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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-kernel.xml,v 1.19 2005/02/03 14:35:57 cam Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>1.16</version>
12 <date>2005-03-25</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Timezone</title>
16 <body>
17
18 <p>
19 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
21 symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
22 </p>
23
24 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
25 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
26 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
27 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
28 </pre>
29
30 </body>
31 </section>
32 <section>
33 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
34 <subsection>
35 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
36 <body>
37
38 <p>
39 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
40 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
41 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
42 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
43 Guide</uri>.
44 </p>
45
46 <p>
47 For alpha-based systems we have <c>vanilla-sources</c> (the default 2.4 kernel
48 source as developed by the linux-kernel developers), <c>development-sources</c>
49 (vanilla 2.6 kernel source) and <c>alpha-sources</c> (kernel source optimized
50 for alpha users).
51 </p>
52
53 <p>
54 Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
55 </p>
56
57 <p>
58 In the next example we install the <c>vanilla-sources</c>.
59 Of course substitute with your choice of sources, this is merely an example:
60 </p>
61
62 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
63 # <i>emerge vanilla-sources</i>
64 </pre>
65
66 <p>
67 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
68 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source:
69 </p>
70
71 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
72 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
73 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.4.24
74 </pre>
75
76 <p>
77 If this isn't the case (i.e. the symlink points to a different kernel source)
78 change the symlink before you continue:
79 </p>
80
81 <pre caption="Changing the kernel source symlink">
82 # <i>rm /usr/src/linux</i>
83 # <i>cd /usr/src</i>
84 # <i>ln -s linux-2.4.24 linux</i>
85 </pre>
86
87 <p>
88 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You
89 can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
90 by the LiveCD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
91 the best way to optimize your environment.
92 </p>
93
94 <p>
95 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
96 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
97 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
98 genkernel</uri> instead.
99 </p>
100
101 </body>
102 </subsection>
103 </section>
104 <section id="manual">
105 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
106 <subsection>
107 <title>Introduction</title>
108 <body>
109
110 <p>
111 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
112 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
113 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
114 </p>
115
116 <p>
117 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
118 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by viewing the
119 contents of <path>/proc/pci</path> (or by using <c>lspci</c> if available). You
120 can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the LiveCD uses (it might
121 provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
122 </p>
123
124 <p>
125 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
126 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
127 </p>
128
129 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
130 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
131 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
132 </pre>
133
134 <p>
135 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
136 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
137 properly without additional tweaks).
138 </p>
139
140 </body>
141 </subsection>
142 <subsection>
143 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
144 <body>
145
146 <p>
147 First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
148 You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
149 </p>
150
151 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
152 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
153 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
154 </pre>
155
156 <p>
157 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
158 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
159 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c>, <c>/proc
160 file system</c>, <c>/dev file system</c> + <c>Automatically mount at boot</c>:
161 </p>
162
163 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
164 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
165 File systems ---&gt;
166 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
167 [*] /proc file system support
168 [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
169 [*] Automatically mount at boot
170 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
171
172 <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
173 File systems ---&gt;
174 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
175 [*] /proc file system support
176 [*] /dev file system support (OBSOLETE)
177 [*] Automatically mount at boot
178 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
179
180 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
181 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
182 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
183 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
184 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
185 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
186 </pre>
187
188 <p>
189 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
190 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
191 </p>
192
193 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
194 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
195 Network device support ---&gt;
196 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
197 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
198 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
199
200 <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
201 Device Drivers ---&gt;
202 Networking support ---&gt;
203 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
204 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
205 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
206 </pre>
207
208 <p>
209 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
210 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
211 <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
212 </p>
213
214 <p>
215 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
216 ethernet card.
217 </p>
218
219 <p>
220 The following options are recommended as well:
221 </p>
222
223 <pre caption="Recommended Alpha options">
224 General setup ---&gt;
225 &lt;*&gt; SRM environment through procfs
226 &lt;*&gt; Configure uac policy via sysctl
227
228 Plug and Play configuration ---&gt;
229 &lt;*&gt; Plug and Play support
230 &lt;M&gt; ISA Plug and Play support
231
232 SCSI support ---&gt;
233 SCSI low-level drivers ---&gt;
234 &lt;*&gt; SYM53C8XX Version 2 SCSI support (NEW)
235 &lt;*&gt; Qlogic ISP SCSI support
236
237 Network device support ---&gt;
238 Ethernet (10 or 100 Mbit) ---&gt;
239 &lt;M&gt; DECchip Tulip (dc21x4x) PCI support
240 &lt;M&gt; Generic DECchip &amp; DIGITAL EtherWORKS PCI/EISA
241 &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (eepro100)
242 &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (e100)
243 Ethernet (1000 Mbit) ---&gt;
244 &lt;M&gt; Alteon AceNIC
245 [*] Omit support for old Tigon I
246 &lt;M&gt; Broadcom Tigon3
247 [*] FDDI driver support
248 &lt;M&gt; Digital DEFEA and DEFPA
249 &lt;*&gt; PPP support
250 &lt;*&gt; PPP Deflate compression
251
252 Character devices ---&gt;
253 [*] Support for console on serial port
254 [*] Direct Rendering Manager
255
256 File systems ---&gt;
257 &lt;*&gt; Kernel automounter version 4 support
258 Network File Systems ---&gt;
259 &lt;*&gt; NFS
260 [*] NFSv3 client
261 &lt;*&gt; NFS server
262 [*] NFSv3 server
263 Partition Types ---&gt;
264 [*] Advanced partition selection
265 [*] Alpha OSF partition support
266 Native Language Support
267 &lt;*&gt; NLS ISO 8859-1
268
269 Sound ---&gt;
270 &lt;M&gt; Sound card support
271 &lt;M&gt; OSS sound modules
272 [*] Verbose initialisation
273 [*] Persistent DMA buffers
274 &lt;M&gt; 100% Sound Blaster compatibles
275 </pre>
276
277 <p>
278 When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
279 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
280 </p>
281
282 </body>
283 </subsection>
284 <subsection id="compiling">
285 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
286 <body>
287
288 <p>
289 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
290 the configuration and start the compilation process:
291 </p>
292
293 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
294 <comment>(For 2.4 kernel)</comment>
295 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules modules_install</i>
296
297 <comment>(For 2.6 kernel)</comment>
298 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
299
300 <comment>(For all kernels)</comment>
301 # <i>make boot</i>
302 </pre>
303
304 <p>
305 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
306 <path>/boot</path>. In the next example we assume you have configured and
307 compiled <c>vanilla-sources-2.4.24</c>; recent kernels might create
308 <path>vmlinux</path> instead of <path>vmlinux.gz</path>.
309 </p>
310
311 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
312 # <i>cp arch/alpha/boot/vmlinux.gz /boot/</i>
313 # <i>cp System.map /boot/System.map-2.4.24</i>
314 </pre>
315
316 <p>
317 It is also wise to copy over your kernel configuration file to
318 <path>/boot</path>, just in case :)
319 </p>
320
321 <pre caption="Backing up your kernel configuration">
322 # <i>cp .config /boot/config-2.4.24</i>
323 </pre>
324
325 <p>
326 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
327 Modules</uri>.
328 </p>
329
330 </body>
331 </subsection>
332 </section>
333 <section id="genkernel">
334 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
335 <body>
336
337 <p>
338 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
339 script to configure your kernel for you.
340 </p>
341
342 <p>
343 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
344 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
345 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
346 way our LiveCD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
347 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
348 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Live CD does. Because genkernel
349 doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for
350 those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
351 </p>
352
353 <p>
354 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
355 </p>
356
357 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
358 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
359 </pre>
360
361 <p>
362 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>.
363 Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
364 hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
365 </p>
366
367 <p>
368 Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
369 need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c>
370 and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a
371 module).
372 </p>
373
374 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
375 # <i>genkernel all</i>
376 GenKernel v3.0.1_beta10
377 * ARCH: Alpha
378 * KERNEL VER: 2.4.24
379 * kernel: configuring source
380 * kernel: running mrproper
381 <comment>(Output removed to increase readability)</comment>
382 * Kernel compiled successfully!
383 * Required Kernel Params:
384 * : root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc real_root=/dev/$ROOT
385 * where $ROOT is the devicenode for your root partition as
386 * you should have specified in /etc/fstab
387 *
388 * You MUST tell your bootloader to use the generated initrd
389 *
390 * Recommended Kernel Params:
391 * : vga=0x317 splash=verbose
392 *
393 * Do NOT report kernel bugs (configs included) as genkernel bugs.
394 * Make sure you have the latest genkernel before reporting bugs
395 *
396 * For more info see /usr/share/genkernel/README
397 </pre>
398
399 <p>
400 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
401 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
402 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
403 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
404 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
405 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Live CD) before
406 your "real" system starts up.
407 </p>
408
409 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
410 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initrd*</i>
411 </pre>
412
413 <p>
414 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Live
415 CD -- let's emerge <c>coldplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects hardware that
416 is needed to boot your system, <c>coldplug</c> autodetects everything else.
417 To emerge and enable <c>coldplug</c>, type the following:
418 </p>
419
420 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling coldplug">
421 # <i>emerge coldplug</i>
422 # <i>rc-update add coldplug boot</i>
423 </pre>
424
425 <p>
426 If you want your system to react to hotplugging events, you would need to
427 install and setup hotplug as well:
428 </p>
429
430 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
431 # <i>emerge hotplug</i>
432 # <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
433 </pre>
434
435 </body>
436 </section>
437 <section id="kernel_modules">
438 <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
439 <subsection>
440 <title>Installing Extra Modules</title>
441 <body>
442
443 <p>
444 If appropriate, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is
445 on your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
446 </p>
447
448 <table>
449 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
450 <tcolumn width="4in"/>
451 <tcolumn width="2in"/>
452 <tr>
453 <th>Ebuild</th>
454 <th>Purpose</th>
455 <th>Command</th>
456 </tr>
457 <tr>
458 <ti>xfree-drm (or x11-drm)</ti>
459 <ti>
460 Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and
461 other cards for XFree86. Please check the <c>IUSE_VIDEO_CARDS</c> variable
462 in the <path>/usr/portage/x11-base/xfree-drm</path> ebuilds to see what you
463 need to fill in as <c>yourcard</c>. The xfree-drm ebuild has been renamed to
464 x11-drm after the 2004.3 release.
465 </ti>
466 <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti>
467 </tr>
468 </table>
469
470 <p>
471 Beware though, some of these ebuilds might deal with big dependencies. To verify
472 what packages will be installed by emerging an ebuild, use <c>emerge
473 --pretend</c>. For instance, for the <c>xfree-drm</c> package:
474 </p>
475
476 <pre caption="View full installation package listing">
477 # <i>emerge --pretend xfree-drm</i>
478 </pre>
479
480 </body>
481 </subsection>
482 <subsection>
483 <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
484 <body>
485
486 <p>
487 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
488 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path> (or <path>kernel-2.6</path>).
489 You can add extra options to the modules too if you want.
490 </p>
491
492 <p>
493 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
494 forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
495 just compiled:
496 </p>
497
498 <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
499 # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
500 </pre>
501
502 <p>
503 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
504 <path>kernel-2.4</path> or <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
505 name in it.
506 </p>
507
508 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4">
509 <comment>(Example for 2.4 kernels)</comment>
510 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</i>
511 </pre>
512
513 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4 or kernel-2.6">
514 3c59x
515 </pre>
516
517 <p>
518 Now run <c>modules-update</c> to commit your changes to the
519 <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file:
520 </p>
521
522 <pre caption="Running modules-update">
523 # <i>modules-update</i>
524 </pre>
525
526 <p>
527 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
528 your System</uri>.
529 </p>
530
531 </body>
532 </subsection>
533 </section>
534 </sections>

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