You
89     can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
90     by the LiveCD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
91     the best way to optimize your environment.
92     </p>
93    
94     <p>
95     If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
96     link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
97     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
98     genkernel</uri> instead.
99     </p>
100    
101     </body>
102     </subsection>
103     </section>
104     <section id="manual">
105     <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
106     <subsection>
107     <title>Introduction</title>
108     <body>
109    
110     <p>
111 neysx 1.7 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
112 neysx 1.8 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
113 swift 1.1 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
114     </p>
115    
116     <p>
117     However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
118     configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by viewing the
119     contents of <path>/proc/pci</path> (or by using <c>lspci</c> if available). You
120     can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the LiveCD uses (it might
121     provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
122     </p>
123    
124     <p>
125     Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
126     will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
127     </p>
128    
129     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
130     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
131     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
132     </pre>
133    
134     <p>
135     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
136     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
137     properly without additional tweaks).
138     </p>
139    
140     </body>
141     </subsection>
142     <subsection>
143     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
144     <body>
145    
146     <p>
147     First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
148     You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
149     </p>
150    
151     <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
152     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
153     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
154     </pre>
155    
156     <p>
157     Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
158     <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
159     able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c>, <c>/proc
160     file system</c>, <c>/dev file system</c> + <c>Automatically mount at boot</c>:
161     </p>
162    
163     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
164 neysx 1.4 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
165 swift 1.1 File systems ---&gt;
166     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
167     [*] /proc file system support
168     [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
169     [*] Automatically mount at boot
170 neysx 1.4 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
171 swift 1.1
172 neysx 1.4 <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
173     File systems ---&gt;
174     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
175     [*] /proc file system support
176     [*] /dev file system support (OBSOLETE)
177     [*] Automatically mount at boot
178     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
179 swift 1.1
180     <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
181     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
182     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
183     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
184     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
185     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
186     </pre>
187    
188     <p>
189     If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
190     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
191     </p>
192    
193     <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
194 neysx 1.4 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
195 swift 1.1 Network device support ---&gt;
196     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
197     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
198     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
199 neysx 1.4
200     <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
201     Device Drivers ---&gt;
202     Networking support ---&gt;
203     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
204     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
205     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
206 swift 1.1 </pre>
207    
208     <p>
209     The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
210     does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
211     <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
212     </p>
213    
214     <p>
215     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
216     ethernet card.
217     </p>
218    
219     <p>
220 vapier 1.9 The following options are recommended as well:
221 swift 1.1 </p>
222    
223 vapier 1.9 <pre caption="Recommended Alpha options">
224 swift 1.1 General setup ---&gt;
225     &lt;*&gt; SRM environment through procfs
226     &lt;*&gt; Configure uac policy via sysctl
227    
228     Plug and Play configuration ---&gt;
229     &lt;*&gt; Plug and Play support
230     &lt;M&gt; ISA Plug and Play support
231    
232     SCSI support ---&gt;
233     SCSI low-level drivers ---&gt;
234     &lt;*&gt; SYM53C8XX Version 2 SCSI support (NEW)
235     &lt;*&gt; Qlogic ISP SCSI support
236    
237     Network device support ---&gt;
238     Ethernet (10 or 100 Mbit) ---&gt;
239     &lt;M&gt; DECchip Tulip (dc21x4x) PCI support
240     &lt;M&gt; Generic DECchip &amp; DIGITAL EtherWORKS PCI/EISA
241     &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (eepro100)
242     &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (e100)
243     Ethernet (1000 Mbit) ---&gt;
244     &lt;M&gt; Alteon AceNIC
245     [*] Omit support for old Tigon I
246     &lt;M&gt; Broadcom Tigon3
247     [*] FDDI driver support
248     &lt;M&gt; Digital DEFEA and DEFPA
249     &lt;*&gt; PPP support
250     &lt;*&gt; PPP Deflate compression
251    
252     Character devices ---&gt;
253     [*] Support for console on serial port
254     [*] Direct Rendering Manager
255    
256     File systems ---&gt;
257     &lt;*&gt; Kernel automounter version 4 support
258     Network File Systems ---&gt;
259     &lt;*&gt; NFS
260     [*] NFSv3 client
261     &lt;*&gt; NFS server
262     [*] NFSv3 server
263     Partition Types ---&gt;
264     [*] Advanced partition selection
265     [*] Alpha OSF partition support
266     Native Language Support
267     &lt;*&gt; NLS ISO 8859-1
268    
269     Sound ---&gt;
270     &lt;M&gt; Sound card support
271     &lt;M&gt; OSS sound modules
272     [*] Verbose initialisation
273     [*] Persistent DMA buffers
274     &lt;M&gt; 100% Sound Blaster compatibles
275     </pre>
276    
277     <p>
278     When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
279     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
280     </p>
281    
282     </body>
283     </subsection>
284     <subsection id="compiling">
285     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
286     <body>
287    
288     <p>
289     Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
290     the configuration and run <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules
291     modules_install</c>:
292     </p>
293    
294     <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
295     <comment>(For 2.4 kernel)</comment>
296     # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules modules_install</i>
297    
298     <comment>(For 2.6 kernel)</comment>
299     # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
300 vapier 1.6
301     <comment>(For all kernels)</comment>
302     # <i>make boot</i>
303 swift 1.1 </pre>
304    
305     <p>
306 neysx 1.7 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
307 swift 1.1 <path>/boot</path>. In the next example we assume you have configured and
308 swift 1.10 compiled <c>vanilla-sources-2.4.24</c>; recent kernels might create
309     <path>vmlinux</path> instead of <path>vmlinux.gz</path>.
310 swift 1.1 </p>
311    
312     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
313 vapier 1.6 # <i>cp arch/alpha/boot/vmlinux.gz /boot/</i>
314 swift 1.1 # <i>cp System.map /boot/System.map-2.4.24</i>
315     </pre>
316    
317     <p>
318     It is also wise to copy over your kernel configuration file to
319     <path>/boot</path>, just in case :)
320     </p>
321    
322     <pre caption="Backing up your kernel configuration">
323     # <i>cp .config /boot/config-2.4.24</i>
324     </pre>
325    
326     <p>
327     Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
328     Modules</uri>.
329     </p>
330    
331     </body>
332     </subsection>
333     </section>
334     <section id="genkernel">
335     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
336     <body>
337    
338     <p>
339     If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
340     script to configure your kernel for you.
341     </p>
342    
343     <p>
344     Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
345     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
346     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
347     way our LiveCD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
348     <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
349     your hardware at boot-time, just like our Live CD does. Because genkernel
350     doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for
351     those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
352     </p>
353    
354     <p>
355     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
356     </p>
357    
358     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
359     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
360     </pre>
361    
362     <p>
363     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>.
364     Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
365     hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
366     </p>
367    
368     <p>
369     Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
370     need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c>
371     and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a
372     module).
373     </p>
374    
375     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
376     # <i>genkernel all</i>
377     GenKernel v3.0.1_beta10
378     * ARCH: Alpha
379     * KERNEL VER: 2.4.24
380     * kernel: configuring source
381     * kernel: running mrproper
382     <comment>(Output removed to increase readability)</comment>
383     * Kernel compiled successfully!
384     * Required Kernel Params:
385     * : root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc real_root=/dev/$ROOT
386     * where $ROOT is the devicenode for your root partition as
387     * you should have specified in /etc/fstab
388     *
389     * You MUST tell your bootloader to use the generated initrd
390     *
391     * Recommended Kernel Params:
392     * : vga=0x317 splash=verbose
393     *
394     * Do NOT report kernel bugs (configs included) as genkernel bugs.
395     * Make sure you have the latest genkernel before reporting bugs
396     *
397     * For more info see /usr/share/genkernel/README
398     </pre>
399    
400     <p>
401     Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
402     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
403     and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
404     down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
405     the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
406     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Live CD) before
407     your "real" system starts up.
408     </p>
409    
410     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
411     # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initrd*</i>
412     </pre>
413    
414     <p>
415     Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Live
416 swift 1.14 CD -- let's emerge <c>coldplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects hardware that
417     is needed to boot your system, <c>coldplug</c> autodetects everything else.
418     To emerge and enable <c>coldplug</c>, type the following:
419 swift 1.1 </p>
420    
421 swift 1.14 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling coldplug">
422     # <i>emerge coldplug</i>
423     # <i>rc-update add coldplug default</i>
424 swift 1.1 </pre>
425    
426     </body>
427     </section>
428     <section id="kernel_modules">
429     <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
430     <subsection>
431     <title>Installing Extra Modules</title>
432     <body>
433    
434     <p>
435     If appropriate, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is
436     on your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
437     </p>
438    
439     <table>
440     <tcolumn width="1in"/>
441     <tcolumn width="4in"/>
442     <tcolumn width="2in"/>
443     <tr>
444     <th>Ebuild</th>
445     <th>Purpose</th>
446     <th>Command</th>
447     </tr>
448     <tr>
449     <ti>xfree-drm</ti>
450     <ti>
451     Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and
452     other cards for XFree86. Please check the <c>IUSE_VIDEO_CARDS</c> variable
453     in the <path>/usr/portage/x11-base/xfree-drm</path> ebuilds to see what you
454     need to fill in as <c>yourcard</c>.
455     </ti>
456     <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti>
457     </tr>
458     </table>
459    
460     <p>
461     Beware though, some of these ebuilds might deal with big dependencies. To verify
462     what packages will be installed by emerging an ebuild, use <c>emerge
463     --pretend</c>. For instance, for the <c>xfree-drm</c> package:
464     </p>
465    
466     <pre caption="View full installation package listing">
467 neysx 1.2 # <i>emerge --pretend xfree-drm</i>
468 swift 1.1 </pre>
469    
470     </body>
471     </subsection>
472     <subsection>
473     <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
474     <body>
475    
476     <p>
477     You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
478     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path> (or <path>kernel-2.6</path>).
479     You can add extra options to the modules too if you want.
480     </p>
481    
482     <p>
483     To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
484     forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
485     just compiled:
486     </p>
487    
488     <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
489     # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
490     </pre>
491    
492     <p>
493     For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
494     <path>kernel-2.4</path> or <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
495     name in it.
496     </p>
497    
498     <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4">
499     <comment>(Example for 2.4 kernels)</comment>
500     # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</i>
501     </pre>
502    
503     <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4 or kernel-2.6">
504     3c59x
505     </pre>
506    
507     <p>
508     Now run <c>modules-update</c> to commit your changes to the
509     <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file:
510     </p>
511    
512     <pre caption="Running modules-update">
513     # <i>modules-update</i>
514     </pre>
515    
516     <p>
517     Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
518     your System</uri>.
519     </p>
520    
521     </body>
522     </subsection>
523     </section>
524     </sections>

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