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add a note about emerging devfsd for 2.4 kernels #87354

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 vapier 1.22 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-kernel.xml,v 1.21 2005/03/28 11:30:52 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.11
11 vapier 1.22 <version>2.01</version>
12     <date>2005-03-30</date>
13 swift 1.11
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Timezone</title>
16     <body>
17    
18     <p>
19     You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20     located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
21     symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
22     </p>
23    
24     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
25     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
26     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
27     # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
28     </pre>
29    
30     </body>
31     </section>
32     <section>
33     <title>Installing the Sources</title>
34     <subsection>
35     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
36     <body>
37    
38     <p>
39     The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
40     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
41     users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
42     available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
43     Guide</uri>.
44     </p>
45    
46     <p>
47 swift 1.21 For alpha-based systems we have <c>vanilla-sources</c> (the default 2.6 kernel source).
48 swift 1.1 </p>
49    
50     <p>
51     Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
52     </p>
53    
54     <p>
55     In the next example we install the <c>vanilla-sources</c>.
56     Of course substitute with your choice of sources, this is merely an example:
57     </p>
58    
59     <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
60     # <i>emerge vanilla-sources</i>
61     </pre>
62    
63     <p>
64     When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
65     <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source:
66     </p>
67    
68     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
69     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
70 swift 1.21 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.6.11.2
71 swift 1.1 </pre>
72    
73     <p>
74     If this isn't the case (i.e. the symlink points to a different kernel source)
75     change the symlink before you continue:
76     </p>
77    
78     <pre caption="Changing the kernel source symlink">
79 swift 1.3 # <i>rm /usr/src/linux</i>
80     # <i>cd /usr/src</i>
81 swift 1.21 # <i>ln -s linux-2.6.11.2 linux</i>
82 swift 1.1 </pre>
83    
84     <p>
85     Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You
86     can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
87 swift 1.21 by the Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
88 swift 1.1 the best way to optimize your environment.
89     </p>
90    
91     <p>
92     If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
93     link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
94     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
95     genkernel</uri> instead.
96     </p>
97    
98     </body>
99     </subsection>
100     </section>
101     <section id="manual">
102     <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
103     <subsection>
104     <title>Introduction</title>
105     <body>
106    
107     <p>
108 neysx 1.7 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
109 neysx 1.8 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
110 swift 1.1 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
111     </p>
112    
113     <p>
114     However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
115     configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by viewing the
116     contents of <path>/proc/pci</path> (or by using <c>lspci</c> if available). You
117 swift 1.21 can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD uses (it might
118 swift 1.1 provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
119     </p>
120    
121     <p>
122     Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
123     will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
124     </p>
125    
126     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
127     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
128     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
129     </pre>
130    
131     <p>
132     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
133     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
134     properly without additional tweaks).
135     </p>
136    
137     </body>
138     </subsection>
139     <subsection>
140     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
141     <body>
142    
143     <p>
144     First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
145     You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
146     </p>
147    
148     <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
149     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
150     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
151     </pre>
152    
153     <p>
154     Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
155     <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
156 vapier 1.22 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
157     file system</c>. If you are using a 2.4 kernel, you should also select the
158     <c>/dev file system</c> and <c>Automatically mount at boot</c> options, and
159     you should make sure to <c>emerge devfsd</c>.
160 swift 1.1 </p>
161    
162     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
163 neysx 1.4 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
164 swift 1.1 File systems ---&gt;
165     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
166     [*] /proc file system support
167     [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
168     [*] Automatically mount at boot
169 neysx 1.4 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
170 swift 1.1
171 neysx 1.4 <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
172     File systems ---&gt;
173     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
174     [*] /proc file system support
175 swift 1.21 [ ] /dev file system support (OBSOLETE)
176 neysx 1.4 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
177 swift 1.1
178     <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
179     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
180     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
181     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
182     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
183     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
184     </pre>
185    
186     <p>
187     If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
188     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
189     </p>
190    
191     <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
192 neysx 1.4 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
193 swift 1.1 Network device support ---&gt;
194     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
195     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
196     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
197 neysx 1.4
198     <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
199     Device Drivers ---&gt;
200     Networking support ---&gt;
201     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
202     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
203     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
204 swift 1.1 </pre>
205    
206     <p>
207     The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
208     does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
209     <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
210     </p>
211    
212     <p>
213     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
214     ethernet card.
215     </p>
216    
217     <p>
218 vapier 1.9 The following options are recommended as well:
219 swift 1.1 </p>
220    
221 vapier 1.9 <pre caption="Recommended Alpha options">
222 swift 1.1 General setup ---&gt;
223     &lt;*&gt; SRM environment through procfs
224     &lt;*&gt; Configure uac policy via sysctl
225    
226     Plug and Play configuration ---&gt;
227     &lt;*&gt; Plug and Play support
228     &lt;M&gt; ISA Plug and Play support
229    
230     SCSI support ---&gt;
231     SCSI low-level drivers ---&gt;
232     &lt;*&gt; SYM53C8XX Version 2 SCSI support (NEW)
233     &lt;*&gt; Qlogic ISP SCSI support
234    
235     Network device support ---&gt;
236     Ethernet (10 or 100 Mbit) ---&gt;
237     &lt;M&gt; DECchip Tulip (dc21x4x) PCI support
238     &lt;M&gt; Generic DECchip &amp; DIGITAL EtherWORKS PCI/EISA
239     &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (eepro100)
240     &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (e100)
241     Ethernet (1000 Mbit) ---&gt;
242     &lt;M&gt; Alteon AceNIC
243     [*] Omit support for old Tigon I
244     &lt;M&gt; Broadcom Tigon3
245     [*] FDDI driver support
246     &lt;M&gt; Digital DEFEA and DEFPA
247     &lt;*&gt; PPP support
248     &lt;*&gt; PPP Deflate compression
249    
250     Character devices ---&gt;
251     [*] Support for console on serial port
252     [*] Direct Rendering Manager
253    
254     File systems ---&gt;
255     &lt;*&gt; Kernel automounter version 4 support
256     Network File Systems ---&gt;
257     &lt;*&gt; NFS
258     [*] NFSv3 client
259     &lt;*&gt; NFS server
260     [*] NFSv3 server
261     Partition Types ---&gt;
262     [*] Advanced partition selection
263     [*] Alpha OSF partition support
264     Native Language Support
265     &lt;*&gt; NLS ISO 8859-1
266    
267     Sound ---&gt;
268     &lt;M&gt; Sound card support
269     &lt;M&gt; OSS sound modules
270     [*] Verbose initialisation
271     [*] Persistent DMA buffers
272     &lt;M&gt; 100% Sound Blaster compatibles
273     </pre>
274    
275     <p>
276     When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
277     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
278     </p>
279    
280     </body>
281     </subsection>
282     <subsection id="compiling">
283     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
284     <body>
285    
286     <p>
287     Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
288 swift 1.20 the configuration and start the compilation process:
289 swift 1.1 </p>
290    
291     <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
292     <comment>(For 2.4 kernel)</comment>
293     # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules modules_install</i>
294    
295     <comment>(For 2.6 kernel)</comment>
296     # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
297 vapier 1.6
298     <comment>(For all kernels)</comment>
299     # <i>make boot</i>
300 swift 1.1 </pre>
301    
302     <p>
303 neysx 1.7 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
304 swift 1.1 <path>/boot</path>. In the next example we assume you have configured and
305 swift 1.21 compiled <c>vanilla-sources-2.6.11.2</c>; recent kernels might create
306 swift 1.10 <path>vmlinux</path> instead of <path>vmlinux.gz</path>.
307 swift 1.1 </p>
308    
309     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
310 vapier 1.6 # <i>cp arch/alpha/boot/vmlinux.gz /boot/</i>
311 swift 1.21 # <i>cp System.map /boot/System.map-2.6.11.2</i>
312 swift 1.1 </pre>
313    
314     <p>
315     It is also wise to copy over your kernel configuration file to
316     <path>/boot</path>, just in case :)
317     </p>
318    
319     <pre caption="Backing up your kernel configuration">
320 swift 1.21 # <i>cp .config /boot/config-2.6.11.2</i>
321 swift 1.1 </pre>
322    
323     <p>
324     Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
325     Modules</uri>.
326     </p>
327    
328     </body>
329     </subsection>
330     </section>
331     <section id="genkernel">
332     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
333     <body>
334    
335     <p>
336     If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
337     script to configure your kernel for you.
338     </p>
339    
340     <p>
341     Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
342     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
343     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
344 swift 1.21 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
345 swift 1.1 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
346 swift 1.21 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because genkernel
347 swift 1.1 doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for
348     those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
349     </p>
350    
351     <p>
352     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
353     </p>
354    
355     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
356     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
357     </pre>
358    
359     <p>
360     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>.
361     Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
362     hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
363     </p>
364    
365     <p>
366     Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
367     need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c>
368     and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a
369     module).
370     </p>
371    
372     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
373     # <i>genkernel all</i>
374     GenKernel v3.0.1_beta10
375     * ARCH: Alpha
376 swift 1.21 * KERNEL VER: 2.6.11.2
377 swift 1.1 * kernel: configuring source
378     * kernel: running mrproper
379     <comment>(Output removed to increase readability)</comment>
380     * Kernel compiled successfully!
381     * Required Kernel Params:
382     * : root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc real_root=/dev/$ROOT
383     * where $ROOT is the devicenode for your root partition as
384     * you should have specified in /etc/fstab
385     *
386     * You MUST tell your bootloader to use the generated initrd
387     *
388     * Recommended Kernel Params:
389     * : vga=0x317 splash=verbose
390     *
391     * Do NOT report kernel bugs (configs included) as genkernel bugs.
392     * Make sure you have the latest genkernel before reporting bugs
393     *
394     * For more info see /usr/share/genkernel/README
395     </pre>
396    
397     <p>
398     Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
399     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
400     and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
401     down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
402     the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
403 swift 1.21 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD) before
404 swift 1.1 your "real" system starts up.
405     </p>
406    
407     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
408     # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initrd*</i>
409     </pre>
410    
411     <p>
412 swift 1.21 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Installation CD -- let's emerge <c>coldplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects hardware that
413 swift 1.14 is needed to boot your system, <c>coldplug</c> autodetects everything else.
414     To emerge and enable <c>coldplug</c>, type the following:
415 swift 1.1 </p>
416    
417 swift 1.14 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling coldplug">
418     # <i>emerge coldplug</i>
419 swift 1.17 # <i>rc-update add coldplug boot</i>
420     </pre>
421    
422     <p>
423     If you want your system to react to hotplugging events, you would need to
424     install and setup hotplug as well:
425     </p>
426    
427     <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
428     # <i>emerge hotplug</i>
429     # <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
430 swift 1.1 </pre>
431    
432     </body>
433     </section>
434     <section id="kernel_modules">
435     <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
436     <subsection>
437     <title>Installing Extra Modules</title>
438     <body>
439    
440     <p>
441     If appropriate, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is
442     on your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
443     </p>
444    
445     <table>
446     <tcolumn width="1in"/>
447     <tcolumn width="4in"/>
448     <tcolumn width="2in"/>
449     <tr>
450     <th>Ebuild</th>
451     <th>Purpose</th>
452     <th>Command</th>
453     </tr>
454     <tr>
455 swift 1.21 <ti>x11-drm</ti>
456 swift 1.1 <ti>
457     Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and
458 swift 1.21 other cards for xorg-x11. Please check the <c>IUSE_VIDEO_CARDS</c> variable
459     in the <path>/usr/portage/x11-base/x11-drm</path> ebuilds to see what you
460     need to fill in as <c>yourcard</c>.
461 swift 1.1 </ti>
462 swift 1.21 <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge x11-drm</c></ti>
463 swift 1.1 </tr>
464     </table>
465    
466     <p>
467     Beware though, some of these ebuilds might deal with big dependencies. To verify
468     what packages will be installed by emerging an ebuild, use <c>emerge
469 swift 1.21 --pretend</c>. For instance, for the <c>x11-drm</c> package:
470 swift 1.1 </p>
471    
472     <pre caption="View full installation package listing">
473 swift 1.21 # <i>emerge --pretend x11-drm</i>
474 swift 1.1 </pre>
475    
476     </body>
477     </subsection>
478     <subsection>
479     <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
480     <body>
481    
482     <p>
483     You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
484     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path> (or <path>kernel-2.6</path>).
485     You can add extra options to the modules too if you want.
486     </p>
487    
488     <p>
489     To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
490     forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
491     just compiled:
492     </p>
493    
494     <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
495     # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
496     </pre>
497    
498     <p>
499     For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
500     <path>kernel-2.4</path> or <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
501     name in it.
502     </p>
503    
504     <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4">
505     <comment>(Example for 2.4 kernels)</comment>
506     # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</i>
507     </pre>
508    
509     <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4 or kernel-2.6">
510     3c59x
511     </pre>
512    
513     <p>
514     Now run <c>modules-update</c> to commit your changes to the
515     <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file:
516     </p>
517    
518     <pre caption="Running modules-update">
519     # <i>modules-update</i>
520     </pre>
521    
522     <p>
523     Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
524     your System</uri>.
525     </p>
526    
527     </body>
528     </subsection>
529     </section>
530     </sections>

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