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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-kernel.xml,v 1.32 2005/11/21 15:37:12 neysx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.11</version>
12 <date>2006-01-06</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Timezone</title>
16 <body>
17
18 <p>
19 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
21 it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
22 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
23 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact GMT+8.
24 </p>
25
26 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
27 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
28 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
29 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
30 </pre>
31
32 </body>
33 </section>
34 <section>
35 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
36 <subsection>
37 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
38 <body>
39
40 <p>
41 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
42 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
43 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
44 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
45 Guide</uri>.
46 </p>
47
48 <p>
49 For alpha-based systems we have <c>vanilla-sources</c> (the default 2.6 kernel source).
50 </p>
51
52 <p>
53 Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
54 </p>
55
56 <p>
57 In the next example we install the <c>vanilla-sources</c>.
58 Of course substitute with your choice of sources, this is merely an example.
59 The <c>USE="-doc"</c> is necessary to avoid installing xorg-x11 or other
60 dependencies at this point. <c>USE="symlink"</c> is not necessary for a new
61 +install, but ensures proper creation of the <path>/usr/src/linux</path>
62 +symlink.
63 </p>
64
65 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
66 # <i>USE="-doc symlink" emerge vanilla-sources</i>
67 </pre>
68
69 <p>
70 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
71 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
72 kernel source points to <c>vanilla-sources-2.6.11.2</c>. Your version may be
73 different, so keep this in mind.
74 </p>
75
76 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
77 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
78 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.6.11.2
79 </pre>
80
81 <p>
82 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You
83 can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
84 by the Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
85 the best way to optimize your environment.
86 </p>
87
88 <p>
89 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
90 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
91 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
92 genkernel</uri> instead.
93 </p>
94
95 </body>
96 </subsection>
97 </section>
98 <section id="manual">
99 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
100 <subsection>
101 <title>Introduction</title>
102 <body>
103
104 <p>
105 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
106 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
107 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
108 </p>
109
110 <p>
111 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
112 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
113 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
114 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
115 ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
116 /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
117 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
118 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
119 uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
120 </p>
121
122 <p>
123 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
124 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
125 </p>
126
127 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
128 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
129 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
130 </pre>
131
132 <p>
133 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
134 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
135 properly without additional tweaks).
136 </p>
137
138 </body>
139 </subsection>
140 <subsection>
141 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
142 <body>
143
144 <p>
145 First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
146 You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
147 </p>
148
149 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers, General setup">
150 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
151 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
152 General setup ---&gt;
153 [*] Support for hot-pluggable devices
154 </pre>
155
156 <p>
157 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
158 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
159 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
160 file system</c>. If you are using a 2.4 kernel, you should also select the
161 <c>/dev file system</c> and <c>Automatically mount at boot</c> options, and
162 you should make sure to <c>emerge devfsd</c>.
163 </p>
164
165 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
166 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
167 File systems ---&gt;
168 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
169 [*] /proc file system support
170 [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
171 [*] Automatically mount at boot
172 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
173
174 <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
175 File systems ---&gt;
176 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
177 [*] /proc file system support
178 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
179
180 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
181 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
182 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
183 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
184 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
185 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
186 </pre>
187
188 <p>
189 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
190 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
191 </p>
192
193 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
194 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
195 Network device support ---&gt;
196 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
197 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
198 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
199
200 <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
201 Device Drivers ---&gt;
202 Networking support ---&gt;
203 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
204 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
205 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
206 </pre>
207
208 <p>
209 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
210 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
211 <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
212 </p>
213
214 <p>
215 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
216 ethernet card.
217 </p>
218
219 <p>
220 The following options are recommended as well:
221 </p>
222
223 <pre caption="Recommended Alpha options">
224 General setup ---&gt;
225 &lt;*&gt; SRM environment through procfs
226 &lt;*&gt; Configure uac policy via sysctl
227
228 Plug and Play configuration ---&gt;
229 &lt;*&gt; Plug and Play support
230 &lt;M&gt; ISA Plug and Play support
231
232 SCSI support ---&gt;
233 SCSI low-level drivers ---&gt;
234 &lt;*&gt; SYM53C8XX Version 2 SCSI support (NEW)
235 &lt;*&gt; Qlogic ISP SCSI support
236
237 Network device support ---&gt;
238 Ethernet (10 or 100 Mbit) ---&gt;
239 &lt;M&gt; DECchip Tulip (dc21x4x) PCI support
240 &lt;M&gt; Generic DECchip &amp; DIGITAL EtherWORKS PCI/EISA
241 &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (eepro100)
242 &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (e100)
243 Ethernet (1000 Mbit) ---&gt;
244 &lt;M&gt; Alteon AceNIC
245 [*] Omit support for old Tigon I
246 &lt;M&gt; Broadcom Tigon3
247 [*] FDDI driver support
248 &lt;M&gt; Digital DEFEA and DEFPA
249 &lt;*&gt; PPP support
250 &lt;*&gt; PPP Deflate compression
251
252 Character devices ---&gt;
253 [*] Support for console on serial port
254 [*] Direct Rendering Manager
255
256 File systems ---&gt;
257 &lt;*&gt; Kernel automounter version 4 support
258 Network File Systems ---&gt;
259 &lt;*&gt; NFS
260 [*] NFSv3 client
261 &lt;*&gt; NFS server
262 [*] NFSv3 server
263 Partition Types ---&gt;
264 [*] Advanced partition selection
265 [*] Alpha OSF partition support
266 Native Language Support
267 &lt;*&gt; NLS ISO 8859-1
268
269 Sound ---&gt;
270 &lt;M&gt; Sound card support
271 &lt;M&gt; OSS sound modules
272 [*] Verbose initialisation
273 [*] Persistent DMA buffers
274 &lt;M&gt; 100% Sound Blaster compatibles
275 </pre>
276
277 <p>
278 When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
279 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
280 </p>
281
282 </body>
283 </subsection>
284 <subsection id="compiling">
285 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
286 <body>
287
288 <p>
289 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
290 the configuration and start the compilation process:
291 </p>
292
293 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
294 <comment>(For 2.4 kernel)</comment>
295 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules modules_install</i>
296
297 <comment>(For 2.6 kernel)</comment>
298 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
299
300 <comment>(For all kernels)</comment>
301 # <i>make boot</i>
302 </pre>
303
304 <p>
305 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
306 <path>/boot</path>. Recent kernels might create <path>vmlinux</path> instead of
307 <path>vmlinux.gz</path>. Keep this in mind when you copy your kernel image.
308 </p>
309
310 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
311 # <i>cp arch/alpha/boot/vmlinux.gz /boot/</i>
312 </pre>
313
314 <p>
315 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
316 Modules</uri>.
317 </p>
318
319 </body>
320 </subsection>
321 </section>
322 <section id="genkernel">
323 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
324 <body>
325
326 <p>
327 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
328 script to configure your kernel for you.
329 </p>
330
331 <p>
332 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
333 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
334 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
335 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
336 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
337 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because genkernel
338 doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for
339 those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
340 </p>
341
342 <p>
343 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
344 </p>
345
346 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
347 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
348 </pre>
349
350 <p>
351 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>.
352 Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
353 hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
354 </p>
355
356 <p>
357 Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
358 need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c>
359 and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a
360 module).
361 </p>
362
363 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
364 # <i>genkernel all</i>
365 GenKernel v3.0.1_beta10
366 * ARCH: Alpha
367 * KERNEL VER: 2.6.11.2
368 * kernel: configuring source
369 * kernel: running mrproper
370 <comment>(Output removed to increase readability)</comment>
371 * Kernel compiled successfully!
372 * Required Kernel Params:
373 * : root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc real_root=/dev/$ROOT
374 * where $ROOT is the devicenode for your root partition as
375 * you should have specified in /etc/fstab
376 *
377 * You MUST tell your bootloader to use the generated initrd
378 *
379 * Recommended Kernel Params:
380 * : vga=0x317 splash=verbose
381 *
382 * Do NOT report kernel bugs (configs included) as genkernel bugs.
383 * Make sure you have the latest genkernel before reporting bugs
384 *
385 * For more info see /usr/share/genkernel/README
386 </pre>
387
388 <p>
389 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
390 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
391 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
392 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
393 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
394 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD) before
395 your "real" system starts up.
396 </p>
397
398 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
399 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs-*</i>
400 </pre>
401
402 <p>
403 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Installation CD -- let's emerge <c>coldplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects hardware that
404 is needed to boot your system, <c>coldplug</c> autodetects everything else.
405 To emerge and enable <c>coldplug</c>, type the following:
406 </p>
407
408 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling coldplug">
409 # <i>emerge coldplug</i>
410 # <i>rc-update add coldplug boot</i>
411 </pre>
412
413 </body>
414 </section>
415 <section id="kernel_modules">
416 <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
417 <subsection>
418 <title>Installing Extra Modules</title>
419 <body>
420
421 <p>
422 If appropriate, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is
423 on your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
424 </p>
425
426 <table>
427 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
428 <tcolumn width="4in"/>
429 <tcolumn width="2in"/>
430 <tr>
431 <th>Ebuild</th>
432 <th>Purpose</th>
433 <th>Command</th>
434 </tr>
435 <tr>
436 <ti>x11-drm</ti>
437 <ti>
438 Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and
439 other cards for xorg-x11. Please check the <c>IUSE_VIDEO_CARDS</c> variable
440 in the <path>/usr/portage/x11-base/x11-drm</path> ebuilds to see what you
441 need to fill in as <c>yourcard</c>.
442 </ti>
443 <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge x11-drm</c></ti>
444 </tr>
445 </table>
446
447 <p>
448 Beware though, some of these ebuilds might deal with big dependencies. To verify
449 what packages will be installed by emerging an ebuild, use <c>emerge
450 --pretend</c>. For instance, for the <c>x11-drm</c> package:
451 </p>
452
453 <pre caption="View full installation package listing">
454 # <i>emerge --pretend x11-drm</i>
455 </pre>
456
457 </body>
458 </subsection>
459 <subsection>
460 <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
461 <body>
462
463 <p>
464 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
465 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path> (or <path>kernel-2.6</path>).
466 You can add extra options to the modules too if you want.
467 </p>
468
469 <p>
470 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
471 forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
472 just compiled:
473 </p>
474
475 <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
476 # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
477 </pre>
478
479 <p>
480 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
481 <path>kernel-2.4</path> or <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
482 name in it.
483 </p>
484
485 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4">
486 <comment>(Example for 2.4 kernels)</comment>
487 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</i>
488 </pre>
489
490 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4 or kernel-2.6">
491 3c59x
492 </pre>
493
494 <p>
495 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
496 your System</uri>.
497 </p>
498
499 </body>
500 </subsection>
501 </section>
502 </sections>

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