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fix the kernel install (we do `make boot` on alpha)

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-kernel.xml,v 1.5 2004/07/18 10:29:59 neysx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Timezone</title>
12 <body>
13
14 <p>
15 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
16 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
17 symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
18 </p>
19
20 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
21 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
22 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
23 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
24 </pre>
25
26 </body>
27 </section>
28 <section>
29 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
30 <subsection>
31 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
36 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
37 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
38 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
39 Guide</uri>.
40 </p>
41
42 <p>
43 For alpha-based systems we have <c>vanilla-sources</c> (the default kernel
44 source as developed by the linux-kernel developers), <c>alpha-sources</c>
45 (kernel source optimized for alpha users) and <c>compaq-sources</c> (kernel
46 source as used by RedHat for Alpha, maintained by Compaq).
47 </p>
48
49 <p>
50 Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
51 </p>
52
53 <p>
54 In the next example we install the <c>vanilla-sources</c>.
55 Of course substitute with your choice of sources, this is merely an example:
56 </p>
57
58 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
59 # <i>emerge vanilla-sources</i>
60 </pre>
61
62 <p>
63 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
64 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source:
65 </p>
66
67 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
68 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
69 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.4.24
70 </pre>
71
72 <p>
73 If this isn't the case (i.e. the symlink points to a different kernel source)
74 change the symlink before you continue:
75 </p>
76
77 <pre caption="Changing the kernel source symlink">
78 # <i>rm /usr/src/linux</i>
79 # <i>cd /usr/src</i>
80 # <i>ln -s linux-2.4.24 linux</i>
81 </pre>
82
83 <p>
84 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You
85 can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
86 by the LiveCD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
87 the best way to optimize your environment.
88 </p>
89
90 <p>
91 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
92 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
93 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
94 genkernel</uri> instead.
95 </p>
96
97 </body>
98 </subsection>
99 </section>
100 <section id="manual">
101 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
102 <subsection>
103 <title>Introduction</title>
104 <body>
105
106 <p>
107 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult course every
108 Linux users ever has to go through. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
109 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
110 </p>
111
112 <p>
113 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
114 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by viewing the
115 contents of <path>/proc/pci</path> (or by using <c>lspci</c> if available). You
116 can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the LiveCD uses (it might
117 provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
118 </p>
119
120 <p>
121 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
122 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
123 </p>
124
125 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
126 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
127 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
128 </pre>
129
130 <p>
131 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
132 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
133 properly without additional tweaks).
134 </p>
135
136 </body>
137 </subsection>
138 <subsection>
139 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
140 <body>
141
142 <p>
143 First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
144 You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
145 </p>
146
147 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
148 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
149 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
150 </pre>
151
152 <p>
153 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
154 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
155 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c>, <c>/proc
156 file system</c>, <c>/dev file system</c> + <c>Automatically mount at boot</c>:
157 </p>
158
159 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
160 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
161 File systems ---&gt;
162 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
163 [*] /proc file system support
164 [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
165 [*] Automatically mount at boot
166 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
167
168 <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
169 File systems ---&gt;
170 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
171 [*] /proc file system support
172 [*] /dev file system support (OBSOLETE)
173 [*] Automatically mount at boot
174 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
175
176 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
177 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
178 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
179 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
180 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
181 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
182 </pre>
183
184 <p>
185 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
186 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
187 </p>
188
189 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
190 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
191 Network device support ---&gt;
192 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
193 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
194 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
195
196 <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
197 Device Drivers ---&gt;
198 Networking support ---&gt;
199 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
200 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
201 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
202 </pre>
203
204 <p>
205 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
206 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
207 <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
208 </p>
209
210 <p>
211 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
212 ethernet card.
213 </p>
214
215 <p>
216 The following Alpha-specific options are recommended as well:
217 </p>
218
219 <pre caption="Alpha-specific options">
220 General setup ---&gt;
221 &lt;*&gt; SRM environment through procfs
222 &lt;*&gt; Configure uac policy via sysctl
223
224 Plug and Play configuration ---&gt;
225 &lt;*&gt; Plug and Play support
226 &lt;M&gt; ISA Plug and Play support
227
228 SCSI support ---&gt;
229 SCSI low-level drivers ---&gt;
230 &lt;*&gt; SYM53C8XX Version 2 SCSI support (NEW)
231 &lt;*&gt; Qlogic ISP SCSI support
232
233 Network device support ---&gt;
234 Ethernet (10 or 100 Mbit) ---&gt;
235 &lt;M&gt; DECchip Tulip (dc21x4x) PCI support
236 &lt;M&gt; Generic DECchip &amp; DIGITAL EtherWORKS PCI/EISA
237 &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (eepro100)
238 &lt;M&gt; EtherExpressPro/100 support (e100)
239 Ethernet (1000 Mbit) ---&gt;
240 &lt;M&gt; Alteon AceNIC
241 [*] Omit support for old Tigon I
242 &lt;M&gt; Broadcom Tigon3
243 [*] FDDI driver support
244 &lt;M&gt; Digital DEFEA and DEFPA
245 &lt;*&gt; PPP support
246 &lt;*&gt; PPP Deflate compression
247
248 Character devices ---&gt;
249 [*] Support for console on serial port
250 [*] Direct Rendering Manager
251
252 File systems ---&gt;
253 &lt;*&gt; Kernel automounter version 4 support
254 Network File Systems ---&gt;
255 &lt;*&gt; NFS
256 [*] NFSv3 client
257 &lt;*&gt; NFS server
258 [*] NFSv3 server
259 Partition Types ---&gt;
260 [*] Advanced partition selection
261 [*] Alpha OSF partition support
262 Native Language Support
263 &lt;*&gt; NLS ISO 8859-1
264
265 Sound ---&gt;
266 &lt;M&gt; Sound card support
267 &lt;M&gt; OSS sound modules
268 [*] Verbose initialisation
269 [*] Persistent DMA buffers
270 &lt;M&gt; 100% Sound Blaster compatibles
271 </pre>
272
273 <p>
274 When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
275 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
276 </p>
277
278 </body>
279 </subsection>
280 <subsection id="compiling">
281 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
282 <body>
283
284 <p>
285 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
286 the configuration and run <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules
287 modules_install</c>:
288 </p>
289
290 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
291 <comment>(For 2.4 kernel)</comment>
292 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules modules_install</i>
293
294 <comment>(For 2.6 kernel)</comment>
295 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
296
297 <comment>(For all kernels)</comment>
298 # <i>make boot</i>
299 </pre>
300
301 <p>
302 When the kernel is done compiling, copy over the kernel image to
303 <path>/boot</path>. In the next example we assume you have configured and
304 compiled <c>vanilla-sources-2.4.24</c>:
305 </p>
306
307 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
308 # <i>cp arch/alpha/boot/vmlinux.gz /boot/</i>
309 # <i>cp System.map /boot/System.map-2.4.24</i>
310 </pre>
311
312 <p>
313 It is also wise to copy over your kernel configuration file to
314 <path>/boot</path>, just in case :)
315 </p>
316
317 <pre caption="Backing up your kernel configuration">
318 # <i>cp .config /boot/config-2.4.24</i>
319 </pre>
320
321 <p>
322 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
323 Modules</uri>.
324 </p>
325
326 </body>
327 </subsection>
328 </section>
329 <section id="genkernel">
330 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
331 <body>
332
333 <p>
334 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
335 script to configure your kernel for you.
336 </p>
337
338 <p>
339 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
340 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
341 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
342 way our LiveCD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
343 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
344 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Live CD does. Because genkernel
345 doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for
346 those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
347 </p>
348
349 <p>
350 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
351 </p>
352
353 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
354 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
355 </pre>
356
357 <p>
358 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>.
359 Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
360 hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
361 </p>
362
363 <p>
364 Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
365 need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c>
366 and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a
367 module).
368 </p>
369
370 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
371 # <i>genkernel all</i>
372 GenKernel v3.0.1_beta10
373 * ARCH: Alpha
374 * KERNEL VER: 2.4.24
375 * kernel: configuring source
376 * kernel: running mrproper
377 <comment>(Output removed to increase readability)</comment>
378 * Kernel compiled successfully!
379 * Required Kernel Params:
380 * : root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc real_root=/dev/$ROOT
381 * where $ROOT is the devicenode for your root partition as
382 * you should have specified in /etc/fstab
383 *
384 * You MUST tell your bootloader to use the generated initrd
385 *
386 * Recommended Kernel Params:
387 * : vga=0x317 splash=verbose
388 *
389 * Do NOT report kernel bugs (configs included) as genkernel bugs.
390 * Make sure you have the latest genkernel before reporting bugs
391 *
392 * For more info see /usr/share/genkernel/README
393 </pre>
394
395 <p>
396 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
397 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
398 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
399 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
400 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
401 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Live CD) before
402 your "real" system starts up.
403 </p>
404
405 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
406 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initrd*</i>
407 </pre>
408
409 <p>
410 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Live
411 CD -- let's emerge <c>hotplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects hardware that
412 is needed to boot your system, <c>hotplug</c> autodetects everything else.
413 To emerge and enable <c>hotplug</c>, type the following:
414 </p>
415
416 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
417 # <i>emerge hotplug</i>
418 # <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
419 </pre>
420
421 </body>
422 </section>
423 <section id="kernel_modules">
424 <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
425 <subsection>
426 <title>Installing Extra Modules</title>
427 <body>
428
429 <p>
430 If appropriate, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is
431 on your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
432 </p>
433
434 <table>
435 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
436 <tcolumn width="4in"/>
437 <tcolumn width="2in"/>
438 <tr>
439 <th>Ebuild</th>
440 <th>Purpose</th>
441 <th>Command</th>
442 </tr>
443 <tr>
444 <ti>xfree-drm</ti>
445 <ti>
446 Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and
447 other cards for XFree86. Please check the <c>IUSE_VIDEO_CARDS</c> variable
448 in the <path>/usr/portage/x11-base/xfree-drm</path> ebuilds to see what you
449 need to fill in as <c>yourcard</c>.
450 </ti>
451 <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti>
452 </tr>
453 </table>
454
455 <p>
456 Beware though, some of these ebuilds might deal with big dependencies. To verify
457 what packages will be installed by emerging an ebuild, use <c>emerge
458 --pretend</c>. For instance, for the <c>xfree-drm</c> package:
459 </p>
460
461 <pre caption="View full installation package listing">
462 # <i>emerge --pretend xfree-drm</i>
463 </pre>
464
465 </body>
466 </subsection>
467 <subsection>
468 <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
469 <body>
470
471 <p>
472 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
473 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path> (or <path>kernel-2.6</path>).
474 You can add extra options to the modules too if you want.
475 </p>
476
477 <p>
478 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
479 forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
480 just compiled:
481 </p>
482
483 <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
484 # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
485 </pre>
486
487 <p>
488 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
489 <path>kernel-2.4</path> or <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
490 name in it.
491 </p>
492
493 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4">
494 <comment>(Example for 2.4 kernels)</comment>
495 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</i>
496 </pre>
497
498 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4 or kernel-2.6">
499 3c59x
500 </pre>
501
502 <p>
503 Now run <c>modules-update</c> to commit your changes to the
504 <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file:
505 </p>
506
507 <pre caption="Running modules-update">
508 # <i>modules-update</i>
509 </pre>
510
511 <p>
512 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
513 your System</uri>.
514 </p>
515
516 </body>
517 </subsection>
518 </section>
519 </sections>

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