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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 neysx 1.2 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-kernel.xml,v 1.1 2004/04/02 08:14:45 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10     <section>
11     <title>Timezone</title>
12     <body>
13    
14     <p>
15     You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
16     located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
17     symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
18     </p>
19    
20     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
21     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
22     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
23     # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
24     </pre>
25    
26     </body>
27     </section>
28     <section>
29     <title>Installing the Sources</title>
30     <subsection>
31     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
32     <body>
33    
34     <p>
35     The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
36     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
37     users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
38     available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
39     Guide</uri>.
40     </p>
41    
42     <p>
43     For alpha-based systems we have <c>vanilla-sources</c> (the default kernel
44     source as developed by the linux-kernel developers), <c>alpha-sources</c>
45     (kernel source optimized for alpha users) and <c>compaq-sources</c> (kernel
46     source as used by RedHat for Alpha, maintained by Compaq).
47     </p>
48    
49     <p>
50     Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
51     </p>
52    
53     <p>
54     In the next example we install the <c>vanilla-sources</c>.
55     Of course substitute with your choice of sources, this is merely an example:
56     </p>
57    
58     <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
59     # <i>emerge vanilla-sources</i>
60     </pre>
61    
62     <p>
63     When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
64     <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source:
65     </p>
66    
67     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
68     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
69     lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.4.24
70     </pre>
71    
72     <p>
73     If this isn't the case (i.e. the symlink points to a different kernel source)
74     change the symlink before you continue:
75     </p>
76    
77     <pre caption="Changing the kernel source symlink">
78     # <i>rm /usr/src/linux &amp;&amp; ln -s /usr/src/linux-2.4.24 /usr/src/linux</i>
79     </pre>
80    
81     <p>
82     Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You
83     can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
84     by the LiveCD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
85     the best way to optimize your environment.
86     </p>
87    
88     <p>
89     If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
90     link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
91     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
92     genkernel</uri> instead.
93     </p>
94    
95     </body>
96     </subsection>
97     </section>
98     <section id="manual">
99     <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
100     <subsection>
101     <title>Introduction</title>
102     <body>
103    
104     <p>
105     Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult course every
106     Linux users ever has to go through. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
107     couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
108     </p>
109    
110     <p>
111     However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
112     configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by viewing the
113     contents of <path>/proc/pci</path> (or by using <c>lspci</c> if available). You
114     can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the LiveCD uses (it might
115     provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
116     </p>
117    
118     <p>
119     Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
120     will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
121     </p>
122    
123     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
124     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
125     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
126     </pre>
127    
128     <p>
129     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
130     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
131     properly without additional tweaks).
132     </p>
133    
134     </body>
135     </subsection>
136     <subsection>
137     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
138     <body>
139    
140     <p>
141     First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
142     You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
143     </p>
144    
145     <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
146     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
147     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
148     </pre>
149    
150     <p>
151     Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
152     <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
153     able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c>, <c>/proc
154     file system</c>, <c>/dev file system</c> + <c>Automatically mount at boot</c>:
155     </p>
156    
157     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
158     File systems ---&gt;
159     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
160     [*] /proc file system support
161     [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
162     [*] Automatically mount at boot
163    
164     <comment>(Deselect the following unless you have a 2.6 kernel)</comment>
165     [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
166    
167     <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
168     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
169     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
170     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
171     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
172     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
173     </pre>
174    
175     <note>
176     Users of a 2.6 kernel will find some of the mentioned options under <c>Pseudo
177     filesystems</c> which is a subpart of <c>File systems</c>.
178     </note>
179    
180     <p>
181     If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
182     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
183     </p>
184    
185     <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
186     Network device support ---&gt;
187     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
188     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
189     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
190     </pre>
191    
192     <note>
193     Users of a 2.6 kernel will find the mentioned options under <c>Networking
194     support</c> which is a subpart of <c>Device Drivers</c>.
195     </note>
196    
197     <p>
198     The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
199     does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
200     <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
201     </p>
202    
203     <note>
204     Users of a 2.6 kernel will find the mentioned options under <c>Device
205     Drivers</c>.
206     </note>
207    
208     <p>
209     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
210     ethernet card.
211     </p>
212    
213     <p>
214     The following Alpha-specific options are recommended as well:
215     </p>
216    
217     <pre caption="Alpha-specific options">
218     General setup ---&gt;
219     &lt;*&gt; SRM environment through procfs
220     &lt;*&gt; Configure uac policy via sysctl
221    
222     Plug and Play configuration ---&gt;
223     &lt;*&gt; Plug and Play support
224     &lt;M&gt; ISA Plug and Play support
225    
226     SCSI support ---&gt;
227     SCSI low-level drivers ---&gt;
228     &lt;*&gt; SYM53C8XX Version 2 SCSI support (NEW)
229     &lt;*&gt; Qlogic ISP SCSI support
230    
231     Network device support ---&gt;
232     Ethernet (10 or 100 Mbit) ---&gt;
233     &lt;M&gt; DECchip Tulip (dc21x4x) PCI support
234     &lt;M&gt; Generic DECchip &amp; DIGITAL EtherWORKS PCI/EISA
235     &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (eepro100)
236     &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (e100)
237     Ethernet (1000 Mbit) ---&gt;
238     &lt;M&gt; Alteon AceNIC
239     [*] Omit support for old Tigon I
240     &lt;M&gt; Broadcom Tigon3
241     [*] FDDI driver support
242     &lt;M&gt; Digital DEFEA and DEFPA
243     &lt;*&gt; PPP support
244     &lt;*&gt; PPP Deflate compression
245    
246     Character devices ---&gt;
247     [*] Support for console on serial port
248     [*] Direct Rendering Manager
249    
250     File systems ---&gt;
251     &lt;*&gt; Kernel automounter version 4 support
252     Network File Systems ---&gt;
253     &lt;*&gt; NFS
254     [*] NFSv3 client
255     &lt;*&gt; NFS server
256     [*] NFSv3 server
257     Partition Types ---&gt;
258     [*] Advanced partition selection
259     [*] Alpha OSF partition support
260     Native Language Support
261     &lt;*&gt; NLS ISO 8859-1
262    
263     Sound ---&gt;
264     &lt;M&gt; Sound card support
265     &lt;M&gt; OSS sound modules
266     [*] Verbose initialisation
267     [*] Persistent DMA buffers
268     &lt;M&gt; 100% Sound Blaster compatibles
269     </pre>
270    
271     <p>
272     When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
273     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
274     </p>
275    
276     </body>
277     </subsection>
278     <subsection id="compiling">
279     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
280     <body>
281    
282     <p>
283     Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
284     the configuration and run <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules
285     modules_install</c>:
286     </p>
287    
288     <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
289     <comment>(For 2.4 kernel)</comment>
290     # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules modules_install</i>
291    
292     <comment>(For 2.6 kernel)</comment>
293     # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
294     </pre>
295    
296     <p>
297     When the kernel is done compiling, copy over the kernel image to
298     <path>/boot</path>. In the next example we assume you have configured and
299     compiled <c>vanilla-sources-2.4.24</c>:
300     </p>
301    
302     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
303     # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/kernel-2.4.24</i>
304     # <i>cp System.map /boot/System.map-2.4.24</i>
305     </pre>
306    
307     <p>
308     It is also wise to copy over your kernel configuration file to
309     <path>/boot</path>, just in case :)
310     </p>
311    
312     <pre caption="Backing up your kernel configuration">
313     # <i>cp .config /boot/config-2.4.24</i>
314     </pre>
315    
316     <p>
317     Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
318     Modules</uri>.
319     </p>
320    
321     </body>
322     </subsection>
323     </section>
324     <section id="genkernel">
325     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
326     <body>
327    
328     <p>
329     If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
330     script to configure your kernel for you.
331     </p>
332    
333     <p>
334     Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
335     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
336     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
337     way our LiveCD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
338     <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
339     your hardware at boot-time, just like our Live CD does. Because genkernel
340     doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for
341     those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
342     </p>
343    
344     <p>
345     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
346     </p>
347    
348     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
349     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
350     </pre>
351    
352     <p>
353     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>.
354     Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
355     hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
356     </p>
357    
358     <p>
359     Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
360     need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c>
361     and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a
362     module).
363     </p>
364    
365     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
366     # <i>genkernel all</i>
367     GenKernel v3.0.1_beta10
368     * ARCH: Alpha
369     * KERNEL VER: 2.4.24
370     * kernel: configuring source
371     * kernel: running mrproper
372     <comment>(Output removed to increase readability)</comment>
373     * Kernel compiled successfully!
374     * Required Kernel Params:
375     * : root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc real_root=/dev/$ROOT
376     * where $ROOT is the devicenode for your root partition as
377     * you should have specified in /etc/fstab
378     *
379     * You MUST tell your bootloader to use the generated initrd
380     *
381     * Recommended Kernel Params:
382     * : vga=0x317 splash=verbose
383     *
384     * Do NOT report kernel bugs (configs included) as genkernel bugs.
385     * Make sure you have the latest genkernel before reporting bugs
386     *
387     * For more info see /usr/share/genkernel/README
388     </pre>
389    
390     <p>
391     Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
392     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
393     and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
394     down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
395     the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
396     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Live CD) before
397     your "real" system starts up.
398     </p>
399    
400     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
401     # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initrd*</i>
402     </pre>
403    
404     <p>
405     Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Live
406     CD -- let's emerge <c>hotplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects hardware that
407     is needed to boot your system, <c>hotplug</c> autodetects everything else.
408     To emerge and enable <c>hotplug</c>, type the following:
409     </p>
410    
411     <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
412     # <i>emerge hotplug</i>
413     # <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
414     </pre>
415    
416     </body>
417     </section>
418     <section id="kernel_modules">
419     <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
420     <subsection>
421     <title>Installing Extra Modules</title>
422     <body>
423    
424     <p>
425     If appropriate, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is
426     on your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
427     </p>
428    
429     <table>
430     <tcolumn width="1in"/>
431     <tcolumn width="4in"/>
432     <tcolumn width="2in"/>
433     <tr>
434     <th>Ebuild</th>
435     <th>Purpose</th>
436     <th>Command</th>
437     </tr>
438     <tr>
439     <ti>xfree-drm</ti>
440     <ti>
441     Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and
442     other cards for XFree86. Please check the <c>IUSE_VIDEO_CARDS</c> variable
443     in the <path>/usr/portage/x11-base/xfree-drm</path> ebuilds to see what you
444     need to fill in as <c>yourcard</c>.
445     </ti>
446     <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti>
447     </tr>
448     </table>
449    
450     <p>
451     Beware though, some of these ebuilds might deal with big dependencies. To verify
452     what packages will be installed by emerging an ebuild, use <c>emerge
453     --pretend</c>. For instance, for the <c>xfree-drm</c> package:
454     </p>
455    
456     <pre caption="View full installation package listing">
457 neysx 1.2 # <i>emerge --pretend xfree-drm</i>
458 swift 1.1 </pre>
459    
460     </body>
461     </subsection>
462     <subsection>
463     <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
464     <body>
465    
466     <p>
467     You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
468     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path> (or <path>kernel-2.6</path>).
469     You can add extra options to the modules too if you want.
470     </p>
471    
472     <p>
473     To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
474     forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
475     just compiled:
476     </p>
477    
478     <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
479     # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
480     </pre>
481    
482     <p>
483     For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
484     <path>kernel-2.4</path> or <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
485     name in it.
486     </p>
487    
488     <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4">
489     <comment>(Example for 2.4 kernels)</comment>
490     # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</i>
491     </pre>
492    
493     <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4 or kernel-2.6">
494     3c59x
495     </pre>
496    
497     <p>
498     Now run <c>modules-update</c> to commit your changes to the
499     <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file:
500     </p>
501    
502     <pre caption="Running modules-update">
503     # <i>modules-update</i>
504     </pre>
505    
506     <p>
507     Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
508     your System</uri>.
509     </p>
510    
511     </body>
512     </subsection>
513     </section>
514     </sections>

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