/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-kernel.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-kernel.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.51 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Tue Sep 11 22:49:20 2012 UTC (2 years ago) by nightmorph
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.50: +7 -7 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
update handbooks for initramfs changes needed for separate /usr and other partitions. bug #415175, bug #434550, bug #434554, bug #434732

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 neysx 1.30 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 nightmorph 1.51 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-kernel.xml,v 1.50 2012/03/27 17:46:07 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.11
11 nightmorph 1.51 <version>14</version>
12     <date>2012-09-11</date>
13 swift 1.11
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Timezone</title>
16     <body>
17    
18     <p>
19     You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 neysx 1.39 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
21     it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
22 neysx 1.30 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
23 neysx 1.39 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
24     GMT+8.
25 swift 1.1 </p>
26    
27     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
28     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
29 swift 1.49 <comment>(Suppose you want to use Europe/Brussels)</comment>
30     # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Brussels /etc/localtime</i>
31     <comment>(Next set the timezone)</comment>
32     # <i>echo "Europe/Brussels" &gt; /etc/timezone</i>
33 swift 1.1 </pre>
34    
35     </body>
36     </section>
37     <section>
38     <title>Installing the Sources</title>
39     <subsection>
40     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
41     <body>
42    
43     <p>
44     The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
45     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
46     users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
47     available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
48     Guide</uri>.
49     </p>
50    
51     <p>
52 nightmorph 1.38 For alpha-based systems we have <c>gentoo-sources</c> (the default 2.6 kernel
53     source).
54 swift 1.1 </p>
55    
56     <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
57 nightmorph 1.38 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
58 swift 1.1 </pre>
59    
60     <p>
61     When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
62 neysx 1.33 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
63 nightmorph 1.38 kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
64     Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
65 swift 1.1 </p>
66    
67     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
68     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
69 nightmorph 1.38 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
70 swift 1.1 </pre>
71    
72     <p>
73 nightmorph 1.38 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
74     <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
75     Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
76 swift 1.1 the best way to optimize your environment.
77     </p>
78    
79     <p>
80     If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
81 nightmorph 1.38 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
82     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
83 swift 1.1 genkernel</uri> instead.
84     </p>
85    
86     </body>
87     </subsection>
88     </section>
89     <section id="manual">
90     <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
91     <subsection>
92     <title>Introduction</title>
93     <body>
94    
95     <p>
96 neysx 1.7 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
97 neysx 1.8 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
98 swift 1.1 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
99     </p>
100    
101     <p>
102     However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
103 swift 1.24 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
104 swift 1.25 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
105 swift 1.24 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
106     ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
107     /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
108 swift 1.25 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
109 swift 1.24 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
110     uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
111 swift 1.1 </p>
112    
113     <p>
114     Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
115     will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
116     </p>
117    
118     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
119     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
120     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
121     </pre>
122    
123     <p>
124     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
125     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
126     properly without additional tweaks).
127     </p>
128    
129     </body>
130     </subsection>
131     <subsection>
132     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
133     <body>
134    
135     <p>
136 nightmorph 1.46 First go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
137 swift 1.1 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
138 vapier 1.22 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
139 nightmorph 1.38 file system</c>.
140 swift 1.1 </p>
141    
142     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
143 neysx 1.4 File systems ---&gt;
144     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
145     [*] /proc file system support
146     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
147 swift 1.1
148     <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
149     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
150     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
151     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
152     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
153     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
154     </pre>
155    
156     <p>
157     If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
158     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
159     </p>
160    
161     <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
162 neysx 1.4 Device Drivers ---&gt;
163 swift 1.50 Network device support ---&gt;
164 neysx 1.4 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
165     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
166     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
167 swift 1.1 </pre>
168    
169     <p>
170     The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
171 nightmorph 1.38 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by <c>ppp</c>
172     when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
173 swift 1.1 </p>
174    
175     <p>
176     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
177     ethernet card.
178     </p>
179    
180     <p>
181 vapier 1.9 The following options are recommended as well:
182 swift 1.1 </p>
183    
184 vapier 1.9 <pre caption="Recommended Alpha options">
185 swift 1.1 General setup ---&gt;
186     &lt;*&gt; SRM environment through procfs
187     &lt;*&gt; Configure uac policy via sysctl
188    
189     Plug and Play configuration ---&gt;
190     &lt;*&gt; Plug and Play support
191     &lt;M&gt; ISA Plug and Play support
192    
193     SCSI support ---&gt;
194     SCSI low-level drivers ---&gt;
195     &lt;*&gt; SYM53C8XX Version 2 SCSI support (NEW)
196     &lt;*&gt; Qlogic ISP SCSI support
197    
198     Network device support ---&gt;
199     Ethernet (10 or 100 Mbit) ---&gt;
200     &lt;M&gt; DECchip Tulip (dc21x4x) PCI support
201     &lt;M&gt; Generic DECchip &amp; DIGITAL EtherWORKS PCI/EISA
202     &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (eepro100)
203     &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (e100)
204     Ethernet (1000 Mbit) ---&gt;
205     &lt;M&gt; Alteon AceNIC
206     [*] Omit support for old Tigon I
207     &lt;M&gt; Broadcom Tigon3
208     [*] FDDI driver support
209     &lt;M&gt; Digital DEFEA and DEFPA
210     &lt;*&gt; PPP support
211     &lt;*&gt; PPP Deflate compression
212    
213     Character devices ---&gt;
214     [*] Support for console on serial port
215     [*] Direct Rendering Manager
216    
217     File systems ---&gt;
218     &lt;*&gt; Kernel automounter version 4 support
219     Network File Systems ---&gt;
220     &lt;*&gt; NFS
221     [*] NFSv3 client
222     &lt;*&gt; NFS server
223     [*] NFSv3 server
224     Partition Types ---&gt;
225     [*] Advanced partition selection
226     [*] Alpha OSF partition support
227     Native Language Support
228     &lt;*&gt; NLS ISO 8859-1
229    
230     Sound ---&gt;
231     &lt;M&gt; Sound card support
232     &lt;M&gt; OSS sound modules
233     [*] Verbose initialisation
234     [*] Persistent DMA buffers
235     &lt;M&gt; 100% Sound Blaster compatibles
236     </pre>
237    
238     <p>
239     When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
240     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
241     </p>
242    
243     </body>
244     </subsection>
245     <subsection id="compiling">
246     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
247     <body>
248    
249     <p>
250     Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
251 swift 1.20 the configuration and start the compilation process:
252 swift 1.1 </p>
253    
254     <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
255     # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
256 vapier 1.6 # <i>make boot</i>
257 swift 1.1 </pre>
258    
259     <p>
260 neysx 1.7 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
261 neysx 1.33 <path>/boot</path>. Recent kernels might create <path>vmlinux</path> instead of
262     <path>vmlinux.gz</path>. Keep this in mind when you copy your kernel image.
263 swift 1.1 </p>
264    
265     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
266 vapier 1.6 # <i>cp arch/alpha/boot/vmlinux.gz /boot/</i>
267 swift 1.1 </pre>
268    
269     </body>
270     </subsection>
271 nightmorph 1.51 <subsection>
272     <include href="hb-install-initramfs.xml"/>
273     </subsection>
274    
275 swift 1.1 </section>
276     <section id="genkernel">
277     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
278     <body>
279    
280     <p>
281     If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
282     script to configure your kernel for you.
283     </p>
284    
285     <p>
286 nightmorph 1.38 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
287     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
288     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
289     way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
290     <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
291     your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
292     genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
293     solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own
294     kernels.
295 swift 1.1 </p>
296    
297     <p>
298     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
299     </p>
300    
301     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
302     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
303     </pre>
304    
305     <p>
306     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>.
307     Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
308     hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
309     </p>
310    
311     <p>
312     Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
313     need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c>
314     and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a
315     module).
316     </p>
317    
318     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
319     # <i>genkernel all</i>
320     </pre>
321    
322     <p>
323 nightmorph 1.38 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and <e>initial
324 swift 1.48 ram disk</e> (initramfs) will be created. We will use the kernel and initrd when
325 nightmorph 1.38 configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write down the names of the
326     kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing the bootloader configuration
327     file. The initrd will be started immediately after booting to perform hardware
328     autodetection (just like on the Installation CD) before your "real" system
329     starts up.
330 swift 1.1 </p>
331    
332     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
333 swift 1.29 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs-*</i>
334 swift 1.1 </pre>
335    
336     </body>
337     </section>
338     <section id="kernel_modules">
339 nightmorph 1.46 <title>Kernel Modules</title>
340    
341 swift 1.1 <subsection>
342 nightmorph 1.46 <include href="hb-install-kernelmodules.xml"/>
343     </subsection>
344 swift 1.1
345     </section>
346     </sections>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20