/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-kernel.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-kernel.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.3 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Sun May 9 11:33:37 2004 UTC (10 years, 5 months ago) by swift
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.2: +4 -2 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
#49831 - Use relative links for kernel source; some ebuilds break otherwise

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.3 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-kernel.xml,v 1.2 2004/04/02 22:41:25 neysx Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10     <section>
11     <title>Timezone</title>
12     <body>
13    
14     <p>
15     You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
16     located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
17     symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
18     </p>
19    
20     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
21     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
22     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
23     # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
24     </pre>
25    
26     </body>
27     </section>
28     <section>
29     <title>Installing the Sources</title>
30     <subsection>
31     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
32     <body>
33    
34     <p>
35     The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
36     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
37     users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
38     available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
39     Guide</uri>.
40     </p>
41    
42     <p>
43     For alpha-based systems we have <c>vanilla-sources</c> (the default kernel
44     source as developed by the linux-kernel developers), <c>alpha-sources</c>
45     (kernel source optimized for alpha users) and <c>compaq-sources</c> (kernel
46     source as used by RedHat for Alpha, maintained by Compaq).
47     </p>
48    
49     <p>
50     Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
51     </p>
52    
53     <p>
54     In the next example we install the <c>vanilla-sources</c>.
55     Of course substitute with your choice of sources, this is merely an example:
56     </p>
57    
58     <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
59     # <i>emerge vanilla-sources</i>
60     </pre>
61    
62     <p>
63     When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
64     <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source:
65     </p>
66    
67     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
68     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
69     lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.4.24
70     </pre>
71    
72     <p>
73     If this isn't the case (i.e. the symlink points to a different kernel source)
74     change the symlink before you continue:
75     </p>
76    
77     <pre caption="Changing the kernel source symlink">
78 swift 1.3 # <i>rm /usr/src/linux</i>
79     # <i>cd /usr/src</i>
80     # <i>ln -s linux-2.4.24 linux</i>
81 swift 1.1 </pre>
82    
83     <p>
84     Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You
85     can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
86     by the LiveCD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
87     the best way to optimize your environment.
88     </p>
89    
90     <p>
91     If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
92     link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
93     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
94     genkernel</uri> instead.
95     </p>
96    
97     </body>
98     </subsection>
99     </section>
100     <section id="manual">
101     <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
102     <subsection>
103     <title>Introduction</title>
104     <body>
105    
106     <p>
107     Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult course every
108     Linux users ever has to go through. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
109     couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
110     </p>
111    
112     <p>
113     However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
114     configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by viewing the
115     contents of <path>/proc/pci</path> (or by using <c>lspci</c> if available). You
116     can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the LiveCD uses (it might
117     provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
118     </p>
119    
120     <p>
121     Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
122     will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
123     </p>
124    
125     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
126     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
127     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
128     </pre>
129    
130     <p>
131     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
132     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
133     properly without additional tweaks).
134     </p>
135    
136     </body>
137     </subsection>
138     <subsection>
139     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
140     <body>
141    
142     <p>
143     First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
144     You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
145     </p>
146    
147     <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
148     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
149     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
150     </pre>
151    
152     <p>
153     Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
154     <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
155     able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c>, <c>/proc
156     file system</c>, <c>/dev file system</c> + <c>Automatically mount at boot</c>:
157     </p>
158    
159     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
160     File systems ---&gt;
161     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
162     [*] /proc file system support
163     [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
164     [*] Automatically mount at boot
165    
166     <comment>(Deselect the following unless you have a 2.6 kernel)</comment>
167     [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
168    
169     <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
170     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
171     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
172     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
173     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
174     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
175     </pre>
176    
177     <note>
178     Users of a 2.6 kernel will find some of the mentioned options under <c>Pseudo
179     filesystems</c> which is a subpart of <c>File systems</c>.
180     </note>
181    
182     <p>
183     If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
184     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
185     </p>
186    
187     <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
188     Network device support ---&gt;
189     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
190     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
191     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
192     </pre>
193    
194     <note>
195     Users of a 2.6 kernel will find the mentioned options under <c>Networking
196     support</c> which is a subpart of <c>Device Drivers</c>.
197     </note>
198    
199     <p>
200     The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
201     does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
202     <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
203     </p>
204    
205     <note>
206     Users of a 2.6 kernel will find the mentioned options under <c>Device
207     Drivers</c>.
208     </note>
209    
210     <p>
211     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
212     ethernet card.
213     </p>
214    
215     <p>
216     The following Alpha-specific options are recommended as well:
217     </p>
218    
219     <pre caption="Alpha-specific options">
220     General setup ---&gt;
221     &lt;*&gt; SRM environment through procfs
222     &lt;*&gt; Configure uac policy via sysctl
223    
224     Plug and Play configuration ---&gt;
225     &lt;*&gt; Plug and Play support
226     &lt;M&gt; ISA Plug and Play support
227    
228     SCSI support ---&gt;
229     SCSI low-level drivers ---&gt;
230     &lt;*&gt; SYM53C8XX Version 2 SCSI support (NEW)
231     &lt;*&gt; Qlogic ISP SCSI support
232    
233     Network device support ---&gt;
234     Ethernet (10 or 100 Mbit) ---&gt;
235     &lt;M&gt; DECchip Tulip (dc21x4x) PCI support
236     &lt;M&gt; Generic DECchip &amp; DIGITAL EtherWORKS PCI/EISA
237     &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (eepro100)
238     &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (e100)
239     Ethernet (1000 Mbit) ---&gt;
240     &lt;M&gt; Alteon AceNIC
241     [*] Omit support for old Tigon I
242     &lt;M&gt; Broadcom Tigon3
243     [*] FDDI driver support
244     &lt;M&gt; Digital DEFEA and DEFPA
245     &lt;*&gt; PPP support
246     &lt;*&gt; PPP Deflate compression
247    
248     Character devices ---&gt;
249     [*] Support for console on serial port
250     [*] Direct Rendering Manager
251    
252     File systems ---&gt;
253     &lt;*&gt; Kernel automounter version 4 support
254     Network File Systems ---&gt;
255     &lt;*&gt; NFS
256     [*] NFSv3 client
257     &lt;*&gt; NFS server
258     [*] NFSv3 server
259     Partition Types ---&gt;
260     [*] Advanced partition selection
261     [*] Alpha OSF partition support
262     Native Language Support
263     &lt;*&gt; NLS ISO 8859-1
264    
265     Sound ---&gt;
266     &lt;M&gt; Sound card support
267     &lt;M&gt; OSS sound modules
268     [*] Verbose initialisation
269     [*] Persistent DMA buffers
270     &lt;M&gt; 100% Sound Blaster compatibles
271     </pre>
272    
273     <p>
274     When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
275     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
276     </p>
277    
278     </body>
279     </subsection>
280     <subsection id="compiling">
281     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
282     <body>
283    
284     <p>
285     Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
286     the configuration and run <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules
287     modules_install</c>:
288     </p>
289    
290     <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
291     <comment>(For 2.4 kernel)</comment>
292     # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules modules_install</i>
293    
294     <comment>(For 2.6 kernel)</comment>
295     # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
296     </pre>
297    
298     <p>
299     When the kernel is done compiling, copy over the kernel image to
300     <path>/boot</path>. In the next example we assume you have configured and
301     compiled <c>vanilla-sources-2.4.24</c>:
302     </p>
303    
304     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
305     # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/kernel-2.4.24</i>
306     # <i>cp System.map /boot/System.map-2.4.24</i>
307     </pre>
308    
309     <p>
310     It is also wise to copy over your kernel configuration file to
311     <path>/boot</path>, just in case :)
312     </p>
313    
314     <pre caption="Backing up your kernel configuration">
315     # <i>cp .config /boot/config-2.4.24</i>
316     </pre>
317    
318     <p>
319     Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
320     Modules</uri>.
321     </p>
322    
323     </body>
324     </subsection>
325     </section>
326     <section id="genkernel">
327     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
328     <body>
329    
330     <p>
331     If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
332     script to configure your kernel for you.
333     </p>
334    
335     <p>
336     Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
337     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
338     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
339     way our LiveCD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
340     <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
341     your hardware at boot-time, just like our Live CD does. Because genkernel
342     doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for
343     those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
344     </p>
345    
346     <p>
347     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
348     </p>
349    
350     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
351     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
352     </pre>
353    
354     <p>
355     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>.
356     Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
357     hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
358     </p>
359    
360     <p>
361     Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
362     need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c>
363     and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a
364     module).
365     </p>
366    
367     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
368     # <i>genkernel all</i>
369     GenKernel v3.0.1_beta10
370     * ARCH: Alpha
371     * KERNEL VER: 2.4.24
372     * kernel: configuring source
373     * kernel: running mrproper
374     <comment>(Output removed to increase readability)</comment>
375     * Kernel compiled successfully!
376     * Required Kernel Params:
377     * : root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc real_root=/dev/$ROOT
378     * where $ROOT is the devicenode for your root partition as
379     * you should have specified in /etc/fstab
380     *
381     * You MUST tell your bootloader to use the generated initrd
382     *
383     * Recommended Kernel Params:
384     * : vga=0x317 splash=verbose
385     *
386     * Do NOT report kernel bugs (configs included) as genkernel bugs.
387     * Make sure you have the latest genkernel before reporting bugs
388     *
389     * For more info see /usr/share/genkernel/README
390     </pre>
391    
392     <p>
393     Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
394     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
395     and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
396     down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
397     the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
398     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Live CD) before
399     your "real" system starts up.
400     </p>
401    
402     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
403     # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initrd*</i>
404     </pre>
405    
406     <p>
407     Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Live
408     CD -- let's emerge <c>hotplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects hardware that
409     is needed to boot your system, <c>hotplug</c> autodetects everything else.
410     To emerge and enable <c>hotplug</c>, type the following:
411     </p>
412    
413     <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
414     # <i>emerge hotplug</i>
415     # <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
416     </pre>
417    
418     </body>
419     </section>
420     <section id="kernel_modules">
421     <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
422     <subsection>
423     <title>Installing Extra Modules</title>
424     <body>
425    
426     <p>
427     If appropriate, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is
428     on your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
429     </p>
430    
431     <table>
432     <tcolumn width="1in"/>
433     <tcolumn width="4in"/>
434     <tcolumn width="2in"/>
435     <tr>
436     <th>Ebuild</th>
437     <th>Purpose</th>
438     <th>Command</th>
439     </tr>
440     <tr>
441     <ti>xfree-drm</ti>
442     <ti>
443     Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and
444     other cards for XFree86. Please check the <c>IUSE_VIDEO_CARDS</c> variable
445     in the <path>/usr/portage/x11-base/xfree-drm</path> ebuilds to see what you
446     need to fill in as <c>yourcard</c>.
447     </ti>
448     <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti>
449     </tr>
450     </table>
451    
452     <p>
453     Beware though, some of these ebuilds might deal with big dependencies. To verify
454     what packages will be installed by emerging an ebuild, use <c>emerge
455     --pretend</c>. For instance, for the <c>xfree-drm</c> package:
456     </p>
457    
458     <pre caption="View full installation package listing">
459 neysx 1.2 # <i>emerge --pretend xfree-drm</i>
460 swift 1.1 </pre>
461    
462     </body>
463     </subsection>
464     <subsection>
465     <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
466     <body>
467    
468     <p>
469     You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
470     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path> (or <path>kernel-2.6</path>).
471     You can add extra options to the modules too if you want.
472     </p>
473    
474     <p>
475     To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
476     forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
477     just compiled:
478     </p>
479    
480     <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
481     # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
482     </pre>
483    
484     <p>
485     For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
486     <path>kernel-2.4</path> or <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
487     name in it.
488     </p>
489    
490     <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4">
491     <comment>(Example for 2.4 kernels)</comment>
492     # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</i>
493     </pre>
494    
495     <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4 or kernel-2.6">
496     3c59x
497     </pre>
498    
499     <p>
500     Now run <c>modules-update</c> to commit your changes to the
501     <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file:
502     </p>
503    
504     <pre caption="Running modules-update">
505     # <i>modules-update</i>
506     </pre>
507    
508     <p>
509     Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
510     your System</uri>.
511     </p>
512    
513     </body>
514     </subsection>
515     </section>
516     </sections>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20