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#56065: make kernel options easier to find in 2.4 & 2.6 kernels

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-kernel.xml,v 1.3 2004/05/09 11:33:37 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Timezone</title>
12 <body>
13
14 <p>
15 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
16 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
17 symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
18 </p>
19
20 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
21 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
22 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
23 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
24 </pre>
25
26 </body>
27 </section>
28 <section>
29 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
30 <subsection>
31 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
36 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
37 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
38 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
39 Guide</uri>.
40 </p>
41
42 <p>
43 For alpha-based systems we have <c>vanilla-sources</c> (the default kernel
44 source as developed by the linux-kernel developers), <c>alpha-sources</c>
45 (kernel source optimized for alpha users) and <c>compaq-sources</c> (kernel
46 source as used by RedHat for Alpha, maintained by Compaq).
47 </p>
48
49 <p>
50 Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
51 </p>
52
53 <p>
54 In the next example we install the <c>vanilla-sources</c>.
55 Of course substitute with your choice of sources, this is merely an example:
56 </p>
57
58 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
59 # <i>emerge vanilla-sources</i>
60 </pre>
61
62 <p>
63 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
64 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source:
65 </p>
66
67 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
68 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
69 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.4.24
70 </pre>
71
72 <p>
73 If this isn't the case (i.e. the symlink points to a different kernel source)
74 change the symlink before you continue:
75 </p>
76
77 <pre caption="Changing the kernel source symlink">
78 # <i>rm /usr/src/linux</i>
79 # <i>cd /usr/src</i>
80 # <i>ln -s linux-2.4.24 linux</i>
81 </pre>
82
83 <p>
84 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You
85 can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
86 by the LiveCD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
87 the best way to optimize your environment.
88 </p>
89
90 <p>
91 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
92 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
93 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
94 genkernel</uri> instead.
95 </p>
96
97 </body>
98 </subsection>
99 </section>
100 <section id="manual">
101 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
102 <subsection>
103 <title>Introduction</title>
104 <body>
105
106 <p>
107 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult course every
108 Linux users ever has to go through. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
109 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
110 </p>
111
112 <p>
113 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
114 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by viewing the
115 contents of <path>/proc/pci</path> (or by using <c>lspci</c> if available). You
116 can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the LiveCD uses (it might
117 provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
118 </p>
119
120 <p>
121 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
122 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
123 </p>
124
125 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
126 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
127 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
128 </pre>
129
130 <p>
131 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
132 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
133 properly without additional tweaks).
134 </p>
135
136 </body>
137 </subsection>
138 <subsection>
139 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
140 <body>
141
142 <p>
143 First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
144 You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
145 </p>
146
147 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
148 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
149 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
150 </pre>
151
152 <p>
153 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
154 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
155 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c>, <c>/proc
156 file system</c>, <c>/dev file system</c> + <c>Automatically mount at boot</c>:
157 </p>
158
159 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
160 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
161 File systems ---&gt;
162 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
163 [*] /proc file system support
164 [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
165 [*] Automatically mount at boot
166 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
167
168 <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
169 File systems ---&gt;
170 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
171 [*] /proc file system support
172 [*] /dev file system support (OBSOLETE)
173 [*] Automatically mount at boot
174 [*] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
175 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
176
177 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
178 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
179 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
180 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
181 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
182 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
183 </pre>
184
185 <p>
186 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
187 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
188 </p>
189
190 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
191 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
192 Network device support ---&gt;
193 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
194 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
195 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
196
197 <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
198 Device Drivers ---&gt;
199 Networking support ---&gt;
200 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
201 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
202 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
203 </pre>
204
205 <p>
206 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
207 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
208 <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
209 </p>
210
211 <p>
212 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
213 ethernet card.
214 </p>
215
216 <p>
217 The following Alpha-specific options are recommended as well:
218 </p>
219
220 <pre caption="Alpha-specific options">
221 General setup ---&gt;
222 &lt;*&gt; SRM environment through procfs
223 &lt;*&gt; Configure uac policy via sysctl
224
225 Plug and Play configuration ---&gt;
226 &lt;*&gt; Plug and Play support
227 &lt;M&gt; ISA Plug and Play support
228
229 SCSI support ---&gt;
230 SCSI low-level drivers ---&gt;
231 &lt;*&gt; SYM53C8XX Version 2 SCSI support (NEW)
232 &lt;*&gt; Qlogic ISP SCSI support
233
234 Network device support ---&gt;
235 Ethernet (10 or 100 Mbit) ---&gt;
236 &lt;M&gt; DECchip Tulip (dc21x4x) PCI support
237 &lt;M&gt; Generic DECchip &amp; DIGITAL EtherWORKS PCI/EISA
238 &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (eepro100)
239 &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (e100)
240 Ethernet (1000 Mbit) ---&gt;
241 &lt;M&gt; Alteon AceNIC
242 [*] Omit support for old Tigon I
243 &lt;M&gt; Broadcom Tigon3
244 [*] FDDI driver support
245 &lt;M&gt; Digital DEFEA and DEFPA
246 &lt;*&gt; PPP support
247 &lt;*&gt; PPP Deflate compression
248
249 Character devices ---&gt;
250 [*] Support for console on serial port
251 [*] Direct Rendering Manager
252
253 File systems ---&gt;
254 &lt;*&gt; Kernel automounter version 4 support
255 Network File Systems ---&gt;
256 &lt;*&gt; NFS
257 [*] NFSv3 client
258 &lt;*&gt; NFS server
259 [*] NFSv3 server
260 Partition Types ---&gt;
261 [*] Advanced partition selection
262 [*] Alpha OSF partition support
263 Native Language Support
264 &lt;*&gt; NLS ISO 8859-1
265
266 Sound ---&gt;
267 &lt;M&gt; Sound card support
268 &lt;M&gt; OSS sound modules
269 [*] Verbose initialisation
270 [*] Persistent DMA buffers
271 &lt;M&gt; 100% Sound Blaster compatibles
272 </pre>
273
274 <p>
275 When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
276 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
277 </p>
278
279 </body>
280 </subsection>
281 <subsection id="compiling">
282 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
283 <body>
284
285 <p>
286 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
287 the configuration and run <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules
288 modules_install</c>:
289 </p>
290
291 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
292 <comment>(For 2.4 kernel)</comment>
293 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules modules_install</i>
294
295 <comment>(For 2.6 kernel)</comment>
296 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
297 </pre>
298
299 <p>
300 When the kernel is done compiling, copy over the kernel image to
301 <path>/boot</path>. In the next example we assume you have configured and
302 compiled <c>vanilla-sources-2.4.24</c>:
303 </p>
304
305 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
306 # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/kernel-2.4.24</i>
307 # <i>cp System.map /boot/System.map-2.4.24</i>
308 </pre>
309
310 <p>
311 It is also wise to copy over your kernel configuration file to
312 <path>/boot</path>, just in case :)
313 </p>
314
315 <pre caption="Backing up your kernel configuration">
316 # <i>cp .config /boot/config-2.4.24</i>
317 </pre>
318
319 <p>
320 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
321 Modules</uri>.
322 </p>
323
324 </body>
325 </subsection>
326 </section>
327 <section id="genkernel">
328 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
329 <body>
330
331 <p>
332 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
333 script to configure your kernel for you.
334 </p>
335
336 <p>
337 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
338 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
339 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
340 way our LiveCD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
341 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
342 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Live CD does. Because genkernel
343 doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for
344 those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
345 </p>
346
347 <p>
348 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
349 </p>
350
351 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
352 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
353 </pre>
354
355 <p>
356 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>.
357 Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
358 hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
359 </p>
360
361 <p>
362 Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
363 need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c>
364 and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a
365 module).
366 </p>
367
368 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
369 # <i>genkernel all</i>
370 GenKernel v3.0.1_beta10
371 * ARCH: Alpha
372 * KERNEL VER: 2.4.24
373 * kernel: configuring source
374 * kernel: running mrproper
375 <comment>(Output removed to increase readability)</comment>
376 * Kernel compiled successfully!
377 * Required Kernel Params:
378 * : root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc real_root=/dev/$ROOT
379 * where $ROOT is the devicenode for your root partition as
380 * you should have specified in /etc/fstab
381 *
382 * You MUST tell your bootloader to use the generated initrd
383 *
384 * Recommended Kernel Params:
385 * : vga=0x317 splash=verbose
386 *
387 * Do NOT report kernel bugs (configs included) as genkernel bugs.
388 * Make sure you have the latest genkernel before reporting bugs
389 *
390 * For more info see /usr/share/genkernel/README
391 </pre>
392
393 <p>
394 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
395 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
396 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
397 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
398 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
399 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Live CD) before
400 your "real" system starts up.
401 </p>
402
403 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
404 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initrd*</i>
405 </pre>
406
407 <p>
408 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Live
409 CD -- let's emerge <c>hotplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects hardware that
410 is needed to boot your system, <c>hotplug</c> autodetects everything else.
411 To emerge and enable <c>hotplug</c>, type the following:
412 </p>
413
414 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
415 # <i>emerge hotplug</i>
416 # <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
417 </pre>
418
419 </body>
420 </section>
421 <section id="kernel_modules">
422 <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
423 <subsection>
424 <title>Installing Extra Modules</title>
425 <body>
426
427 <p>
428 If appropriate, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is
429 on your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
430 </p>
431
432 <table>
433 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
434 <tcolumn width="4in"/>
435 <tcolumn width="2in"/>
436 <tr>
437 <th>Ebuild</th>
438 <th>Purpose</th>
439 <th>Command</th>
440 </tr>
441 <tr>
442 <ti>xfree-drm</ti>
443 <ti>
444 Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and
445 other cards for XFree86. Please check the <c>IUSE_VIDEO_CARDS</c> variable
446 in the <path>/usr/portage/x11-base/xfree-drm</path> ebuilds to see what you
447 need to fill in as <c>yourcard</c>.
448 </ti>
449 <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti>
450 </tr>
451 </table>
452
453 <p>
454 Beware though, some of these ebuilds might deal with big dependencies. To verify
455 what packages will be installed by emerging an ebuild, use <c>emerge
456 --pretend</c>. For instance, for the <c>xfree-drm</c> package:
457 </p>
458
459 <pre caption="View full installation package listing">
460 # <i>emerge --pretend xfree-drm</i>
461 </pre>
462
463 </body>
464 </subsection>
465 <subsection>
466 <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
467 <body>
468
469 <p>
470 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
471 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path> (or <path>kernel-2.6</path>).
472 You can add extra options to the modules too if you want.
473 </p>
474
475 <p>
476 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
477 forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
478 just compiled:
479 </p>
480
481 <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
482 # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
483 </pre>
484
485 <p>
486 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
487 <path>kernel-2.4</path> or <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
488 name in it.
489 </p>
490
491 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4">
492 <comment>(Example for 2.4 kernels)</comment>
493 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</i>
494 </pre>
495
496 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4 or kernel-2.6">
497 3c59x
498 </pre>
499
500 <p>
501 Now run <c>modules-update</c> to commit your changes to the
502 <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file:
503 </p>
504
505 <pre caption="Running modules-update">
506 # <i>modules-update</i>
507 </pre>
508
509 <p>
510 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
511 your System</uri>.
512 </p>
513
514 </body>
515 </subsection>
516 </section>
517 </sections>

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