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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.25 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-kernel.xml,v 1.24 2005/06/02 17:18:54 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.11
11 swift 1.24 <version>2.3</version>
12     <date>2005-06-02</date>
13 swift 1.11
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Timezone</title>
16     <body>
17    
18     <p>
19     You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20     located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
21     symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
22     </p>
23    
24     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
25     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
26     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
27     # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
28     </pre>
29    
30     </body>
31     </section>
32     <section>
33     <title>Installing the Sources</title>
34     <subsection>
35     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
36     <body>
37    
38     <p>
39     The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
40     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
41     users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
42     available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
43     Guide</uri>.
44     </p>
45    
46     <p>
47 swift 1.21 For alpha-based systems we have <c>vanilla-sources</c> (the default 2.6 kernel source).
48 swift 1.1 </p>
49    
50     <p>
51     Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
52     </p>
53    
54     <p>
55     In the next example we install the <c>vanilla-sources</c>.
56     Of course substitute with your choice of sources, this is merely an example:
57     </p>
58    
59     <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
60     # <i>emerge vanilla-sources</i>
61     </pre>
62    
63     <p>
64     When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
65     <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source:
66     </p>
67    
68     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
69     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
70 swift 1.21 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.6.11.2
71 swift 1.1 </pre>
72    
73     <p>
74     If this isn't the case (i.e. the symlink points to a different kernel source)
75     change the symlink before you continue:
76     </p>
77    
78     <pre caption="Changing the kernel source symlink">
79 swift 1.3 # <i>rm /usr/src/linux</i>
80     # <i>cd /usr/src</i>
81 swift 1.21 # <i>ln -s linux-2.6.11.2 linux</i>
82 swift 1.1 </pre>
83    
84     <p>
85     Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You
86     can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
87 swift 1.21 by the Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
88 swift 1.1 the best way to optimize your environment.
89     </p>
90    
91     <p>
92     If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
93     link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
94     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
95     genkernel</uri> instead.
96     </p>
97    
98     </body>
99     </subsection>
100     </section>
101     <section id="manual">
102     <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
103     <subsection>
104     <title>Introduction</title>
105     <body>
106    
107     <p>
108 neysx 1.7 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
109 neysx 1.8 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
110 swift 1.1 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
111     </p>
112    
113     <p>
114     However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
115 swift 1.24 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
116 swift 1.25 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
117 swift 1.24 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
118     ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
119     /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
120 swift 1.25 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
121 swift 1.24 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
122     uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
123 swift 1.1 </p>
124    
125     <p>
126     Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
127     will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
128     </p>
129    
130     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
131     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
132     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
133     </pre>
134    
135     <p>
136     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
137     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
138     properly without additional tweaks).
139     </p>
140    
141     </body>
142     </subsection>
143     <subsection>
144     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
145     <body>
146    
147     <p>
148     First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
149     You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
150     </p>
151    
152     <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
153     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
154     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
155     </pre>
156    
157     <p>
158     Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
159     <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
160 vapier 1.22 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
161     file system</c>. If you are using a 2.4 kernel, you should also select the
162     <c>/dev file system</c> and <c>Automatically mount at boot</c> options, and
163     you should make sure to <c>emerge devfsd</c>.
164 swift 1.1 </p>
165    
166     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
167 neysx 1.4 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
168 swift 1.1 File systems ---&gt;
169     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
170     [*] /proc file system support
171     [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
172     [*] Automatically mount at boot
173 neysx 1.4 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
174 swift 1.1
175 neysx 1.4 <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
176     File systems ---&gt;
177     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
178     [*] /proc file system support
179 swift 1.21 [ ] /dev file system support (OBSOLETE)
180 neysx 1.4 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
181 swift 1.1
182     <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
183     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
184     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
185     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
186     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
187     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
188     </pre>
189    
190     <p>
191     If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
192     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
193     </p>
194    
195     <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
196 neysx 1.4 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
197 swift 1.1 Network device support ---&gt;
198     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
199     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
200     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
201 neysx 1.4
202     <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
203     Device Drivers ---&gt;
204     Networking support ---&gt;
205     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
206     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
207     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
208 swift 1.1 </pre>
209    
210     <p>
211     The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
212     does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
213     <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
214     </p>
215    
216     <p>
217     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
218     ethernet card.
219     </p>
220    
221     <p>
222 vapier 1.9 The following options are recommended as well:
223 swift 1.1 </p>
224    
225 vapier 1.9 <pre caption="Recommended Alpha options">
226 swift 1.1 General setup ---&gt;
227     &lt;*&gt; SRM environment through procfs
228     &lt;*&gt; Configure uac policy via sysctl
229    
230     Plug and Play configuration ---&gt;
231     &lt;*&gt; Plug and Play support
232     &lt;M&gt; ISA Plug and Play support
233    
234     SCSI support ---&gt;
235     SCSI low-level drivers ---&gt;
236     &lt;*&gt; SYM53C8XX Version 2 SCSI support (NEW)
237     &lt;*&gt; Qlogic ISP SCSI support
238    
239     Network device support ---&gt;
240     Ethernet (10 or 100 Mbit) ---&gt;
241     &lt;M&gt; DECchip Tulip (dc21x4x) PCI support
242     &lt;M&gt; Generic DECchip &amp; DIGITAL EtherWORKS PCI/EISA
243     &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (eepro100)
244     &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (e100)
245     Ethernet (1000 Mbit) ---&gt;
246     &lt;M&gt; Alteon AceNIC
247     [*] Omit support for old Tigon I
248     &lt;M&gt; Broadcom Tigon3
249     [*] FDDI driver support
250     &lt;M&gt; Digital DEFEA and DEFPA
251     &lt;*&gt; PPP support
252     &lt;*&gt; PPP Deflate compression
253    
254     Character devices ---&gt;
255     [*] Support for console on serial port
256     [*] Direct Rendering Manager
257    
258     File systems ---&gt;
259     &lt;*&gt; Kernel automounter version 4 support
260     Network File Systems ---&gt;
261     &lt;*&gt; NFS
262     [*] NFSv3 client
263     &lt;*&gt; NFS server
264     [*] NFSv3 server
265     Partition Types ---&gt;
266     [*] Advanced partition selection
267     [*] Alpha OSF partition support
268     Native Language Support
269     &lt;*&gt; NLS ISO 8859-1
270    
271     Sound ---&gt;
272     &lt;M&gt; Sound card support
273     &lt;M&gt; OSS sound modules
274     [*] Verbose initialisation
275     [*] Persistent DMA buffers
276     &lt;M&gt; 100% Sound Blaster compatibles
277     </pre>
278    
279     <p>
280     When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
281     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
282     </p>
283    
284     </body>
285     </subsection>
286     <subsection id="compiling">
287     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
288     <body>
289    
290     <p>
291     Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
292 swift 1.20 the configuration and start the compilation process:
293 swift 1.1 </p>
294    
295     <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
296     <comment>(For 2.4 kernel)</comment>
297     # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules modules_install</i>
298    
299     <comment>(For 2.6 kernel)</comment>
300     # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
301 vapier 1.6
302     <comment>(For all kernels)</comment>
303     # <i>make boot</i>
304 swift 1.1 </pre>
305    
306     <p>
307 neysx 1.7 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
308 swift 1.1 <path>/boot</path>. In the next example we assume you have configured and
309 swift 1.21 compiled <c>vanilla-sources-2.6.11.2</c>; recent kernels might create
310 swift 1.10 <path>vmlinux</path> instead of <path>vmlinux.gz</path>.
311 swift 1.1 </p>
312    
313     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
314 vapier 1.6 # <i>cp arch/alpha/boot/vmlinux.gz /boot/</i>
315 swift 1.21 # <i>cp System.map /boot/System.map-2.6.11.2</i>
316 swift 1.1 </pre>
317    
318     <p>
319     It is also wise to copy over your kernel configuration file to
320     <path>/boot</path>, just in case :)
321     </p>
322    
323     <pre caption="Backing up your kernel configuration">
324 swift 1.21 # <i>cp .config /boot/config-2.6.11.2</i>
325 swift 1.1 </pre>
326    
327     <p>
328     Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
329     Modules</uri>.
330     </p>
331    
332     </body>
333     </subsection>
334     </section>
335     <section id="genkernel">
336     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
337     <body>
338    
339     <p>
340     If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
341     script to configure your kernel for you.
342     </p>
343    
344     <p>
345     Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
346     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
347     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
348 swift 1.21 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
349 swift 1.1 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
350 swift 1.21 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because genkernel
351 swift 1.1 doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for
352     those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
353     </p>
354    
355     <p>
356     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
357     </p>
358    
359     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
360     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
361     </pre>
362    
363     <p>
364     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>.
365     Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
366     hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
367     </p>
368    
369     <p>
370     Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
371     need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c>
372     and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a
373     module).
374     </p>
375    
376     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
377     # <i>genkernel all</i>
378     GenKernel v3.0.1_beta10
379     * ARCH: Alpha
380 swift 1.21 * KERNEL VER: 2.6.11.2
381 swift 1.1 * kernel: configuring source
382     * kernel: running mrproper
383     <comment>(Output removed to increase readability)</comment>
384     * Kernel compiled successfully!
385     * Required Kernel Params:
386     * : root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc real_root=/dev/$ROOT
387     * where $ROOT is the devicenode for your root partition as
388     * you should have specified in /etc/fstab
389     *
390     * You MUST tell your bootloader to use the generated initrd
391     *
392     * Recommended Kernel Params:
393     * : vga=0x317 splash=verbose
394     *
395     * Do NOT report kernel bugs (configs included) as genkernel bugs.
396     * Make sure you have the latest genkernel before reporting bugs
397     *
398     * For more info see /usr/share/genkernel/README
399     </pre>
400    
401     <p>
402     Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
403     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
404     and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
405     down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
406     the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
407 swift 1.21 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD) before
408 swift 1.1 your "real" system starts up.
409     </p>
410    
411     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
412     # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initrd*</i>
413     </pre>
414    
415     <p>
416 swift 1.21 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Installation CD -- let's emerge <c>coldplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects hardware that
417 swift 1.14 is needed to boot your system, <c>coldplug</c> autodetects everything else.
418     To emerge and enable <c>coldplug</c>, type the following:
419 swift 1.1 </p>
420    
421 swift 1.14 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling coldplug">
422     # <i>emerge coldplug</i>
423 swift 1.17 # <i>rc-update add coldplug boot</i>
424     </pre>
425    
426     <p>
427     If you want your system to react to hotplugging events, you would need to
428     install and setup hotplug as well:
429     </p>
430    
431     <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
432     # <i>emerge hotplug</i>
433     # <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
434 swift 1.1 </pre>
435    
436     </body>
437     </section>
438     <section id="kernel_modules">
439     <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
440     <subsection>
441     <title>Installing Extra Modules</title>
442     <body>
443    
444     <p>
445     If appropriate, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is
446     on your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
447     </p>
448    
449     <table>
450     <tcolumn width="1in"/>
451     <tcolumn width="4in"/>
452     <tcolumn width="2in"/>
453     <tr>
454     <th>Ebuild</th>
455     <th>Purpose</th>
456     <th>Command</th>
457     </tr>
458     <tr>
459 swift 1.21 <ti>x11-drm</ti>
460 swift 1.1 <ti>
461     Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and
462 swift 1.21 other cards for xorg-x11. Please check the <c>IUSE_VIDEO_CARDS</c> variable
463     in the <path>/usr/portage/x11-base/x11-drm</path> ebuilds to see what you
464     need to fill in as <c>yourcard</c>.
465 swift 1.1 </ti>
466 swift 1.21 <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge x11-drm</c></ti>
467 swift 1.1 </tr>
468     </table>
469    
470     <p>
471     Beware though, some of these ebuilds might deal with big dependencies. To verify
472     what packages will be installed by emerging an ebuild, use <c>emerge
473 swift 1.21 --pretend</c>. For instance, for the <c>x11-drm</c> package:
474 swift 1.1 </p>
475    
476     <pre caption="View full installation package listing">
477 swift 1.21 # <i>emerge --pretend x11-drm</i>
478 swift 1.1 </pre>
479    
480     </body>
481     </subsection>
482     <subsection>
483     <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
484     <body>
485    
486     <p>
487     You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
488     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path> (or <path>kernel-2.6</path>).
489     You can add extra options to the modules too if you want.
490     </p>
491    
492     <p>
493     To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
494     forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
495     just compiled:
496     </p>
497    
498     <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
499     # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
500     </pre>
501    
502     <p>
503     For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
504     <path>kernel-2.4</path> or <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
505     name in it.
506     </p>
507    
508     <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4">
509     <comment>(Example for 2.4 kernels)</comment>
510     # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</i>
511     </pre>
512    
513     <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4 or kernel-2.6">
514     3c59x
515     </pre>
516    
517     <p>
518     Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
519     your System</uri>.
520     </p>
521    
522     </body>
523     </subsection>
524     </section>
525     </sections>

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