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#112802 USE="-doc" when emerging kernel sources to avoid dependencies (until the USE flags are described later in the handbook)
#110596 (PPC only) Add make defconfig before make menuconfig
#110038 cp time zone file instead of symlinking to it

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-kernel.xml,v 1.31 2005/10/06 19:50:33 jkt Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.10</version>
12 <date>2005-11-21</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Timezone</title>
16 <body>
17
18 <p>
19 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
21 it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
22 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
23 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact GMT+8.
24 </p>
25
26 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
27 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
28 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
29 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
30 </pre>
31
32 </body>
33 </section>
34 <section>
35 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
36 <subsection>
37 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
38 <body>
39
40 <p>
41 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
42 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
43 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
44 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
45 Guide</uri>.
46 </p>
47
48 <p>
49 For alpha-based systems we have <c>vanilla-sources</c> (the default 2.6 kernel source).
50 </p>
51
52 <p>
53 Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
54 </p>
55
56 <p>
57 In the next example we install the <c>vanilla-sources</c>.
58 Of course substitute with your choice of sources, this is merely an example.
59 The <c>USE="-doc"</c> is necessary to avoid installing xorg-x11 or other
60 dependencies at this point:
61 </p>
62
63 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
64 # <i>USE="-doc" emerge vanilla-sources</i>
65 </pre>
66
67 <p>
68 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
69 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source:
70 </p>
71
72 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
73 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
74 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.6.11.2
75 </pre>
76
77 <p>
78 If this isn't the case (i.e. the symlink points to a different kernel source)
79 change the symlink before you continue:
80 </p>
81
82 <pre caption="Changing the kernel source symlink">
83 # <i>rm /usr/src/linux</i>
84 # <i>cd /usr/src</i>
85 # <i>ln -s linux-2.6.11.2 linux</i>
86 </pre>
87
88 <p>
89 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You
90 can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
91 by the Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
92 the best way to optimize your environment.
93 </p>
94
95 <p>
96 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
97 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
98 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
99 genkernel</uri> instead.
100 </p>
101
102 </body>
103 </subsection>
104 </section>
105 <section id="manual">
106 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
107 <subsection>
108 <title>Introduction</title>
109 <body>
110
111 <p>
112 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
113 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
114 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
115 </p>
116
117 <p>
118 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
119 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
120 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
121 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
122 ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
123 /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
124 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
125 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
126 uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
127 </p>
128
129 <p>
130 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
131 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
132 </p>
133
134 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
135 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
136 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
137 </pre>
138
139 <p>
140 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
141 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
142 properly without additional tweaks).
143 </p>
144
145 </body>
146 </subsection>
147 <subsection>
148 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
149 <body>
150
151 <p>
152 First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
153 You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
154 </p>
155
156 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers, General setup">
157 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
158 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
159 General setup ---&gt;
160 [*] Support for hot-pluggable devices
161 </pre>
162
163 <p>
164 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
165 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
166 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
167 file system</c>. If you are using a 2.4 kernel, you should also select the
168 <c>/dev file system</c> and <c>Automatically mount at boot</c> options, and
169 you should make sure to <c>emerge devfsd</c>.
170 </p>
171
172 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
173 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
174 File systems ---&gt;
175 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
176 [*] /proc file system support
177 [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
178 [*] Automatically mount at boot
179 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
180
181 <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
182 File systems ---&gt;
183 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
184 [*] /proc file system support
185 [ ] /dev file system support (OBSOLETE)
186 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
187
188 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
189 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
190 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
191 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
192 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
193 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
194 </pre>
195
196 <p>
197 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
198 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
199 </p>
200
201 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
202 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
203 Network device support ---&gt;
204 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
205 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
206 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
207
208 <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
209 Device Drivers ---&gt;
210 Networking support ---&gt;
211 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
212 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
213 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
214 </pre>
215
216 <p>
217 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
218 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
219 <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
220 </p>
221
222 <p>
223 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
224 ethernet card.
225 </p>
226
227 <p>
228 The following options are recommended as well:
229 </p>
230
231 <pre caption="Recommended Alpha options">
232 General setup ---&gt;
233 &lt;*&gt; SRM environment through procfs
234 &lt;*&gt; Configure uac policy via sysctl
235
236 Plug and Play configuration ---&gt;
237 &lt;*&gt; Plug and Play support
238 &lt;M&gt; ISA Plug and Play support
239
240 SCSI support ---&gt;
241 SCSI low-level drivers ---&gt;
242 &lt;*&gt; SYM53C8XX Version 2 SCSI support (NEW)
243 &lt;*&gt; Qlogic ISP SCSI support
244
245 Network device support ---&gt;
246 Ethernet (10 or 100 Mbit) ---&gt;
247 &lt;M&gt; DECchip Tulip (dc21x4x) PCI support
248 &lt;M&gt; Generic DECchip &amp; DIGITAL EtherWORKS PCI/EISA
249 &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (eepro100)
250 &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (e100)
251 Ethernet (1000 Mbit) ---&gt;
252 &lt;M&gt; Alteon AceNIC
253 [*] Omit support for old Tigon I
254 &lt;M&gt; Broadcom Tigon3
255 [*] FDDI driver support
256 &lt;M&gt; Digital DEFEA and DEFPA
257 &lt;*&gt; PPP support
258 &lt;*&gt; PPP Deflate compression
259
260 Character devices ---&gt;
261 [*] Support for console on serial port
262 [*] Direct Rendering Manager
263
264 File systems ---&gt;
265 &lt;*&gt; Kernel automounter version 4 support
266 Network File Systems ---&gt;
267 &lt;*&gt; NFS
268 [*] NFSv3 client
269 &lt;*&gt; NFS server
270 [*] NFSv3 server
271 Partition Types ---&gt;
272 [*] Advanced partition selection
273 [*] Alpha OSF partition support
274 Native Language Support
275 &lt;*&gt; NLS ISO 8859-1
276
277 Sound ---&gt;
278 &lt;M&gt; Sound card support
279 &lt;M&gt; OSS sound modules
280 [*] Verbose initialisation
281 [*] Persistent DMA buffers
282 &lt;M&gt; 100% Sound Blaster compatibles
283 </pre>
284
285 <p>
286 When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
287 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
288 </p>
289
290 </body>
291 </subsection>
292 <subsection id="compiling">
293 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
294 <body>
295
296 <p>
297 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
298 the configuration and start the compilation process:
299 </p>
300
301 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
302 <comment>(For 2.4 kernel)</comment>
303 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules modules_install</i>
304
305 <comment>(For 2.6 kernel)</comment>
306 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
307
308 <comment>(For all kernels)</comment>
309 # <i>make boot</i>
310 </pre>
311
312 <p>
313 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
314 <path>/boot</path>. In the next example we assume you have configured and
315 compiled <c>vanilla-sources-2.6.11.2</c>; recent kernels might create
316 <path>vmlinux</path> instead of <path>vmlinux.gz</path>.
317 </p>
318
319 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
320 # <i>cp arch/alpha/boot/vmlinux.gz /boot/</i>
321 </pre>
322
323 <p>
324 It is also wise to copy over your kernel configuration file to
325 <path>/boot</path>, just in case :)
326 </p>
327
328 <pre caption="Backing up your kernel configuration">
329 # <i>cp .config /boot/config-2.6.11.2</i>
330 </pre>
331
332 <p>
333 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
334 Modules</uri>.
335 </p>
336
337 </body>
338 </subsection>
339 </section>
340 <section id="genkernel">
341 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
342 <body>
343
344 <p>
345 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
346 script to configure your kernel for you.
347 </p>
348
349 <p>
350 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
351 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
352 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
353 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
354 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
355 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because genkernel
356 doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for
357 those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
358 </p>
359
360 <p>
361 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
362 </p>
363
364 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
365 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
366 </pre>
367
368 <p>
369 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>.
370 Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
371 hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
372 </p>
373
374 <p>
375 Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
376 need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c>
377 and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a
378 module).
379 </p>
380
381 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
382 # <i>genkernel all</i>
383 GenKernel v3.0.1_beta10
384 * ARCH: Alpha
385 * KERNEL VER: 2.6.11.2
386 * kernel: configuring source
387 * kernel: running mrproper
388 <comment>(Output removed to increase readability)</comment>
389 * Kernel compiled successfully!
390 * Required Kernel Params:
391 * : root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc real_root=/dev/$ROOT
392 * where $ROOT is the devicenode for your root partition as
393 * you should have specified in /etc/fstab
394 *
395 * You MUST tell your bootloader to use the generated initrd
396 *
397 * Recommended Kernel Params:
398 * : vga=0x317 splash=verbose
399 *
400 * Do NOT report kernel bugs (configs included) as genkernel bugs.
401 * Make sure you have the latest genkernel before reporting bugs
402 *
403 * For more info see /usr/share/genkernel/README
404 </pre>
405
406 <p>
407 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
408 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
409 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
410 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
411 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
412 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD) before
413 your "real" system starts up.
414 </p>
415
416 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
417 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs-*</i>
418 </pre>
419
420 <p>
421 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Installation CD -- let's emerge <c>coldplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects hardware that
422 is needed to boot your system, <c>coldplug</c> autodetects everything else.
423 To emerge and enable <c>coldplug</c>, type the following:
424 </p>
425
426 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling coldplug">
427 # <i>emerge coldplug</i>
428 # <i>rc-update add coldplug boot</i>
429 </pre>
430
431 </body>
432 </section>
433 <section id="kernel_modules">
434 <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
435 <subsection>
436 <title>Installing Extra Modules</title>
437 <body>
438
439 <p>
440 If appropriate, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is
441 on your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
442 </p>
443
444 <table>
445 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
446 <tcolumn width="4in"/>
447 <tcolumn width="2in"/>
448 <tr>
449 <th>Ebuild</th>
450 <th>Purpose</th>
451 <th>Command</th>
452 </tr>
453 <tr>
454 <ti>x11-drm</ti>
455 <ti>
456 Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and
457 other cards for xorg-x11. Please check the <c>IUSE_VIDEO_CARDS</c> variable
458 in the <path>/usr/portage/x11-base/x11-drm</path> ebuilds to see what you
459 need to fill in as <c>yourcard</c>.
460 </ti>
461 <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge x11-drm</c></ti>
462 </tr>
463 </table>
464
465 <p>
466 Beware though, some of these ebuilds might deal with big dependencies. To verify
467 what packages will be installed by emerging an ebuild, use <c>emerge
468 --pretend</c>. For instance, for the <c>x11-drm</c> package:
469 </p>
470
471 <pre caption="View full installation package listing">
472 # <i>emerge --pretend x11-drm</i>
473 </pre>
474
475 </body>
476 </subsection>
477 <subsection>
478 <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
479 <body>
480
481 <p>
482 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
483 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path> (or <path>kernel-2.6</path>).
484 You can add extra options to the modules too if you want.
485 </p>
486
487 <p>
488 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
489 forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
490 just compiled:
491 </p>
492
493 <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
494 # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
495 </pre>
496
497 <p>
498 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
499 <path>kernel-2.4</path> or <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
500 name in it.
501 </p>
502
503 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4">
504 <comment>(Example for 2.4 kernels)</comment>
505 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</i>
506 </pre>
507
508 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4 or kernel-2.6">
509 3c59x
510 </pre>
511
512 <p>
513 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
514 your System</uri>.
515 </p>
516
517 </body>
518 </subsection>
519 </section>
520 </sections>

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