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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-kernel.xml,v 1.4 2004/07/09 10:27:36 neysx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Timezone</title>
12 <body>
13
14 <p>
15 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
16 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
17 symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
18 </p>
19
20 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
21 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
22 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
23 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
24 </pre>
25
26 </body>
27 </section>
28 <section>
29 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
30 <subsection>
31 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
36 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
37 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
38 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
39 Guide</uri>.
40 </p>
41
42 <p>
43 For alpha-based systems we have <c>vanilla-sources</c> (the default kernel
44 source as developed by the linux-kernel developers), <c>alpha-sources</c>
45 (kernel source optimized for alpha users) and <c>compaq-sources</c> (kernel
46 source as used by RedHat for Alpha, maintained by Compaq).
47 </p>
48
49 <p>
50 Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
51 </p>
52
53 <p>
54 In the next example we install the <c>vanilla-sources</c>.
55 Of course substitute with your choice of sources, this is merely an example:
56 </p>
57
58 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
59 # <i>emerge vanilla-sources</i>
60 </pre>
61
62 <p>
63 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
64 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source:
65 </p>
66
67 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
68 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
69 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.4.24
70 </pre>
71
72 <p>
73 If this isn't the case (i.e. the symlink points to a different kernel source)
74 change the symlink before you continue:
75 </p>
76
77 <pre caption="Changing the kernel source symlink">
78 # <i>rm /usr/src/linux</i>
79 # <i>cd /usr/src</i>
80 # <i>ln -s linux-2.4.24 linux</i>
81 </pre>
82
83 <p>
84 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You
85 can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
86 by the LiveCD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
87 the best way to optimize your environment.
88 </p>
89
90 <p>
91 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
92 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
93 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
94 genkernel</uri> instead.
95 </p>
96
97 </body>
98 </subsection>
99 </section>
100 <section id="manual">
101 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
102 <subsection>
103 <title>Introduction</title>
104 <body>
105
106 <p>
107 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult course every
108 Linux users ever has to go through. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
109 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
110 </p>
111
112 <p>
113 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
114 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by viewing the
115 contents of <path>/proc/pci</path> (or by using <c>lspci</c> if available). You
116 can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the LiveCD uses (it might
117 provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
118 </p>
119
120 <p>
121 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
122 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
123 </p>
124
125 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
126 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
127 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
128 </pre>
129
130 <p>
131 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
132 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
133 properly without additional tweaks).
134 </p>
135
136 </body>
137 </subsection>
138 <subsection>
139 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
140 <body>
141
142 <p>
143 First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
144 You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
145 </p>
146
147 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
148 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
149 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
150 </pre>
151
152 <p>
153 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
154 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
155 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c>, <c>/proc
156 file system</c>, <c>/dev file system</c> + <c>Automatically mount at boot</c>:
157 </p>
158
159 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
160 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
161 File systems ---&gt;
162 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
163 [*] /proc file system support
164 [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
165 [*] Automatically mount at boot
166 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
167
168 <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
169 File systems ---&gt;
170 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
171 [*] /proc file system support
172 [*] /dev file system support (OBSOLETE)
173 [*] Automatically mount at boot
174 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
175
176 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
177 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
178 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
179 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
180 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
181 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
182 </pre>
183
184 <p>
185 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
186 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
187 </p>
188
189 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
190 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
191 Network device support ---&gt;
192 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
193 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
194 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
195
196 <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
197 Device Drivers ---&gt;
198 Networking support ---&gt;
199 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
200 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
201 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
202 </pre>
203
204 <p>
205 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
206 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
207 <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
208 </p>
209
210 <p>
211 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
212 ethernet card.
213 </p>
214
215 <p>
216 The following Alpha-specific options are recommended as well:
217 </p>
218
219 <pre caption="Alpha-specific options">
220 General setup ---&gt;
221 &lt;*&gt; SRM environment through procfs
222 &lt;*&gt; Configure uac policy via sysctl
223
224 Plug and Play configuration ---&gt;
225 &lt;*&gt; Plug and Play support
226 &lt;M&gt; ISA Plug and Play support
227
228 SCSI support ---&gt;
229 SCSI low-level drivers ---&gt;
230 &lt;*&gt; SYM53C8XX Version 2 SCSI support (NEW)
231 &lt;*&gt; Qlogic ISP SCSI support
232
233 Network device support ---&gt;
234 Ethernet (10 or 100 Mbit) ---&gt;
235 &lt;M&gt; DECchip Tulip (dc21x4x) PCI support
236 &lt;M&gt; Generic DECchip &amp; DIGITAL EtherWORKS PCI/EISA
237 &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (eepro100)
238 &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (e100)
239 Ethernet (1000 Mbit) ---&gt;
240 &lt;M&gt; Alteon AceNIC
241 [*] Omit support for old Tigon I
242 &lt;M&gt; Broadcom Tigon3
243 [*] FDDI driver support
244 &lt;M&gt; Digital DEFEA and DEFPA
245 &lt;*&gt; PPP support
246 &lt;*&gt; PPP Deflate compression
247
248 Character devices ---&gt;
249 [*] Support for console on serial port
250 [*] Direct Rendering Manager
251
252 File systems ---&gt;
253 &lt;*&gt; Kernel automounter version 4 support
254 Network File Systems ---&gt;
255 &lt;*&gt; NFS
256 [*] NFSv3 client
257 &lt;*&gt; NFS server
258 [*] NFSv3 server
259 Partition Types ---&gt;
260 [*] Advanced partition selection
261 [*] Alpha OSF partition support
262 Native Language Support
263 &lt;*&gt; NLS ISO 8859-1
264
265 Sound ---&gt;
266 &lt;M&gt; Sound card support
267 &lt;M&gt; OSS sound modules
268 [*] Verbose initialisation
269 [*] Persistent DMA buffers
270 &lt;M&gt; 100% Sound Blaster compatibles
271 </pre>
272
273 <p>
274 When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
275 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
276 </p>
277
278 </body>
279 </subsection>
280 <subsection id="compiling">
281 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
282 <body>
283
284 <p>
285 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
286 the configuration and run <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules
287 modules_install</c>:
288 </p>
289
290 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
291 <comment>(For 2.4 kernel)</comment>
292 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules modules_install</i>
293
294 <comment>(For 2.6 kernel)</comment>
295 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
296 </pre>
297
298 <p>
299 When the kernel is done compiling, copy over the kernel image to
300 <path>/boot</path>. In the next example we assume you have configured and
301 compiled <c>vanilla-sources-2.4.24</c>:
302 </p>
303
304 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
305 # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/kernel-2.4.24</i>
306 # <i>cp System.map /boot/System.map-2.4.24</i>
307 </pre>
308
309 <p>
310 It is also wise to copy over your kernel configuration file to
311 <path>/boot</path>, just in case :)
312 </p>
313
314 <pre caption="Backing up your kernel configuration">
315 # <i>cp .config /boot/config-2.4.24</i>
316 </pre>
317
318 <p>
319 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
320 Modules</uri>.
321 </p>
322
323 </body>
324 </subsection>
325 </section>
326 <section id="genkernel">
327 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
328 <body>
329
330 <p>
331 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
332 script to configure your kernel for you.
333 </p>
334
335 <p>
336 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
337 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
338 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
339 way our LiveCD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
340 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
341 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Live CD does. Because genkernel
342 doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for
343 those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
344 </p>
345
346 <p>
347 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
348 </p>
349
350 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
351 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
352 </pre>
353
354 <p>
355 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>.
356 Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
357 hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
358 </p>
359
360 <p>
361 Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
362 need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c>
363 and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a
364 module).
365 </p>
366
367 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
368 # <i>genkernel all</i>
369 GenKernel v3.0.1_beta10
370 * ARCH: Alpha
371 * KERNEL VER: 2.4.24
372 * kernel: configuring source
373 * kernel: running mrproper
374 <comment>(Output removed to increase readability)</comment>
375 * Kernel compiled successfully!
376 * Required Kernel Params:
377 * : root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc real_root=/dev/$ROOT
378 * where $ROOT is the devicenode for your root partition as
379 * you should have specified in /etc/fstab
380 *
381 * You MUST tell your bootloader to use the generated initrd
382 *
383 * Recommended Kernel Params:
384 * : vga=0x317 splash=verbose
385 *
386 * Do NOT report kernel bugs (configs included) as genkernel bugs.
387 * Make sure you have the latest genkernel before reporting bugs
388 *
389 * For more info see /usr/share/genkernel/README
390 </pre>
391
392 <p>
393 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
394 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
395 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
396 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
397 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
398 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Live CD) before
399 your "real" system starts up.
400 </p>
401
402 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
403 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initrd*</i>
404 </pre>
405
406 <p>
407 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Live
408 CD -- let's emerge <c>hotplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects hardware that
409 is needed to boot your system, <c>hotplug</c> autodetects everything else.
410 To emerge and enable <c>hotplug</c>, type the following:
411 </p>
412
413 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
414 # <i>emerge hotplug</i>
415 # <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
416 </pre>
417
418 </body>
419 </section>
420 <section id="kernel_modules">
421 <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
422 <subsection>
423 <title>Installing Extra Modules</title>
424 <body>
425
426 <p>
427 If appropriate, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is
428 on your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
429 </p>
430
431 <table>
432 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
433 <tcolumn width="4in"/>
434 <tcolumn width="2in"/>
435 <tr>
436 <th>Ebuild</th>
437 <th>Purpose</th>
438 <th>Command</th>
439 </tr>
440 <tr>
441 <ti>xfree-drm</ti>
442 <ti>
443 Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and
444 other cards for XFree86. Please check the <c>IUSE_VIDEO_CARDS</c> variable
445 in the <path>/usr/portage/x11-base/xfree-drm</path> ebuilds to see what you
446 need to fill in as <c>yourcard</c>.
447 </ti>
448 <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti>
449 </tr>
450 </table>
451
452 <p>
453 Beware though, some of these ebuilds might deal with big dependencies. To verify
454 what packages will be installed by emerging an ebuild, use <c>emerge
455 --pretend</c>. For instance, for the <c>xfree-drm</c> package:
456 </p>
457
458 <pre caption="View full installation package listing">
459 # <i>emerge --pretend xfree-drm</i>
460 </pre>
461
462 </body>
463 </subsection>
464 <subsection>
465 <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
466 <body>
467
468 <p>
469 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
470 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path> (or <path>kernel-2.6</path>).
471 You can add extra options to the modules too if you want.
472 </p>
473
474 <p>
475 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
476 forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
477 just compiled:
478 </p>
479
480 <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
481 # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
482 </pre>
483
484 <p>
485 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
486 <path>kernel-2.4</path> or <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
487 name in it.
488 </p>
489
490 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4">
491 <comment>(Example for 2.4 kernels)</comment>
492 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</i>
493 </pre>
494
495 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4 or kernel-2.6">
496 3c59x
497 </pre>
498
499 <p>
500 Now run <c>modules-update</c> to commit your changes to the
501 <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file:
502 </p>
503
504 <pre caption="Running modules-update">
505 # <i>modules-update</i>
506 </pre>
507
508 <p>
509 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
510 your System</uri>.
511 </p>
512
513 </body>
514 </subsection>
515 </section>
516 </sections>

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