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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-kernel.xml,v 1.24 2005/06/02 17:18:54 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.3</version>
12 <date>2005-06-02</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Timezone</title>
16 <body>
17
18 <p>
19 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
21 symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
22 </p>
23
24 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
25 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
26 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
27 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
28 </pre>
29
30 </body>
31 </section>
32 <section>
33 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
34 <subsection>
35 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
36 <body>
37
38 <p>
39 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
40 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
41 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
42 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
43 Guide</uri>.
44 </p>
45
46 <p>
47 For alpha-based systems we have <c>vanilla-sources</c> (the default 2.6 kernel source).
48 </p>
49
50 <p>
51 Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
52 </p>
53
54 <p>
55 In the next example we install the <c>vanilla-sources</c>.
56 Of course substitute with your choice of sources, this is merely an example:
57 </p>
58
59 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
60 # <i>emerge vanilla-sources</i>
61 </pre>
62
63 <p>
64 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
65 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source:
66 </p>
67
68 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
69 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
70 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.6.11.2
71 </pre>
72
73 <p>
74 If this isn't the case (i.e. the symlink points to a different kernel source)
75 change the symlink before you continue:
76 </p>
77
78 <pre caption="Changing the kernel source symlink">
79 # <i>rm /usr/src/linux</i>
80 # <i>cd /usr/src</i>
81 # <i>ln -s linux-2.6.11.2 linux</i>
82 </pre>
83
84 <p>
85 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You
86 can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
87 by the Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
88 the best way to optimize your environment.
89 </p>
90
91 <p>
92 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
93 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
94 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
95 genkernel</uri> instead.
96 </p>
97
98 </body>
99 </subsection>
100 </section>
101 <section id="manual">
102 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
103 <subsection>
104 <title>Introduction</title>
105 <body>
106
107 <p>
108 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
109 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
110 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
111 </p>
112
113 <p>
114 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
115 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
116 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
117 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
118 ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
119 /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
120 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
121 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
122 uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
123 </p>
124
125 <p>
126 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
127 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
128 </p>
129
130 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
131 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
132 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
133 </pre>
134
135 <p>
136 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
137 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
138 properly without additional tweaks).
139 </p>
140
141 </body>
142 </subsection>
143 <subsection>
144 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
145 <body>
146
147 <p>
148 First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
149 You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
150 </p>
151
152 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
153 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
154 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
155 </pre>
156
157 <p>
158 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
159 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
160 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
161 file system</c>. If you are using a 2.4 kernel, you should also select the
162 <c>/dev file system</c> and <c>Automatically mount at boot</c> options, and
163 you should make sure to <c>emerge devfsd</c>.
164 </p>
165
166 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
167 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
168 File systems ---&gt;
169 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
170 [*] /proc file system support
171 [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
172 [*] Automatically mount at boot
173 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
174
175 <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
176 File systems ---&gt;
177 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
178 [*] /proc file system support
179 [ ] /dev file system support (OBSOLETE)
180 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
181
182 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
183 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
184 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
185 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
186 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
187 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
188 </pre>
189
190 <p>
191 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
192 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
193 </p>
194
195 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
196 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
197 Network device support ---&gt;
198 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
199 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
200 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
201
202 <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
203 Device Drivers ---&gt;
204 Networking support ---&gt;
205 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
206 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
207 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
208 </pre>
209
210 <p>
211 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
212 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
213 <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
214 </p>
215
216 <p>
217 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
218 ethernet card.
219 </p>
220
221 <p>
222 The following options are recommended as well:
223 </p>
224
225 <pre caption="Recommended Alpha options">
226 General setup ---&gt;
227 &lt;*&gt; SRM environment through procfs
228 &lt;*&gt; Configure uac policy via sysctl
229
230 Plug and Play configuration ---&gt;
231 &lt;*&gt; Plug and Play support
232 &lt;M&gt; ISA Plug and Play support
233
234 SCSI support ---&gt;
235 SCSI low-level drivers ---&gt;
236 &lt;*&gt; SYM53C8XX Version 2 SCSI support (NEW)
237 &lt;*&gt; Qlogic ISP SCSI support
238
239 Network device support ---&gt;
240 Ethernet (10 or 100 Mbit) ---&gt;
241 &lt;M&gt; DECchip Tulip (dc21x4x) PCI support
242 &lt;M&gt; Generic DECchip &amp; DIGITAL EtherWORKS PCI/EISA
243 &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (eepro100)
244 &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (e100)
245 Ethernet (1000 Mbit) ---&gt;
246 &lt;M&gt; Alteon AceNIC
247 [*] Omit support for old Tigon I
248 &lt;M&gt; Broadcom Tigon3
249 [*] FDDI driver support
250 &lt;M&gt; Digital DEFEA and DEFPA
251 &lt;*&gt; PPP support
252 &lt;*&gt; PPP Deflate compression
253
254 Character devices ---&gt;
255 [*] Support for console on serial port
256 [*] Direct Rendering Manager
257
258 File systems ---&gt;
259 &lt;*&gt; Kernel automounter version 4 support
260 Network File Systems ---&gt;
261 &lt;*&gt; NFS
262 [*] NFSv3 client
263 &lt;*&gt; NFS server
264 [*] NFSv3 server
265 Partition Types ---&gt;
266 [*] Advanced partition selection
267 [*] Alpha OSF partition support
268 Native Language Support
269 &lt;*&gt; NLS ISO 8859-1
270
271 Sound ---&gt;
272 &lt;M&gt; Sound card support
273 &lt;M&gt; OSS sound modules
274 [*] Verbose initialisation
275 [*] Persistent DMA buffers
276 &lt;M&gt; 100% Sound Blaster compatibles
277 </pre>
278
279 <p>
280 When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
281 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
282 </p>
283
284 </body>
285 </subsection>
286 <subsection id="compiling">
287 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
288 <body>
289
290 <p>
291 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
292 the configuration and start the compilation process:
293 </p>
294
295 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
296 <comment>(For 2.4 kernel)</comment>
297 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules modules_install</i>
298
299 <comment>(For 2.6 kernel)</comment>
300 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
301
302 <comment>(For all kernels)</comment>
303 # <i>make boot</i>
304 </pre>
305
306 <p>
307 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
308 <path>/boot</path>. In the next example we assume you have configured and
309 compiled <c>vanilla-sources-2.6.11.2</c>; recent kernels might create
310 <path>vmlinux</path> instead of <path>vmlinux.gz</path>.
311 </p>
312
313 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
314 # <i>cp arch/alpha/boot/vmlinux.gz /boot/</i>
315 # <i>cp System.map /boot/System.map-2.6.11.2</i>
316 </pre>
317
318 <p>
319 It is also wise to copy over your kernel configuration file to
320 <path>/boot</path>, just in case :)
321 </p>
322
323 <pre caption="Backing up your kernel configuration">
324 # <i>cp .config /boot/config-2.6.11.2</i>
325 </pre>
326
327 <p>
328 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
329 Modules</uri>.
330 </p>
331
332 </body>
333 </subsection>
334 </section>
335 <section id="genkernel">
336 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
337 <body>
338
339 <p>
340 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
341 script to configure your kernel for you.
342 </p>
343
344 <p>
345 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
346 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
347 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
348 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
349 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
350 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because genkernel
351 doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for
352 those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
353 </p>
354
355 <p>
356 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
357 </p>
358
359 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
360 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
361 </pre>
362
363 <p>
364 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>.
365 Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
366 hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
367 </p>
368
369 <p>
370 Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
371 need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c>
372 and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a
373 module).
374 </p>
375
376 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
377 # <i>genkernel all</i>
378 GenKernel v3.0.1_beta10
379 * ARCH: Alpha
380 * KERNEL VER: 2.6.11.2
381 * kernel: configuring source
382 * kernel: running mrproper
383 <comment>(Output removed to increase readability)</comment>
384 * Kernel compiled successfully!
385 * Required Kernel Params:
386 * : root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc real_root=/dev/$ROOT
387 * where $ROOT is the devicenode for your root partition as
388 * you should have specified in /etc/fstab
389 *
390 * You MUST tell your bootloader to use the generated initrd
391 *
392 * Recommended Kernel Params:
393 * : vga=0x317 splash=verbose
394 *
395 * Do NOT report kernel bugs (configs included) as genkernel bugs.
396 * Make sure you have the latest genkernel before reporting bugs
397 *
398 * For more info see /usr/share/genkernel/README
399 </pre>
400
401 <p>
402 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
403 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
404 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
405 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
406 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
407 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD) before
408 your "real" system starts up.
409 </p>
410
411 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
412 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initrd*</i>
413 </pre>
414
415 <p>
416 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Installation CD -- let's emerge <c>coldplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects hardware that
417 is needed to boot your system, <c>coldplug</c> autodetects everything else.
418 To emerge and enable <c>coldplug</c>, type the following:
419 </p>
420
421 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling coldplug">
422 # <i>emerge coldplug</i>
423 # <i>rc-update add coldplug boot</i>
424 </pre>
425
426 <p>
427 If you want your system to react to hotplugging events, you would need to
428 install and setup hotplug as well:
429 </p>
430
431 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
432 # <i>emerge hotplug</i>
433 # <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
434 </pre>
435
436 </body>
437 </section>
438 <section id="kernel_modules">
439 <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
440 <subsection>
441 <title>Installing Extra Modules</title>
442 <body>
443
444 <p>
445 If appropriate, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is
446 on your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
447 </p>
448
449 <table>
450 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
451 <tcolumn width="4in"/>
452 <tcolumn width="2in"/>
453 <tr>
454 <th>Ebuild</th>
455 <th>Purpose</th>
456 <th>Command</th>
457 </tr>
458 <tr>
459 <ti>x11-drm</ti>
460 <ti>
461 Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and
462 other cards for xorg-x11. Please check the <c>IUSE_VIDEO_CARDS</c> variable
463 in the <path>/usr/portage/x11-base/x11-drm</path> ebuilds to see what you
464 need to fill in as <c>yourcard</c>.
465 </ti>
466 <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge x11-drm</c></ti>
467 </tr>
468 </table>
469
470 <p>
471 Beware though, some of these ebuilds might deal with big dependencies. To verify
472 what packages will be installed by emerging an ebuild, use <c>emerge
473 --pretend</c>. For instance, for the <c>x11-drm</c> package:
474 </p>
475
476 <pre caption="View full installation package listing">
477 # <i>emerge --pretend x11-drm</i>
478 </pre>
479
480 </body>
481 </subsection>
482 <subsection>
483 <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
484 <body>
485
486 <p>
487 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
488 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path> (or <path>kernel-2.6</path>).
489 You can add extra options to the modules too if you want.
490 </p>
491
492 <p>
493 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
494 forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
495 just compiled:
496 </p>
497
498 <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
499 # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
500 </pre>
501
502 <p>
503 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
504 <path>kernel-2.4</path> or <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
505 name in it.
506 </p>
507
508 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4">
509 <comment>(Example for 2.4 kernels)</comment>
510 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</i>
511 </pre>
512
513 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4 or kernel-2.6">
514 3c59x
515 </pre>
516
517 <p>
518 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
519 your System</uri>.
520 </p>
521
522 </body>
523 </subsection>
524 </section>
525 </sections>

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