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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-kernel.xml,v 1.44 2007/08/13 03:31:27 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>8.4</version>
12 <date>2008-01-12</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Timezone</title>
16 <body>
17
18 <p>
19 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
21 it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
22 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
23 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
24 GMT+8.
25 </p>
26
27 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
28 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
29 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
30 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
31 </pre>
32
33 </body>
34 </section>
35 <section>
36 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
37 <subsection>
38 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
39 <body>
40
41 <p>
42 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
43 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
44 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
45 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
46 Guide</uri>.
47 </p>
48
49 <p>
50 For alpha-based systems we have <c>gentoo-sources</c> (the default 2.6 kernel
51 source).
52 </p>
53
54 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
55 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
56 </pre>
57
58 <p>
59 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
60 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
61 kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
62 Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
63 </p>
64
65 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
66 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
67 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
68 </pre>
69
70 <p>
71 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
72 <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
73 Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
74 the best way to optimize your environment.
75 </p>
76
77 <p>
78 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
79 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
80 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
81 genkernel</uri> instead.
82 </p>
83
84 </body>
85 </subsection>
86 </section>
87 <section id="manual">
88 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
89 <subsection>
90 <title>Introduction</title>
91 <body>
92
93 <p>
94 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
95 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
96 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
97 </p>
98
99 <p>
100 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
101 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
102 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
103 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
104 ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
105 /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
106 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
107 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
108 uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
109 </p>
110
111 <p>
112 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
113 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
114 </p>
115
116 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
117 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
118 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
119 </pre>
120
121 <p>
122 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
123 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
124 properly without additional tweaks).
125 </p>
126
127 </body>
128 </subsection>
129 <subsection>
130 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
131 <body>
132
133 <p>
134 First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
135 You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
136 </p>
137
138 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
139 General setup ---&gt;
140 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
141 </pre>
142
143 <p>
144 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
145 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
146 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
147 file system</c>.
148 </p>
149
150 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
151 File systems ---&gt;
152 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
153 [*] /proc file system support
154 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
155
156 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
157 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
158 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
159 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
160 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
161 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
162 </pre>
163
164 <p>
165 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
166 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
167 </p>
168
169 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
170 Device Drivers ---&gt;
171 Networking support ---&gt;
172 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
173 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
174 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
175 </pre>
176
177 <p>
178 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
179 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by <c>ppp</c>
180 when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
181 </p>
182
183 <p>
184 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
185 ethernet card.
186 </p>
187
188 <p>
189 The following options are recommended as well:
190 </p>
191
192 <pre caption="Recommended Alpha options">
193 General setup ---&gt;
194 &lt;*&gt; SRM environment through procfs
195 &lt;*&gt; Configure uac policy via sysctl
196
197 Plug and Play configuration ---&gt;
198 &lt;*&gt; Plug and Play support
199 &lt;M&gt; ISA Plug and Play support
200
201 SCSI support ---&gt;
202 SCSI low-level drivers ---&gt;
203 &lt;*&gt; SYM53C8XX Version 2 SCSI support (NEW)
204 &lt;*&gt; Qlogic ISP SCSI support
205
206 Network device support ---&gt;
207 Ethernet (10 or 100 Mbit) ---&gt;
208 &lt;M&gt; DECchip Tulip (dc21x4x) PCI support
209 &lt;M&gt; Generic DECchip &amp; DIGITAL EtherWORKS PCI/EISA
210 &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (eepro100)
211 &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (e100)
212 Ethernet (1000 Mbit) ---&gt;
213 &lt;M&gt; Alteon AceNIC
214 [*] Omit support for old Tigon I
215 &lt;M&gt; Broadcom Tigon3
216 [*] FDDI driver support
217 &lt;M&gt; Digital DEFEA and DEFPA
218 &lt;*&gt; PPP support
219 &lt;*&gt; PPP Deflate compression
220
221 Character devices ---&gt;
222 [*] Support for console on serial port
223 [*] Direct Rendering Manager
224
225 File systems ---&gt;
226 &lt;*&gt; Kernel automounter version 4 support
227 Network File Systems ---&gt;
228 &lt;*&gt; NFS
229 [*] NFSv3 client
230 &lt;*&gt; NFS server
231 [*] NFSv3 server
232 Partition Types ---&gt;
233 [*] Advanced partition selection
234 [*] Alpha OSF partition support
235 Native Language Support
236 &lt;*&gt; NLS ISO 8859-1
237
238 Sound ---&gt;
239 &lt;M&gt; Sound card support
240 &lt;M&gt; OSS sound modules
241 [*] Verbose initialisation
242 [*] Persistent DMA buffers
243 &lt;M&gt; 100% Sound Blaster compatibles
244 </pre>
245
246 <p>
247 When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
248 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
249 </p>
250
251 </body>
252 </subsection>
253 <subsection id="compiling">
254 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
255 <body>
256
257 <p>
258 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
259 the configuration and start the compilation process:
260 </p>
261
262 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
263 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
264 # <i>make boot</i>
265 </pre>
266
267 <p>
268 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
269 <path>/boot</path>. Recent kernels might create <path>vmlinux</path> instead of
270 <path>vmlinux.gz</path>. Keep this in mind when you copy your kernel image.
271 </p>
272
273 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
274 # <i>cp arch/alpha/boot/vmlinux.gz /boot/</i>
275 </pre>
276
277 <p>
278 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
279 Modules</uri>.
280 </p>
281
282 </body>
283 </subsection>
284 </section>
285 <section id="genkernel">
286 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
287 <body>
288
289 <p>
290 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
291 script to configure your kernel for you.
292 </p>
293
294 <p>
295 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
296 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
297 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
298 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
299 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
300 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
301 genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
302 solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own
303 kernels.
304 </p>
305
306 <p>
307 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
308 </p>
309
310 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
311 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
312 </pre>
313
314 <p>
315 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>.
316 Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
317 hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
318 </p>
319
320 <p>
321 Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
322 need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c>
323 and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a
324 module).
325 </p>
326
327 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
328 # <i>genkernel all</i>
329 </pre>
330
331 <p>
332 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and <e>initial
333 root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel and initrd when
334 configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write down the names of the
335 kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing the bootloader configuration
336 file. The initrd will be started immediately after booting to perform hardware
337 autodetection (just like on the Installation CD) before your "real" system
338 starts up.
339 </p>
340
341 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
342 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs-*</i>
343 </pre>
344
345 </body>
346 </section>
347 <section id="kernel_modules">
348 <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
349 <subsection>
350 <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
351 <body>
352
353 <p>
354 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
355 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>. You can add extra options to
356 the modules too if you want.
357 </p>
358
359 <p>
360 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
361 forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
362 just compiled:
363 </p>
364
365 <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
366 # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
367 </pre>
368
369 <p>
370 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.ko</c> module, edit the
371 <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module name in it.
372 </p>
373
374 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
375 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
376 </pre>
377
378 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
379 3c59x
380 </pre>
381
382 <p>
383 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
384 your System</uri>.
385 </p>
386
387 </body>
388 </subsection>
389 </section>
390 </sections>

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