/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-kernel.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-kernel.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.36 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Mon Feb 26 08:54:53 2007 UTC (7 years, 4 months ago) by nightmorph
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.35: +6 -10 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
removed USE=symlink by request of dsd as part of the USE flag removal from all kernel sources, bug 167703. also further vanilla-sources removals as it's unsupported.

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-kernel.xml,v 1.35 2006/12/06 19:59:09 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>7.2</version>
12 <date>2007-02-26</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Timezone</title>
16 <body>
17
18 <p>
19 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
21 it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
22 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
23 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact GMT+8.
24 </p>
25
26 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
27 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
28 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
29 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
30 </pre>
31
32 </body>
33 </section>
34 <section>
35 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
36 <subsection>
37 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
38 <body>
39
40 <p>
41 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
42 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
43 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
44 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
45 Guide</uri>.
46 </p>
47
48 <p>
49 For alpha-based systems we have <c>vanilla-sources</c> (the default 2.6 kernel source).
50 </p>
51
52 <p>
53 Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
54 </p>
55
56 <p>
57 In the next example we install <c>vanilla-sources</c>. Of course substitute with
58 your choice of sources, this is merely an example.
59 </p>
60
61 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
62 # <i>emerge vanilla-sources</i>
63 </pre>
64
65 <p>
66 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
67 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
68 kernel source points to <c>vanilla-sources-2.6.16.19</c>. Your version may be
69 different, so keep this in mind.
70 </p>
71
72 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
73 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
74 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.6.16.19
75 </pre>
76
77 <p>
78 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You
79 can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
80 by the Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
81 the best way to optimize your environment.
82 </p>
83
84 <p>
85 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
86 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
87 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
88 genkernel</uri> instead.
89 </p>
90
91 </body>
92 </subsection>
93 </section>
94 <section id="manual">
95 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
96 <subsection>
97 <title>Introduction</title>
98 <body>
99
100 <p>
101 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
102 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
103 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
104 </p>
105
106 <p>
107 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
108 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
109 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
110 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
111 ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
112 /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
113 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
114 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
115 uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
116 </p>
117
118 <p>
119 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
120 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
121 </p>
122
123 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
124 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
125 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
126 </pre>
127
128 <p>
129 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
130 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
131 properly without additional tweaks).
132 </p>
133
134 </body>
135 </subsection>
136 <subsection>
137 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
138 <body>
139
140 <p>
141 First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
142 You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
143 </p>
144
145 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers, General setup">
146 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
147 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
148 General setup ---&gt;
149 [*] Support for hot-pluggable devices
150 </pre>
151
152 <p>
153 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
154 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
155 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
156 file system</c>. If you are using a 2.4 kernel, you should also select the
157 <c>/dev file system</c> and <c>Automatically mount at boot</c> options, and
158 you should make sure to <c>emerge devfsd</c>.
159 </p>
160
161 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
162 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
163 File systems ---&gt;
164 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
165 [*] /proc file system support
166 [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
167 [*] Automatically mount at boot
168 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
169
170 <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
171 File systems ---&gt;
172 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
173 [*] /proc file system support
174 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
175
176 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
177 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
178 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
179 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
180 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
181 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
182 </pre>
183
184 <p>
185 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
186 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
187 </p>
188
189 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
190 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
191 Network device support ---&gt;
192 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
193 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
194 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
195
196 <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
197 Device Drivers ---&gt;
198 Networking support ---&gt;
199 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
200 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
201 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
202 </pre>
203
204 <p>
205 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
206 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
207 <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
208 </p>
209
210 <p>
211 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
212 ethernet card.
213 </p>
214
215 <p>
216 The following options are recommended as well:
217 </p>
218
219 <pre caption="Recommended Alpha options">
220 General setup ---&gt;
221 &lt;*&gt; SRM environment through procfs
222 &lt;*&gt; Configure uac policy via sysctl
223
224 Plug and Play configuration ---&gt;
225 &lt;*&gt; Plug and Play support
226 &lt;M&gt; ISA Plug and Play support
227
228 SCSI support ---&gt;
229 SCSI low-level drivers ---&gt;
230 &lt;*&gt; SYM53C8XX Version 2 SCSI support (NEW)
231 &lt;*&gt; Qlogic ISP SCSI support
232
233 Network device support ---&gt;
234 Ethernet (10 or 100 Mbit) ---&gt;
235 &lt;M&gt; DECchip Tulip (dc21x4x) PCI support
236 &lt;M&gt; Generic DECchip &amp; DIGITAL EtherWORKS PCI/EISA
237 &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (eepro100)
238 &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (e100)
239 Ethernet (1000 Mbit) ---&gt;
240 &lt;M&gt; Alteon AceNIC
241 [*] Omit support for old Tigon I
242 &lt;M&gt; Broadcom Tigon3
243 [*] FDDI driver support
244 &lt;M&gt; Digital DEFEA and DEFPA
245 &lt;*&gt; PPP support
246 &lt;*&gt; PPP Deflate compression
247
248 Character devices ---&gt;
249 [*] Support for console on serial port
250 [*] Direct Rendering Manager
251
252 File systems ---&gt;
253 &lt;*&gt; Kernel automounter version 4 support
254 Network File Systems ---&gt;
255 &lt;*&gt; NFS
256 [*] NFSv3 client
257 &lt;*&gt; NFS server
258 [*] NFSv3 server
259 Partition Types ---&gt;
260 [*] Advanced partition selection
261 [*] Alpha OSF partition support
262 Native Language Support
263 &lt;*&gt; NLS ISO 8859-1
264
265 Sound ---&gt;
266 &lt;M&gt; Sound card support
267 &lt;M&gt; OSS sound modules
268 [*] Verbose initialisation
269 [*] Persistent DMA buffers
270 &lt;M&gt; 100% Sound Blaster compatibles
271 </pre>
272
273 <p>
274 When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
275 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
276 </p>
277
278 </body>
279 </subsection>
280 <subsection id="compiling">
281 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
282 <body>
283
284 <p>
285 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
286 the configuration and start the compilation process:
287 </p>
288
289 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
290 <comment>(For 2.4 kernel)</comment>
291 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules modules_install</i>
292
293 <comment>(For 2.6 kernel)</comment>
294 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
295
296 <comment>(For all kernels)</comment>
297 # <i>make boot</i>
298 </pre>
299
300 <p>
301 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
302 <path>/boot</path>. Recent kernels might create <path>vmlinux</path> instead of
303 <path>vmlinux.gz</path>. Keep this in mind when you copy your kernel image.
304 </p>
305
306 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
307 # <i>cp arch/alpha/boot/vmlinux.gz /boot/</i>
308 </pre>
309
310 <p>
311 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
312 Modules</uri>.
313 </p>
314
315 </body>
316 </subsection>
317 </section>
318 <section id="genkernel">
319 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
320 <body>
321
322 <p>
323 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
324 script to configure your kernel for you.
325 </p>
326
327 <p>
328 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
329 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
330 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
331 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
332 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
333 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because genkernel
334 doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for
335 those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
336 </p>
337
338 <p>
339 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
340 </p>
341
342 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
343 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
344 </pre>
345
346 <p>
347 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>.
348 Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
349 hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
350 </p>
351
352 <p>
353 Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
354 need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c>
355 and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a
356 module).
357 </p>
358
359 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
360 # <i>genkernel all</i>
361 * Gentoo Linux Genkernel; Version 3.4.0
362 * Running with options: all
363
364 * Linux Kernel 2.6.16.19 for alpha...
365 * kernel: >> Running mrproper...
366 <comment>(Output removed to increase readability)</comment>
367 * Kernel compiled successfully!
368 *
369 * Required Kernel Parameters:
370 * real_root=/dev/$ROOT
371 *
372 * Where $ROOT is the device node for your root partition as the
373 * one specified in /etc/fstab
374 *
375 * If you require Genkernel's hardware detection features; you MUST
376 * tell your bootloader to use the provided INITRAMFS file. Otherwise;
377 * substitute the root argument for the real_root argument if you are
378 * not planning to use the initrd...
379
380 * WARNING... WARNING... WARNING...
381 * Additional kernel cmdline arguments that *may* be required to boot properly...
382 * Do NOT report kernel bugs as genkernel bugs unless your bug
383 * is about the default genkernel configuration...
384 *
385 * Make sure you have the latest genkernel before reporting bugs.
386 </pre>
387
388 <p>
389 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
390 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
391 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
392 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
393 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
394 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD) before
395 your "real" system starts up.
396 </p>
397
398 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
399 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs-*</i>
400 </pre>
401
402 <p>
403 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the
404 Installation CD -- let's emerge <c>coldplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects
405 hardware that is needed to boot your system, <c>coldplug</c> autodetects
406 everything else. To emerge and enable <c>coldplug</c>, type the following:
407 </p>
408
409 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling coldplug">
410 # <i>emerge coldplug</i>
411 # <i>rc-update add coldplug boot</i>
412 </pre>
413
414 <note>
415 You no longer need to emerge <c>coldplug</c> if you're using <c>udev</c> version
416 103 and higher. If you receive a message that <c>udev</c> blocks <c>coldplug</c>
417 from being installed, then you don't need to install <c>coldplug</c>.
418 </note>
419
420 </body>
421 </section>
422 <section id="kernel_modules">
423 <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
424 <subsection>
425 <title>Installing Extra Modules</title>
426 <body>
427
428 <p>
429 If appropriate, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is
430 on your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
431 </p>
432
433 <table>
434 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
435 <tcolumn width="4in"/>
436 <tcolumn width="2in"/>
437 <tr>
438 <th>Ebuild</th>
439 <th>Purpose</th>
440 <th>Command</th>
441 </tr>
442 <tr>
443 <ti>x11-drm</ti>
444 <ti>
445 Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and
446 other cards for xorg-x11. Please check the <c>IUSE_VIDEO_CARDS</c> variable
447 in the <path>/usr/portage/x11-base/x11-drm</path> ebuilds to see what you
448 need to fill in as <c>yourcard</c>.
449 </ti>
450 <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge x11-drm</c></ti>
451 </tr>
452 </table>
453
454 <p>
455 Beware though, some of these ebuilds might deal with big dependencies. To verify
456 what packages will be installed by emerging an ebuild, use <c>emerge
457 --pretend</c>. For instance, for the <c>x11-drm</c> package:
458 </p>
459
460 <pre caption="View full installation package listing">
461 # <i>emerge --pretend x11-drm</i>
462 </pre>
463
464 </body>
465 </subsection>
466 <subsection>
467 <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
468 <body>
469
470 <p>
471 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
472 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path> (or <path>kernel-2.6</path>).
473 You can add extra options to the modules too if you want.
474 </p>
475
476 <p>
477 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
478 forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
479 just compiled:
480 </p>
481
482 <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
483 # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
484 </pre>
485
486 <p>
487 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
488 <path>kernel-2.4</path> or <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
489 name in it.
490 </p>
491
492 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4">
493 <comment>(Example for 2.4 kernels)</comment>
494 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</i>
495 </pre>
496
497 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4 or kernel-2.6">
498 3c59x
499 </pre>
500
501 <p>
502 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
503 your System</uri>.
504 </p>
505
506 </body>
507 </subsection>
508 </section>
509 </sections>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20