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Revision 1.40 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Sun May 20 04:16:25 2007 UTC (7 years, 1 month ago) by nightmorph
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.39: +14 -3 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
for safety's sake, needed to move the conf.d/clock TIMEZONE edit to immediately before compiling a kernel. users still run into the warning message if it's left at the end, before rebooting. fixes http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-560322.html and other reports.

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-kernel.xml,v 1.39 2007/05/15 13:07:41 neysx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>8.2</version>
12 <date>2007-05-19</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Timezone</title>
16 <body>
17
18 <p>
19 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
21 it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
22 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
23 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
24 GMT+8.
25 </p>
26
27 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
28 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
29 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
30 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
31 </pre>
32
33 <p>
34 Next, define the timezone you just used in <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> so
35 that further upgrades of the <c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update
36 <path>/etc/localtime</path> automatically.
37 </p>
38
39 <pre caption="Setting the TIMEZONE variable in /etc/conf.d/clock">
40 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
41 TIMEZONE="GMT"
42 </pre>
43
44 </body>
45 </section>
46 <section>
47 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
48 <subsection>
49 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
50 <body>
51
52 <p>
53 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
54 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
55 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
56 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
57 Guide</uri>.
58 </p>
59
60 <p>
61 For alpha-based systems we have <c>gentoo-sources</c> (the default 2.6 kernel
62 source).
63 </p>
64
65 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
66 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
67 </pre>
68
69 <p>
70 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
71 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
72 kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
73 Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
74 </p>
75
76 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
77 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
78 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
79 </pre>
80
81 <p>
82 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
83 <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
84 Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
85 the best way to optimize your environment.
86 </p>
87
88 <p>
89 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
90 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
91 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
92 genkernel</uri> instead.
93 </p>
94
95 </body>
96 </subsection>
97 </section>
98 <section id="manual">
99 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
100 <subsection>
101 <title>Introduction</title>
102 <body>
103
104 <p>
105 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
106 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
107 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
108 </p>
109
110 <p>
111 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
112 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
113 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
114 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
115 ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
116 /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
117 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
118 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
119 uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
120 </p>
121
122 <p>
123 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
124 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
125 </p>
126
127 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
128 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
129 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
130 </pre>
131
132 <p>
133 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
134 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
135 properly without additional tweaks).
136 </p>
137
138 </body>
139 </subsection>
140 <subsection>
141 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
142 <body>
143
144 <p>
145 First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
146 You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
147 </p>
148
149 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers, General setup">
150 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
151 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
152 General setup ---&gt;
153 [*] Support for hot-pluggable devices
154 </pre>
155
156 <p>
157 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
158 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
159 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
160 file system</c>.
161 </p>
162
163 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
164 File systems ---&gt;
165 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
166 [*] /proc file system support
167 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
168
169 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
170 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
171 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
172 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
173 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
174 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
175 </pre>
176
177 <p>
178 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
179 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
180 </p>
181
182 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
183 Device Drivers ---&gt;
184 Networking support ---&gt;
185 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
186 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
187 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
188 </pre>
189
190 <p>
191 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
192 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by <c>ppp</c>
193 when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
194 </p>
195
196 <p>
197 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
198 ethernet card.
199 </p>
200
201 <p>
202 The following options are recommended as well:
203 </p>
204
205 <pre caption="Recommended Alpha options">
206 General setup ---&gt;
207 &lt;*&gt; SRM environment through procfs
208 &lt;*&gt; Configure uac policy via sysctl
209
210 Plug and Play configuration ---&gt;
211 &lt;*&gt; Plug and Play support
212 &lt;M&gt; ISA Plug and Play support
213
214 SCSI support ---&gt;
215 SCSI low-level drivers ---&gt;
216 &lt;*&gt; SYM53C8XX Version 2 SCSI support (NEW)
217 &lt;*&gt; Qlogic ISP SCSI support
218
219 Network device support ---&gt;
220 Ethernet (10 or 100 Mbit) ---&gt;
221 &lt;M&gt; DECchip Tulip (dc21x4x) PCI support
222 &lt;M&gt; Generic DECchip &amp; DIGITAL EtherWORKS PCI/EISA
223 &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (eepro100)
224 &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (e100)
225 Ethernet (1000 Mbit) ---&gt;
226 &lt;M&gt; Alteon AceNIC
227 [*] Omit support for old Tigon I
228 &lt;M&gt; Broadcom Tigon3
229 [*] FDDI driver support
230 &lt;M&gt; Digital DEFEA and DEFPA
231 &lt;*&gt; PPP support
232 &lt;*&gt; PPP Deflate compression
233
234 Character devices ---&gt;
235 [*] Support for console on serial port
236 [*] Direct Rendering Manager
237
238 File systems ---&gt;
239 &lt;*&gt; Kernel automounter version 4 support
240 Network File Systems ---&gt;
241 &lt;*&gt; NFS
242 [*] NFSv3 client
243 &lt;*&gt; NFS server
244 [*] NFSv3 server
245 Partition Types ---&gt;
246 [*] Advanced partition selection
247 [*] Alpha OSF partition support
248 Native Language Support
249 &lt;*&gt; NLS ISO 8859-1
250
251 Sound ---&gt;
252 &lt;M&gt; Sound card support
253 &lt;M&gt; OSS sound modules
254 [*] Verbose initialisation
255 [*] Persistent DMA buffers
256 &lt;M&gt; 100% Sound Blaster compatibles
257 </pre>
258
259 <p>
260 When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
261 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
262 </p>
263
264 </body>
265 </subsection>
266 <subsection id="compiling">
267 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
268 <body>
269
270 <p>
271 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
272 the configuration and start the compilation process:
273 </p>
274
275 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
276 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
277 # <i>make boot</i>
278 </pre>
279
280 <p>
281 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
282 <path>/boot</path>. Recent kernels might create <path>vmlinux</path> instead of
283 <path>vmlinux.gz</path>. Keep this in mind when you copy your kernel image.
284 </p>
285
286 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
287 # <i>cp arch/alpha/boot/vmlinux.gz /boot/</i>
288 </pre>
289
290 <p>
291 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
292 Modules</uri>.
293 </p>
294
295 </body>
296 </subsection>
297 </section>
298 <section id="genkernel">
299 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
300 <body>
301
302 <p>
303 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
304 script to configure your kernel for you.
305 </p>
306
307 <p>
308 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
309 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
310 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
311 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
312 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
313 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
314 genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
315 solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own
316 kernels.
317 </p>
318
319 <p>
320 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
321 </p>
322
323 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
324 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
325 </pre>
326
327 <p>
328 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>.
329 Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
330 hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
331 </p>
332
333 <p>
334 Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
335 need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c>
336 and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a
337 module).
338 </p>
339
340 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
341 # <i>genkernel all</i>
342 </pre>
343
344 <p>
345 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and <e>initial
346 root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel and initrd when
347 configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write down the names of the
348 kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing the bootloader configuration
349 file. The initrd will be started immediately after booting to perform hardware
350 autodetection (just like on the Installation CD) before your "real" system
351 starts up.
352 </p>
353
354 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
355 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs-*</i>
356 </pre>
357
358 </body>
359 </section>
360 <section id="kernel_modules">
361 <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
362 <subsection>
363 <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
364 <body>
365
366 <p>
367 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
368 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>. You can add extra options to
369 the modules too if you want.
370 </p>
371
372 <p>
373 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
374 forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
375 just compiled:
376 </p>
377
378 <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
379 # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
380 </pre>
381
382 <p>
383 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
384 <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module name in it.
385 </p>
386
387 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
388 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
389 </pre>
390
391 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
392 3c59x
393 </pre>
394
395 <p>
396 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
397 your System</uri>.
398 </p>
399
400 </body>
401 </subsection>
402 </section>
403 </sections>

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