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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-kernel.xml,v 1.26 2005/06/09 12:22:26 fox2mike Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.5</version>
12 <date>2005-07-02</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Timezone</title>
16 <body>
17
18 <p>
19 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
21 symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
22 </p>
23
24 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
25 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
26 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
27 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
28 </pre>
29
30 </body>
31 </section>
32 <section>
33 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
34 <subsection>
35 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
36 <body>
37
38 <p>
39 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
40 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
41 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
42 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
43 Guide</uri>.
44 </p>
45
46 <p>
47 For alpha-based systems we have <c>vanilla-sources</c> (the default 2.6 kernel source).
48 </p>
49
50 <p>
51 Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
52 </p>
53
54 <p>
55 In the next example we install the <c>vanilla-sources</c>.
56 Of course substitute with your choice of sources, this is merely an example:
57 </p>
58
59 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
60 # <i>emerge vanilla-sources</i>
61 </pre>
62
63 <p>
64 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
65 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source:
66 </p>
67
68 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
69 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
70 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.6.11.2
71 </pre>
72
73 <p>
74 If this isn't the case (i.e. the symlink points to a different kernel source)
75 change the symlink before you continue:
76 </p>
77
78 <pre caption="Changing the kernel source symlink">
79 # <i>rm /usr/src/linux</i>
80 # <i>cd /usr/src</i>
81 # <i>ln -s linux-2.6.11.2 linux</i>
82 </pre>
83
84 <p>
85 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You
86 can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
87 by the Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
88 the best way to optimize your environment.
89 </p>
90
91 <p>
92 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
93 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
94 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
95 genkernel</uri> instead.
96 </p>
97
98 </body>
99 </subsection>
100 </section>
101 <section id="manual">
102 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
103 <subsection>
104 <title>Introduction</title>
105 <body>
106
107 <p>
108 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
109 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
110 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
111 </p>
112
113 <p>
114 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
115 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
116 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
117 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
118 ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
119 /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
120 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
121 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
122 uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
123 </p>
124
125 <p>
126 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
127 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
128 </p>
129
130 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
131 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
132 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
133 </pre>
134
135 <p>
136 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
137 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
138 properly without additional tweaks).
139 </p>
140
141 </body>
142 </subsection>
143 <subsection>
144 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
145 <body>
146
147 <p>
148 First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
149 You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
150 </p>
151
152 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers, General setup">
153 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
154 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
155 General setup ---&gt;
156 [*] Support for hot-pluggable devices
157 </pre>
158
159 <p>
160 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
161 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
162 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
163 file system</c>. If you are using a 2.4 kernel, you should also select the
164 <c>/dev file system</c> and <c>Automatically mount at boot</c> options, and
165 you should make sure to <c>emerge devfsd</c>.
166 </p>
167
168 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
169 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
170 File systems ---&gt;
171 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
172 [*] /proc file system support
173 [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
174 [*] Automatically mount at boot
175 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
176
177 <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
178 File systems ---&gt;
179 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
180 [*] /proc file system support
181 [ ] /dev file system support (OBSOLETE)
182 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
183
184 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
185 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
186 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
187 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
188 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
189 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
190 </pre>
191
192 <p>
193 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
194 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
195 </p>
196
197 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
198 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
199 Network device support ---&gt;
200 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
201 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
202 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
203
204 <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
205 Device Drivers ---&gt;
206 Networking support ---&gt;
207 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
208 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
209 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
210 </pre>
211
212 <p>
213 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
214 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
215 <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
216 </p>
217
218 <p>
219 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
220 ethernet card.
221 </p>
222
223 <p>
224 The following options are recommended as well:
225 </p>
226
227 <pre caption="Recommended Alpha options">
228 General setup ---&gt;
229 &lt;*&gt; SRM environment through procfs
230 &lt;*&gt; Configure uac policy via sysctl
231
232 Plug and Play configuration ---&gt;
233 &lt;*&gt; Plug and Play support
234 &lt;M&gt; ISA Plug and Play support
235
236 SCSI support ---&gt;
237 SCSI low-level drivers ---&gt;
238 &lt;*&gt; SYM53C8XX Version 2 SCSI support (NEW)
239 &lt;*&gt; Qlogic ISP SCSI support
240
241 Network device support ---&gt;
242 Ethernet (10 or 100 Mbit) ---&gt;
243 &lt;M&gt; DECchip Tulip (dc21x4x) PCI support
244 &lt;M&gt; Generic DECchip &amp; DIGITAL EtherWORKS PCI/EISA
245 &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (eepro100)
246 &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (e100)
247 Ethernet (1000 Mbit) ---&gt;
248 &lt;M&gt; Alteon AceNIC
249 [*] Omit support for old Tigon I
250 &lt;M&gt; Broadcom Tigon3
251 [*] FDDI driver support
252 &lt;M&gt; Digital DEFEA and DEFPA
253 &lt;*&gt; PPP support
254 &lt;*&gt; PPP Deflate compression
255
256 Character devices ---&gt;
257 [*] Support for console on serial port
258 [*] Direct Rendering Manager
259
260 File systems ---&gt;
261 &lt;*&gt; Kernel automounter version 4 support
262 Network File Systems ---&gt;
263 &lt;*&gt; NFS
264 [*] NFSv3 client
265 &lt;*&gt; NFS server
266 [*] NFSv3 server
267 Partition Types ---&gt;
268 [*] Advanced partition selection
269 [*] Alpha OSF partition support
270 Native Language Support
271 &lt;*&gt; NLS ISO 8859-1
272
273 Sound ---&gt;
274 &lt;M&gt; Sound card support
275 &lt;M&gt; OSS sound modules
276 [*] Verbose initialisation
277 [*] Persistent DMA buffers
278 &lt;M&gt; 100% Sound Blaster compatibles
279 </pre>
280
281 <p>
282 When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
283 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
284 </p>
285
286 </body>
287 </subsection>
288 <subsection id="compiling">
289 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
290 <body>
291
292 <p>
293 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
294 the configuration and start the compilation process:
295 </p>
296
297 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
298 <comment>(For 2.4 kernel)</comment>
299 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules modules_install</i>
300
301 <comment>(For 2.6 kernel)</comment>
302 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
303
304 <comment>(For all kernels)</comment>
305 # <i>make boot</i>
306 </pre>
307
308 <p>
309 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
310 <path>/boot</path>. In the next example we assume you have configured and
311 compiled <c>vanilla-sources-2.6.11.2</c>; recent kernels might create
312 <path>vmlinux</path> instead of <path>vmlinux.gz</path>.
313 </p>
314
315 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
316 # <i>cp arch/alpha/boot/vmlinux.gz /boot/</i>
317 # <i>cp System.map /boot/System.map-2.6.11.2</i>
318 </pre>
319
320 <p>
321 It is also wise to copy over your kernel configuration file to
322 <path>/boot</path>, just in case :)
323 </p>
324
325 <pre caption="Backing up your kernel configuration">
326 # <i>cp .config /boot/config-2.6.11.2</i>
327 </pre>
328
329 <p>
330 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
331 Modules</uri>.
332 </p>
333
334 </body>
335 </subsection>
336 </section>
337 <section id="genkernel">
338 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
339 <body>
340
341 <p>
342 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
343 script to configure your kernel for you.
344 </p>
345
346 <p>
347 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
348 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
349 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
350 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
351 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
352 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because genkernel
353 doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for
354 those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
355 </p>
356
357 <p>
358 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
359 </p>
360
361 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
362 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
363 </pre>
364
365 <p>
366 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>.
367 Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
368 hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
369 </p>
370
371 <p>
372 Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
373 need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c>
374 and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a
375 module).
376 </p>
377
378 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
379 # <i>genkernel all</i>
380 GenKernel v3.0.1_beta10
381 * ARCH: Alpha
382 * KERNEL VER: 2.6.11.2
383 * kernel: configuring source
384 * kernel: running mrproper
385 <comment>(Output removed to increase readability)</comment>
386 * Kernel compiled successfully!
387 * Required Kernel Params:
388 * : root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc real_root=/dev/$ROOT
389 * where $ROOT is the devicenode for your root partition as
390 * you should have specified in /etc/fstab
391 *
392 * You MUST tell your bootloader to use the generated initrd
393 *
394 * Recommended Kernel Params:
395 * : vga=0x317 splash=verbose
396 *
397 * Do NOT report kernel bugs (configs included) as genkernel bugs.
398 * Make sure you have the latest genkernel before reporting bugs
399 *
400 * For more info see /usr/share/genkernel/README
401 </pre>
402
403 <p>
404 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
405 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
406 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
407 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
408 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
409 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD) before
410 your "real" system starts up.
411 </p>
412
413 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
414 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initrd*</i>
415 </pre>
416
417 <p>
418 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Installation CD -- let's emerge <c>coldplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects hardware that
419 is needed to boot your system, <c>coldplug</c> autodetects everything else.
420 To emerge and enable <c>coldplug</c>, type the following:
421 </p>
422
423 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling coldplug">
424 # <i>emerge coldplug</i>
425 # <i>rc-update add coldplug boot</i>
426 </pre>
427
428 <p>
429 If you want your system to react to hotplugging events, you would need to
430 install hotplug as well:
431 </p>
432
433 <pre caption="Emerging hotplug">
434 # <i>emerge hotplug</i>
435 </pre>
436
437 </body>
438 </section>
439 <section id="kernel_modules">
440 <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
441 <subsection>
442 <title>Installing Extra Modules</title>
443 <body>
444
445 <p>
446 If appropriate, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is
447 on your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
448 </p>
449
450 <table>
451 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
452 <tcolumn width="4in"/>
453 <tcolumn width="2in"/>
454 <tr>
455 <th>Ebuild</th>
456 <th>Purpose</th>
457 <th>Command</th>
458 </tr>
459 <tr>
460 <ti>x11-drm</ti>
461 <ti>
462 Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and
463 other cards for xorg-x11. Please check the <c>IUSE_VIDEO_CARDS</c> variable
464 in the <path>/usr/portage/x11-base/x11-drm</path> ebuilds to see what you
465 need to fill in as <c>yourcard</c>.
466 </ti>
467 <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge x11-drm</c></ti>
468 </tr>
469 </table>
470
471 <p>
472 Beware though, some of these ebuilds might deal with big dependencies. To verify
473 what packages will be installed by emerging an ebuild, use <c>emerge
474 --pretend</c>. For instance, for the <c>x11-drm</c> package:
475 </p>
476
477 <pre caption="View full installation package listing">
478 # <i>emerge --pretend x11-drm</i>
479 </pre>
480
481 </body>
482 </subsection>
483 <subsection>
484 <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
485 <body>
486
487 <p>
488 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
489 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path> (or <path>kernel-2.6</path>).
490 You can add extra options to the modules too if you want.
491 </p>
492
493 <p>
494 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
495 forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
496 just compiled:
497 </p>
498
499 <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
500 # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
501 </pre>
502
503 <p>
504 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
505 <path>kernel-2.4</path> or <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
506 name in it.
507 </p>
508
509 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4">
510 <comment>(Example for 2.4 kernels)</comment>
511 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</i>
512 </pre>
513
514 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4 or kernel-2.6">
515 3c59x
516 </pre>
517
518 <p>
519 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
520 your System</uri>.
521 </p>
522
523 </body>
524 </subsection>
525 </section>
526 </sections>

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